Abstract

We investigate the problem of minimizing spectrum resource consumption for a set of connection requests in a flexible bandwidth optical network under the constraint that the failure probability of each connection must be below a specified threshold. To optimize the total frequency slots consumed, three schemes are proposed and evaluated: the rescaled failure-probability-aware algorithm (RFPA), the traffic cognition algorithm with rescaled failure probability (RFPTC), and an integer linear programming (ILP) model. We also introduce two traditional Dijkstra’s algorithms with load balancing and spectrum assignment by first fit and traffic cognition (FF_DB and TC_DB) to compare with the proposed three schemes. For static traffic in a small network, the total frequency slots consumed by the RFPA and RFPTC algorithms will approach that of the optimal ILP solution as K increases, as well as the average hops (AH). Furthermore, the average rescaled failure probabilities (RFPs) of the RFPA and RFPTC algorithms are much better than those of the ILP solutions. In addition, similarly, the results of the heuristic algorithms, FF_DB, TC_DB, RFPA, and RFPTC, in the large network have the same characteristics as in the small network. For dynamic traffic in a large network, the RFPTC algorithm reduces blocking probability and makes the best use of spectrum resources compared with the other schemes, which also reflects that discontinuous spectrum fragmentation is greatly reduced by the traffic cognition method. However, both RFPTC and RFPA result in much higher average RFP but perform fewer AH compared to TC_DB and FF_DB.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.
  2. M. Jinno, H. Takara, and B. Kozicki, “Concept and enabling technologies of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Expo., Shanghai, China, 2009.
  3. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, 2010.
  6. Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM (IEEE), Shanghai, China, 2011, pp. 1503–1511.
  7. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.
  8. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 603–613, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.
  13. D. J. Geisler, Y. Yin, K. Wen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networking by FWM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 24, pp. 1893–1895, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push–pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.
  16. W. Xi, K. Inwoong, Z. Qiong, P. Paparao, and S. Motoyoshi, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.
  17. X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.
  18. Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Wang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic spectral defragmentation based on path connectivity in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, 2012.
  19. B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Chen, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Minimized spectral resource consumption with rescaled failure probability constraint in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.
  20. B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Spectrum block consumption for shared-path protection with joint failure probability in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.
  21. H. W. Lee, E. Modiano, and K. Lee, “Diverse routing in networks with probabilistic failures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 1895–1907, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  22. Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “Maximum survivability under multiple failures,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2006.
  23. Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “Maximum survivability using two disjoint paths under multiple failures in mesh networks,” in Proc. Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), San Fransisco, CA, 2006.
  24. Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “How reliable can two-path protection be?” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 922–933, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zang, N. S. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1177–1190, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. Cui, I. Stoica, and R. H. Katz, “Backup path allocation based on a correlated link failure probability model in overlay networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Network Protocols (ICNP), Paris, 2002.
  28. X. Jun, C. You, X. Chang, and Y. Yang, “A novel shared-link protection algorithm with correlated link failure probability for dual-link failure,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Zhang, C. Lv, Y. Zhao, B. Chen, X. Li, and W. Gu, “A novel shared-path protection algorithm with correlated risk against multiple failures in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 532–540, 2012.
    [CrossRef]

2012 (5)

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 603–613, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, C. Lv, Y. Zhao, B. Chen, X. Li, and W. Gu, “A novel shared-path protection algorithm with correlated risk against multiple failures in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 532–540, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, Y. Yin, K. Wen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networking by FWM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 24, pp. 1893–1895, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

H. W. Lee, E. Modiano, and K. Lee, “Diverse routing in networks with probabilistic failures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 1895–1907, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “How reliable can two-path protection be?” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 922–933, 2010.
[CrossRef]

X. Jun, C. You, X. Chang, and Y. Yang, “A novel shared-link protection algorithm with correlated link failure probability for dual-link failure,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zang, N. S. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1177–1190, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Bottari, G.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push–pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Bruno, G.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push–pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Cao, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM (IEEE), Shanghai, China, 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Castoldi, P.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push–pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Chang, S.

D. J. Geisler, Y. Yin, K. Wen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networking by FWM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 24, pp. 1893–1895, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Chang, X.

