Abstract

Energy saving (ES) in telecommunication networks is an important criterion when planning access networks. In fiber–wireless (FiWi) access networks the ES potential is high, when compared with other architectures, because different routes and optical access points can be used by routers at the wireless section. Although some proposals to increase energy efficiency in these architectures have been presented, these are not approaches that can adapt to variations in traffic load or distribution of traffic across the network. Here we fill this gap and propose a load adaptive and fault tolerant framework for ES in FiWi access networks. This framework allows optical network units (ONUs) to enter long-standing sleep mode under low traffic conditions, reducing energy waste, permitting fast reaction to ONU or fiber failures, and allowing quality of service (QoS) to be kept at a certain level. Results show that significant ES can be achieved under low to medium traffic loads while maintaining QoS and fault tolerance.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S.  Avallone, I.  Akyildiz, “A channel assignment algorithm for multi-radio wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2007, pp. 1034–1039.
  4. N.  Correia, J.  Coimbra, G.  Schütz, “Fault-tolerance planning in multi-radio hybrid wireless-optical broadband access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 7, pp. 645–654, Dec. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  5. K.  Ramachandran, E.  Belding, K.  Almeroth, M.  Buddhikot, “Interference-aware channel assignment in multi-radio wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006, pp. 1–12.
  6. W.-T.  Shaw, S.-W.  Wong, N.  Cheng, K.  Balasubramanian, X.  Qing, M.  Maier, L. G.  Kazovsky, “Hybrid architecture and integrated routing in scalable optical-wireless access network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3443–3451, Nov. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. Y.  Yan, L.  Dittmann, “Enhanced sleep mode MAC control for EPON,” in Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2011.
  9. S.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.
  10. J.  Mandin, “EPON power saving via sleep mode,” presented at the IEEE P802.3av 10GEPON Task Force Meeting, Sept. 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/av/public/2008_09/3av_0809_mandin_4.pdf .
  11. G.  Schütz, N.  Correia, “Design of QoS-aware energy-efficient fiber–wireless access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 586–594, Aug. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  12. L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.
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  15. R.  Kubo, J.  Kani, H.  Ujikawa, T.  Sakamoto, N.  Yoshimoto, H.  Hadama, “Hybrid power-saving mechanism with cyclic sleep and adaptive link rate functions for 10G-EPON systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 13, pp. 934–936, June 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y.  Yan, S.-W.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.-H.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, L.  Dittmann, “Energy management mechanism for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, May 2010, pp. 1–5.
  17. X.  Liu, N.  Ghazisaidi, L.  Ivanescu, R.  Kang, M.  Maier, “On the tradeoff between energy saving and QoS support for video delivery in EEE-based FiWi networks using real-world traffic traces,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 18, pp. 2670–2676, Sept. 2011.
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  18. P.  Chowdhury, M.  Tornatore, S.  Sarkar, B.  Mukherjee, “Building a green wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 16, pp. 2219–2229, Aug. 2010.
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  19. F. A.  Onat, I.  Stojmenovic, “Generating random graphs for wireless actuator networks,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, June 2007, pp. 1–12.

2012 (2)

L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.

G.  Schütz, N.  Correia, “Design of QoS-aware energy-efficient fiber–wireless access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 586–594, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

X.  Liu, N.  Ghazisaidi, L.  Ivanescu, R.  Kang, M.  Maier, “On the tradeoff between energy saving and QoS support for video delivery in EEE-based FiWi networks using real-world traffic traces,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 18, pp. 2670–2676, Sept. 2011.
[CrossRef]

R.  Bolla, R.  Bruschi, F.  Davoli, F.  Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2nd Quarter, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

P.  Chowdhury, M.  Tornatore, S.  Sarkar, B.  Mukherjee, “Building a green wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 16, pp. 2219–2229, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

R.  Kubo, J.  Kani, H.  Ujikawa, T.  Sakamoto, N.  Yoshimoto, H.  Hadama, “Hybrid power-saving mechanism with cyclic sleep and adaptive link rate functions for 10G-EPON systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 13, pp. 934–936, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

Akyildiz, I.

S.  Avallone, I.  Akyildiz, “A channel assignment algorithm for multi-radio wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2007, pp. 1034–1039.

Almeroth, K.

K.  Ramachandran, E.  Belding, K.  Almeroth, M.  Buddhikot, “Interference-aware channel assignment in multi-radio wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006, pp. 1–12.

Avallone, S.

S.  Avallone, I.  Akyildiz, “A channel assignment algorithm for multi-radio wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2007, pp. 1034–1039.

Balasubramanian, K.

Belding, E.

K.  Ramachandran, E.  Belding, K.  Almeroth, M.  Buddhikot, “Interference-aware channel assignment in multi-radio wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006, pp. 1–12.

