Abstract

In this paper, we study the performance of dynamic routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in filterless optical networks. These types of broadcast and select networks benefit from breakthroughs in advanced transmission technologies for replacing optical filters and active photonic switching devices, such as wavelength selective switches, with passive optical interconnections between nodes, creating passive optical light trees. We introduce an RWA scheme for establishing passive optical lightpaths in a filterless context and managing unfiltered channels at intermediate egress nodes, which, by propagating downstream of the terminating nodes, participate in wavelength usage and increase the risk of wavelength exhaustion. Simulation results are presented for six network topologies, along with the performance evaluation of active photonic and filterless optical network solutions with static and dynamic RWA schemes. We show that the performance of the proposed scheme depends on the average degree of node connectivity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, B. Châtelain, É. Bernier, and M. P. Bélanger, “Filterless optical networks: a unique and novel passive WAN network solution,” in Technical Digest: 12th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 16th Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OECC/IOOC), Kanagawa, Japan, 2007.
  2. E. Archambault, D. O’Brien, C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, M. P. Bélanger, and E. Bernier, “Design and simulation of filterless optical networks: Problem definition and performance evaluation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 8, pp. 496–501, Aug. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Tremblay, E. Archambault, M. P. Bélanger, J.-P. Savoie, F. Gagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Passive filterless core networks based on advanced modulation and electrical compensation technologies,” Telecommun. Syst., to be published.
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.
  5. A. Gumaste and I. Chlamtac, “Mesh implementation of light-trails: A solution to IP centric communication,” Proc. of the 12th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 2003, pp. 178–183.
  6. E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+ optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Mantelet, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, P. Littlewood, and M. P. Bélanger, “PCE-based centralized control plane for filterless networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 5, pp. 128–135, May 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2010, pp. 1–10.
  9. A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.
  10. P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.
  11. J.-P. Savoie, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, and M. P. Bélanger, “Physical layer validation of filterless optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, paper P5.08.
  12. J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

2013 (1)

G. Mantelet, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, P. Littlewood, and M. P. Bélanger, “PCE-based centralized control plane for filterless networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 5, pp. 128–135, May 2013.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2005 (1)

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+ optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Abtahi, F.

F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

Andriolli, N.

P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.

Archambault, E.

E. Archambault, D. O’Brien, C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, M. P. Bélanger, and E. Bernier, “Design and simulation of filterless optical networks: Problem definition and performance evaluation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 8, pp. 496–501, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

C. Tremblay, E. Archambault, M. P. Bélanger, J.-P. Savoie, F. Gagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Passive filterless core networks based on advanced modulation and electrical compensation technologies,” Telecommun. Syst., to be published.
[CrossRef]

F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.

Asselin, S.

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

Barry, M.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.

Belanger, M. P.

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

Bélanger, M. P.

G. Mantelet, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, P. Littlewood, and M. P. Bélanger, “PCE-based centralized control plane for filterless networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 5, pp. 128–135, May 2013.
[CrossRef]

E. Archambault, D. O’Brien, C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, M. P. Bélanger, and E. Bernier, “Design and simulation of filterless optical networks: Problem definition and performance evaluation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 8, pp. 496–501, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.

C. Tremblay, E. Archambault, M. P. Bélanger, J.-P. Savoie, F. Gagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Passive filterless core networks based on advanced modulation and electrical compensation technologies,” Telecommun. Syst., to be published.
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Savoie, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, and M. P. Bélanger, “Physical layer validation of filterless optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, paper P5.08.

C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, B. Châtelain, É. Bernier, and M. P. Bélanger, “Filterless optical networks: a unique and novel passive WAN network solution,” in Technical Digest: 12th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 16th Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OECC/IOOC), Kanagawa, Japan, 2007.

Bernier, E.

Bernier, É.