X. Jun, C. You, X. Chang, and Y. Yang, “A novel shared-link protection algorithm with correlated link failure probability for dual-link failure,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

J. Zhang, C. Lv, Y. Zhao, B. Chen, X. Li, and W. Gu, “A novel shared-path protection algorithm with correlated risk against multiple failures in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 532–540, 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Chen, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Minimized spectral resource consumption with rescaled failure probability constraint in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Spectrum block consumption for shared-path protection with joint failure probability in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

Chen, H.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Chen, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Minimized spectral resource consumption with rescaled failure probability constraint in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.

Cugini, F.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push–pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Cui, W.

W. Cui, I. Stoica, and R. H. Katz, “Backup path allocation based on a correlated link failure probability model in overlay networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Network Protocols (ICNP), Paris, 2002.

Fontaine, N. K.

D. J. Geisler, Y. Yin, K. Wen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networking by FWM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 24, pp. 1893–1895, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Geisler, D. J.

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, Y. Yin, K. Wen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networking by FWM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 24, pp. 1893–1895, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Gu, W.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, C. Lv, Y. Zhao, B. Chen, X. Li, and W. Gu, “A novel shared-path protection algorithm with correlated risk against multiple failures in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 532–540, 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Spectrum block consumption for shared-path protection with joint failure probability in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Chen, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Minimized spectral resource consumption with rescaled failure probability constraint in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Wang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic spectral defragmentation based on path connectivity in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, 2012.

Hasegawa, H.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, 2010.

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Hua, N.

Huang, S.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Chen, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Minimized spectral resource consumption with rescaled failure probability constraint in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Spectrum block consumption for shared-path protection with joint failure probability in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

Huang, X.

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “How reliable can two-path protection be?” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 922–933, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “Maximum survivability under multiple failures,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2006.

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “Maximum survivability using two disjoint paths under multiple failures in mesh networks,” in Proc. Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), San Fransisco, CA, 2006.

Inwoong, K.

W. Xi, K. Inwoong, Z. Qiong, P. Paparao, and S. Motoyoshi, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Iovanna, P.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push–pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Ishida, O.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

Ji, P. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, and B. Kozicki, “Concept and enabling technologies of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Expo., Shanghai, China, 2009.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, 2010.

Jue, J. P.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “How reliable can two-path protection be?” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 922–933, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “Maximum survivability using two disjoint paths under multiple failures in mesh networks,” in Proc. Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), San Fransisco, CA, 2006.

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “Maximum survivability under multiple failures,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2006.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Spectrum block consumption for shared-path protection with joint failure probability in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Chen, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Minimized spectral resource consumption with rescaled failure probability constraint in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.

Jun, X.

X. Jun, C. You, X. Chang, and Y. Yang, “A novel shared-link protection algorithm with correlated link failure probability for dual-link failure,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Katz, R. H.

W. Cui, I. Stoica, and R. H. Katz, “Backup path allocation based on a correlated link failure probability model in overlay networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Network Protocols (ICNP), Paris, 2002.

Kobayashi, T.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, and B. Kozicki, “Concept and enabling technologies of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Expo., Shanghai, China, 2009.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, 2010.

Lee, H. W.

H. W. Lee, E. Modiano, and K. Lee, “Diverse routing in networks with probabilistic failures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 1895–1907, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

H. W. Lee, E. Modiano, and K. Lee, “Diverse routing in networks with probabilistic failures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 1895–1907, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. Zhang, C. Lv, Y. Zhao, B. Chen, X. Li, and W. Gu, “A novel shared-path protection algorithm with correlated risk against multiple failures in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 532–540, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Liu, J.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Spectrum block consumption for shared-path protection with joint failure probability in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

Liu, R.

Lv, C.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, C. Lv, Y. Zhao, B. Chen, X. Li, and W. Gu, “A novel shared-path protection algorithm with correlated risk against multiple failures in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 532–540, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Martel, C. U.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Matloff, N. S.

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zang, N. S. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1177–1190, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

Modiano, E.

H. W. Lee, E. Modiano, and K. Lee, “Diverse routing in networks with probabilistic failures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 1895–1907, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Motoyoshi, S.

W. Xi, K. Inwoong, Z. Qiong, P. Paparao, and S. Motoyoshi, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Mukherjee, B.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zang, N. S. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1177–1190, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM (IEEE), Shanghai, China, 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Paparao, P.

W. Xi, K. Inwoong, Z. Qiong, P. Paparao, and S. Motoyoshi, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Patel, A. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.