Bellec, M.

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Bolla, R.

R.  Bolla, R.  Bruschi, F.  Davoli, F.  Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2nd Quarter, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Bruschi, R.

R.  Bolla, R.  Bruschi, F.  Davoli, F.  Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2nd Quarter, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Buddhikot, M.

K.  Ramachandran, E.  Belding, K.  Almeroth, M.  Buddhikot, “Interference-aware channel assignment in multi-radio wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006, pp. 1–12.

Campelo, D. R.

L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.

Y.  Yan, S.-W.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.-H.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, L.  Dittmann, “Energy management mechanism for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

S.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Cárdenas, D.

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Castoldi, P.

L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.

Charbonnier, B.

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

S. S. W.  Lee, A.  Chen, “Design and analysis of a novel energy efficient Ethernet passive optical network,” in Int. Conf. Networks., Apr. 2010, pp. 6–9.

Cheng, N.

Chowdhury, P.

Coimbra, J.

Correia, N.

Cucchietti, F.

R.  Bolla, R.  Bruschi, F.  Davoli, F.  Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2nd Quarter, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Davoli, F.

R.  Bolla, R.  Bruschi, F.  Davoli, F.  Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: A survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2nd Quarter, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Dittmann, L.

Y.  Yan, L.  Dittmann, “Enhanced sleep mode MAC control for EPON,” in Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2011.

Y.  Yan, S.-W.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.-H.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, L.  Dittmann, “Energy management mechanism for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Dixit, D.

Evanno, N.

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Gaudino, R.

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ghazisaidi, N.

Guignard, P.

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Hadama, H.

R.  Kubo, J.  Kani, H.  Ujikawa, T.  Sakamoto, N.  Yoshimoto, H.  Hadama, “Hybrid power-saving mechanism with cyclic sleep and adaptive link rate functions for 10G-EPON systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 13, pp. 934–936, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ivanescu, L.

Jäger, D.

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Kang, R.

Kani, J.

R.  Kubo, J.  Kani, H.  Ujikawa, T.  Sakamoto, N.  Yoshimoto, H.  Hadama, “Hybrid power-saving mechanism with cyclic sleep and adaptive link rate functions for 10G-EPON systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 13, pp. 934–936, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L.

L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.

Y.  Yan, S.-W.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.-H.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, L.  Dittmann, “Energy management mechanism for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

S.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Kazovsky, L. G.

Kubo, R.

R.  Kubo, J.  Kani, H.  Ujikawa, T.  Sakamoto, N.  Yoshimoto, H.  Hadama, “Hybrid power-saving mechanism with cyclic sleep and adaptive link rate functions for 10G-EPON systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 13, pp. 934–936, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S. W.

S. S. W.  Lee, A.  Chen, “Design and analysis of a novel energy efficient Ethernet passive optical network,” in Int. Conf. Networks., Apr. 2010, pp. 6–9.

Liu, X.

Maier, M.

Mandin, J.

J.  Mandin, “EPON power saving via sleep mode,” presented at the IEEE P802.3av 10GEPON Task Force Meeting, Sept. 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/av/public/2008_09/3av_0809_mandin_4.pdf .

Meyer, S.

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Möllers, I.

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

Onat, F. A.

F. A.  Onat, I.  Stojmenovic, “Generating random graphs for wireless actuator networks,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, June 2007, pp. 1–12.

Pizzinat, A.

R.  Gaudino, D.  Cárdenas, M.  Bellec, B.  Charbonnier, N.  Evanno, P.  Guignard, S.  Meyer, A.  Pizzinat, I.  Möllers, D.  Jäger, “Perspective in next-generation home networks: Toward optical solutions,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Qing, X.

Ramachandran, K.

K.  Ramachandran, E.  Belding, K.  Almeroth, M.  Buddhikot, “Interference-aware channel assignment in multi-radio wireless mesh networks,” in IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006, pp. 1–12.

Raponi, P. G.

L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.

Sakamoto, T.

R.  Kubo, J.  Kani, H.  Ujikawa, T.  Sakamoto, N.  Yoshimoto, H.  Hadama, “Hybrid power-saving mechanism with cyclic sleep and adaptive link rate functions for 10G-EPON systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 13, pp. 934–936, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, S.

Schütz, G.

Shaw, W.-T.

Stojmenovic, I.

F. A.  Onat, I.  Stojmenovic, “Generating random graphs for wireless actuator networks,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, June 2007, pp. 1–12.

Tornatore, M.

Ujikawa, H.