C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, B. Châtelain, É. Bernier, and M. P. Bélanger, “Filterless optical networks: a unique and novel passive WAN network solution,” in Technical Digest: 12th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 16th Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OECC/IOOC), Kanagawa, Japan, 2007.

Betker, A.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.

Bodamer, S.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.

Cassidy, A.

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

Castoldi, P.

P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.

Cavdar, C.

F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.

Châtelain, B.

C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, B. Châtelain, É. Bernier, and M. P. Bélanger, “Filterless optical networks: a unique and novel passive WAN network solution,” in Technical Digest: 12th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 16th Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OECC/IOOC), Kanagawa, Japan, 2007.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.

Chlamtac, I.

A. Gumaste and I. Chlamtac, “Mesh implementation of light-trails: A solution to IP centric communication,” Proc. of the 12th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 2003, pp. 178–183.

Cugini, F.

P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.

Devarajan, A.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2010, pp. 1–10.

Gagnon, F.

E. Archambault, D. O’Brien, C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, M. P. Bélanger, and E. Bernier, “Design and simulation of filterless optical networks: Problem definition and performance evaluation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 8, pp. 496–501, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, B. Châtelain, É. Bernier, and M. P. Bélanger, “Filterless optical networks: a unique and novel passive WAN network solution,” in Technical Digest: 12th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 16th Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OECC/IOOC), Kanagawa, Japan, 2007.

C. Tremblay, E. Archambault, M. P. Bélanger, J.-P. Savoie, F. Gagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Passive filterless core networks based on advanced modulation and electrical compensation technologies,” Telecommun. Syst., to be published.
[CrossRef]

Gauger, C.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.

Gerlach, C.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.

Giorgetti, A.

P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.

Gowrishankar, R.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2010, pp. 1–10.

Gumaste, A.

A. Gumaste and I. Chlamtac, “Mesh implementation of light-trails: A solution to IP centric communication,” Proc. of the 12th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 2003, pp. 178–183.

Hülsermann, R.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.

Imajuku, W.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+ optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Jäger, M.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.

Johnson, R.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2010, pp. 1–10.

Khanmohamadi, S.

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.

Kishore, B. S.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2010, pp. 1–10.

Köhn, M.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.

Le Rouzic, E.

P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.

Littlewood, P.

G. Mantelet, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, P. Littlewood, and M. P. Bélanger, “PCE-based centralized control plane for filterless networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 5, pp. 128–135, May 2013.
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

Mantelet, G.

G. Mantelet, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, P. Littlewood, and M. P. Bélanger, “PCE-based centralized control plane for filterless networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 5, pp. 128–135, May 2013.
[CrossRef]

F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.

O’Brien, D.

Oki, E.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+ optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Paolucci, F.

P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.

Plant, D. V.

G. Mantelet, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, P. Littlewood, and M. P. Bélanger, “PCE-based centralized control plane for filterless networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 5, pp. 128–135, May 2013.
[CrossRef]

C. Tremblay, E. Archambault, M. P. Bélanger, J.-P. Savoie, F. Gagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Passive filterless core networks based on advanced modulation and electrical compensation technologies,” Telecommun. Syst., to be published.
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Savoie, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, and M. P. Bélanger, “Physical layer validation of filterless optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, paper P5.08.

Poirrier, M. J.

P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.

Prasanna, G.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2010, pp. 1–10.

Sambo, N.

P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.

Sandesha, K.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2010, pp. 1–10.

Savoie, J.-P.

C. Tremblay, E. Archambault, M. P. Bélanger, J.-P. Savoie, F. Gagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Passive filterless core networks based on advanced modulation and electrical compensation technologies,” Telecommun. Syst., to be published.
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Savoie, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, and M. P. Bélanger, “Physical layer validation of filterless optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, paper P5.08.

Shimazaki, D.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+ optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Shiomoto, K.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+ optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Späth, J.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.

Takigawa, Y.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+ optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Tremblay, C.