Peng, T.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Qiong, Z.

W. Xi, K. Inwoong, Z. Qiong, P. Paparao, and S. Motoyoshi, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Sambo, N.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push–pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Sato, K.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, 2010.

Scott, R. P.

D. J. Geisler, Y. Yin, K. Wen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networking by FWM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 24, pp. 1893–1895, 2011.
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Secondini, M.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push–pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

She, Q.

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “How reliable can two-path protection be?” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 922–933, 2010.
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Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “Maximum survivability using two disjoint paths under multiple failures in mesh networks,” in Proc. Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), San Fransisco, CA, 2006.

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “Maximum survivability under multiple failures,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2006.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, 2010.

Stoica, I.

W. Cui, I. Stoica, and R. H. Katz, “Backup path allocation based on a correlated link failure probability model in overlay networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Network Protocols (ICNP), Paris, 2002.

Takada, A.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

Takagi, T.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, 2010.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, and B. Kozicki, “Concept and enabling technologies of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Expo., Shanghai, China, 2009.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

Tanaka, T.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, 2010.

Tomkos, I.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
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K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.

Tornatore, M.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

Varvarigos, E.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, pp. 1354–1366, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.

Wan, X.

Wang, D.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Wang, T.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.

Wang, X.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Wang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic spectral defragmentation based on path connectivity in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, 2012.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Wang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic spectral defragmentation based on path connectivity in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, 2012.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM (IEEE), Shanghai, China, 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Watanabe, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Wen, K.

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, Y. Yin, K. Wen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networking by FWM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 24, pp. 1893–1895, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Xi, W.

W. Xi, K. Inwoong, Z. Qiong, P. Paparao, and S. Motoyoshi, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Xia, M.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

X. Jun, C. You, X. Chang, and Y. Yang, “A novel shared-link protection algorithm with correlated link failure probability for dual-link failure,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, Y. Yin, K. Wen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networking by FWM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 24, pp. 1893–1895, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Yonenaga, K.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

Yoo, S. J. B.

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 1798–1804, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, Y. Yin, K. Wen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networking by FWM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 24, pp. 1893–1895, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Yoshimatsu, T.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

You, C.

X. Jun, C. You, X. Chang, and Y. Yang, “A novel shared-link protection algorithm with correlated link failure probability for dual-link failure,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Zang, H.

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zang, N. S. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1177–1190, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, C. Lv, Y. Zhao, B. Chen, X. Li, and W. Gu, “A novel shared-path protection algorithm with correlated risk against multiple failures in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 532–540, 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zang, N. S. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1177–1190, 2007.
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Wang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic spectral defragmentation based on path connectivity in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, 2012.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Wang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic spectral defragmentation based on path connectivity in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, 2012.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Spectrum block consumption for shared-path protection with joint failure probability in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Chen, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Minimized spectral resource consumption with rescaled failure probability constraint in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

Zhang, W.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Wang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic spectral defragmentation based on path connectivity in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, 2012.

Zhao, Y.

J. Zhang, C. Lv, Y. Zhao, B. Chen, X. Li, and W. Gu, “A novel shared-path protection algorithm with correlated risk against multiple failures in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 532–540, 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Wang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic spectral defragmentation based on path connectivity in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, 2012.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Chen, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Minimized spectral resource consumption with rescaled failure probability constraint in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Spectrum block consumption for shared-path protection with joint failure probability in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, K.

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zang, N. S. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1177–1190, 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. J. Geisler, Y. Yin, K. Wen, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networking by FWM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  23, no. 24, pp. 1893–1895, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (4)

H. W. Lee, E. Modiano, and K. Lee, “Diverse routing in networks with probabilistic failures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 1895–1907, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “How reliable can two-path protection be?” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 3, pp. 922–933, 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. Zhu, H. Zang, N. S. Matloff, and B. Mukherjee, “Availability-aware provisioning strategies for differentiated protection services in wavelength-convertible WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 5, pp. 1177–1190, 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Risk-aware provisioning for optical WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 3, pp. 921–931, 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, C. Lv, Y. Zhao, B. Chen, X. Li, and W. Gu, “A novel shared-path protection algorithm with correlated risk against multiple failures in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  18, no. 6, pp. 532–540, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Switching Netw. (1)

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Routing, wavelength assignment, and spectrum allocation algorithms in transparent flexible optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 191–204, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

X. Jun, C. You, X. Chang, and Y. Yang, “A novel shared-link protection algorithm with correlated link failure probability for dual-link failure,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “Maximum survivability under multiple failures,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2006.