R.  Kubo, J.  Kani, H.  Ujikawa, T.  Sakamoto, N.  Yoshimoto, H.  Hadama, “Hybrid power-saving mechanism with cyclic sleep and adaptive link rate functions for 10G-EPON systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 13, pp. 934–936, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Valcarenghi, L.

L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.

Y.  Yan, S.-W.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.-H.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, L.  Dittmann, “Energy management mechanism for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

S.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Van, D. P.

L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.

Wong, S.

S.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Wong, S.-W.

L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.

W.-T.  Shaw, S.-W.  Wong, N.  Cheng, K.  Balasubramanian, X.  Qing, M.  Maier, L. G.  Kazovsky, “Hybrid architecture and integrated routing in scalable optical-wireless access network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 11, pp. 3443–3451, Nov. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Y.  Yan, S.-W.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.-H.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, L.  Dittmann, “Energy management mechanism for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Yamashita, S.

L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.

Y.  Yan, S.-W.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.-H.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, L.  Dittmann, “Energy management mechanism for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

S.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Yan, Y.

Y.  Yan, S.-W.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.-H.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, L.  Dittmann, “Energy management mechanism for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Y.  Yan, L.  Dittmann, “Enhanced sleep mode MAC control for EPON,” in Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2011.

Yen, S.

S.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: Advantages and drawbacks,” in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Yen, S.-H.

L.  Valcarenghi, D. R.  Campelo, S.-W.  Wong, S.-H.  Yen, S.  Yamashita, D. P.  Van, P. G.  Raponi, P.  Castoldi, L.  Kazovsky, “Energy efficiency in passive optical networks: Where, when and how,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 61–68, Nov. 2012.

Y.  Yan, S.-W.  Wong, L.  Valcarenghi, S.-H.  Yen, D. R.  Campelo, S.  Yamashita, L.  Kazovsky, L.  Dittmann, “Energy management mechanism for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Yoshimoto, N.

R.  Kubo, J.  Kani, H.  Ujikawa, T.  Sakamoto, N.  Yoshimoto, H.  Hadama, “Hybrid power-saving mechanism with cyclic sleep and adaptive link rate functions for 10G-EPON systems,” Electron. Lett., vol.  46, no. 13, pp. 934–936, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

FiWi access network architecture. OLT, optical line terminal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

OLT-initiated sleep mode signaling.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Randomly generated network topologies.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

ES initial planning problem results: Network graph A, gateway set 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

ES initial planning problem results: Network graph B, gateway set 1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

ES initial planning problem results: Network graph C, gateway set 1.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

ES initial planning problem results: Network graph A, gateway set 2.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

ES initial planning problem results: Network graph B, gateway set 2.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

ES initial planning problem results: Network graph C, gateway set 2.

Equations (29)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

MaximizeλMAX.
oOαo,mλMAX,mM.
lL:s(l)=wcCδw,ml,c=1,wW,mM,
lL:d(l)=OcCδw,ml,c=1,wW,mM,
lL:s(l)=wcCδw,ml,clL:d(l)=wcCδw,ml,c=0,w,wW:ww,mM,
wWlL:d(l)=ocCδw,ml,c(1αo,m)×|W|,oO,mM,
αo,mlo,m,oO,mM,
ρn,cwWlL:s(l)=nδw,ml,c+wWlL:d(l)=nδw,ml,c|L|,nN,cC,
nNcCρn,cR,nN.
wWlLcCδw,ml,c|W|H,mM,
wWlL:I(l,l)=1δw,ml,cF,lL,cC,mM.
αo,m,δw,ml,c,ρn,c{0,1};λMAXN.
du,x<(1+κ)Tuordu,y<(1+κ)Tuordv,x<(1+κ)Tvordv,y<(1+κ)Tv,
Impact(m)=oO:αo,m=1wΔominoO:αo,m=0{hw,o}|Δo|,mM,
to=(1β)×to+β×toSample,
Load(o)=wΔohw,o|Δo|×to.
m*=argminmM{Impact(m)},
OAW={oO:αo,m*=0}.
Δo={wW:hw,o=minoOAW{hw,o}},oOAW,
Δo={},oOAW,
T={oOW\OAW:to<Thmin}.
AoS,oW={wΔoS:hw,oW=minoOW\{oS}{hw,o}},oST,oWOW\{oS}.
hAvgoS,oW=wAoS,oWhw,oW|AoS,oW|,oST,oWOW\{oS}.
T={oOW:to>Thmax}.
BoW,oS={wΔoW:hw,oShw,oW},oWOW,oSO\OW.
oWAKE=argmaxoSO\OW{oWT|BoW,oS|}.
oW=argminoWOW\{oFAIL}{hw,o},
T={oO:αo,m=0,m=oFAIL}{O\OW},
AoWAKE,oW={wΔoW:hw,oWAKEhw,oW},