Q. She, X. Huang, and J. P. Jue, “Maximum survivability using two disjoint paths under multiple failures in mesh networks,” in Proc. Global Communications Conf. (GLOBECOM), San Fransisco, CA, 2006.

W. Cui, I. Stoica, and R. H. Katz, “Backup path allocation based on a correlated link failure probability model in overlay networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Network Protocols (ICNP), Paris, 2002.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, and O. Ishida, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Belgium, 2008.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, and B. Kozicki, “Concept and enabling technologies of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE),” in Communications and Photonics Conf. and Expo., Shanghai, China, 2009.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectral efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turin, Italy, 2010.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM (IEEE), Shanghai, China, 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2011.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push–pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

W. Xi, K. Inwoong, Z. Qiong, P. Paparao, and S. Motoyoshi, “A hitless defragmentation method for self-optimizing flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

X. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, T. Peng, Y. Bai, D. Wang, and X. Lin, “Compactness based defragmentation in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Los Angeles, 2012.

Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Wang, and W. Gu, “Dynamic spectral defragmentation based on path connectivity in flexible bandwidth networks,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Amsterdam, 2012.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Chen, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Minimized spectral resource consumption with rescaled failure probability constraint in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, S. Huang, W. Gu, and J. P. Jue, “Spectrum block consumption for shared-path protection with joint failure probability in flexible bandwidth optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, CA, 2013.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of maximum tolerable failure probability requirement.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Example of traffic cognition and FF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example of spectrum allocation by traffic cognition and FF.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) 6-node topology with 9 links and (b) an NSFNET topology with 14 nodes and 21 links.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Total frequency slots consumed versus traffic demand for five different schemes in a small network.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

ARFP versus traffic demand for five different schemes in a small network.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

AH versus traffic demand for five different schemes in a small network.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Total frequency slots consumed versus traffic demand for four different schemes in a large network.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

ARFP versus traffic demand for four different schemes in a large network.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

AHs versus traffic demand for four different schemes in a large network.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

BP versus traffic load with uniform distribution for four different schemes.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

SCR versus traffic load with uniform distribution for four different schemes.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

ARFP versus traffic load with uniform distribution for four different schemes.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

AH versus traffic load with uniform distribution for four different schemes.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Algorithm 1: RFPA Algorithm

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Table 2 Algorithm 2: RFPTC

Equations (15)

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F ( x ) = 1 ( k , l ) x ( 1 p k , l ) .
F ( x ) F ( CR ) ,
( k , l ) x ( 1 p k , l ) 1 F ( CR ) .
log ( k , l ) x ( 1 p k , l ) = log ( 1 p 1 , 2 ) + log ( 1 p 1 , 3 ) + + log ( 1 p m , n ) log ( 1 F ( CR ) ) ,
log ( 1 p 1 , 2 ) log ( 1 p 1 , 3 ) log ( 1 p m , n ) log ( 1 F ( CR ) ) .
RFP ( k , l ) = log ( 1 p k , l ) .
CR = CR ( s , d , FS , MFP ) ,
Minimize ( k , l ) E ϕ k , l .
ϕ k , l = ( s , d ) D f F γ k , l s , d , f ( k , l ) .
l χ k f F γ k , l s , d , f l χ k f F γ l , k s , d , f = { n s , d + GB l = d ( n s , d + GB ) l = s 0 otherwise .
( s , d ) D γ k , l s , d , f 1 , f , ( k , l ) .
( γ k , l s , d , f γ k , l s , d , f + 1 1 ) × ( Θ ) i [ f + 2 , F ] γ k , l s , d , f ( s , d ) , f , ( k , l ) .
( γ k , l s , d , f 1 ) × Θ + ( n s , d + GB ) f F γ k , l s , d , f ( s , d ) , f , ( k , l ) .
( k , l ) E f F γ k , l s , d , f × π k , l π s , d × ( n s , d + GB ) ( s , d ) ,
O ( K * ( | V | * ( | L | + | V | log ( | V | 1 ) ) + ( | F | FS ) * FS * log ( | V | 1 ) ) ) .