G. Mantelet, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, P. Littlewood, and M. P. Bélanger, “PCE-based centralized control plane for filterless networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 5, pp. 128–135, May 2013.
[CrossRef]

E. Archambault, D. O’Brien, C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, M. P. Bélanger, and E. Bernier, “Design and simulation of filterless optical networks: Problem definition and performance evaluation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 8, pp. 496–501, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, B. Châtelain, É. Bernier, and M. P. Bélanger, “Filterless optical networks: a unique and novel passive WAN network solution,” in Technical Digest: 12th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 16th Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OECC/IOOC), Kanagawa, Japan, 2007.

J.-P. Savoie, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, and M. P. Bélanger, “Physical layer validation of filterless optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, paper P5.08.

C. Tremblay, E. Archambault, M. P. Bélanger, J.-P. Savoie, F. Gagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Passive filterless core networks based on advanced modulation and electrical compensation technologies,” Telecommun. Syst., to be published.
[CrossRef]

F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.

Valcarenghi, L.

P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.

Voruganti, P.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2010, pp. 1–10.

Wosinska, L.

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.

Xu, Z.

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

Yamanaka, N.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+ optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag (1)

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+ optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan. 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

G. Mantelet, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, P. Littlewood, and M. P. Bélanger, “PCE-based centralized control plane for filterless networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 5, pp. 128–135, May 2013.
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J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Other (9)

C. Tremblay, E. Archambault, M. P. Bélanger, J.-P. Savoie, F. Gagnon, and D. V. Plant, “Passive filterless core networks based on advanced modulation and electrical compensation technologies,” Telecommun. Syst., to be published.
[CrossRef]

F. Abtahi, C. Cavdar, J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, L. Wosinska, G. Mantelet, E. Archambault, C. Tremblay, and M. P. Bélanger, “Optimal design of cost- and energy-efficient scalable passive optical backbone networks,” in Proc. of Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. (ACP), 2012, paper AS3D.4.

A. Gumaste and I. Chlamtac, “Mesh implementation of light-trails: A solution to IP centric communication,” Proc. of the 12th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 2003, pp. 178–183.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), 2010, pp. 1–10.

A. Betker, C. Gerlach, R. Hülsermann, M. Jäger, M. Barry, S. Bodamer, J. Späth, C. Gauger, and M. Köhn, “Reference transport network scenarios,” BMBF MultiTeraNet Project Tech. Rep., July 2003.

P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, N. Sambo, E. Le Rouzic, M. J. Poirrier, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, and A. Giorgetti, “Centralized vs. distributed approaches for encompassing physical impairments in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. of the 11th Int. IFIP TC6 Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM’07), 2007, pp. 68–77.

J.-P. Savoie, C. Tremblay, D. V. Plant, and M. P. Bélanger, “Physical layer validation of filterless optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010, paper P5.08.

J. Chen, S. Khanmohamadi, F. Abtahi, L. Wosinska, Z. Xu, A. Cassidy, C. Tremblay, P. Littlewood, S. Asselin, and M. P. Belanger, “Passive wide area network solutions: Filterless and semi-filterless optical networks,” 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2011, paper Tu.D1.5.

C. Tremblay, F. Gagnon, B. Châtelain, É. Bernier, and M. P. Bélanger, “Filterless optical networks: a unique and novel passive WAN network solution,” in Technical Digest: 12th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., 16th Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OECC/IOOC), Kanagawa, Japan, 2007.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Active photonic switching and (b) filterless optical transmission line architectures. The filterless solution relies on passive optical splitters and combiners for link interconnection and local add–drop, unlike conventional active photonic switching architecture-based WSSs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Three-fiber-tree filterless network solution [2] for a subset of the German network topology (7 nodes, 11 links) [9]. Each fiber tree is represented by a different line pattern. (b) An expanded view of node B reveals one fiber interconnection pattern.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Filterless node with optical control devices, such as an OSC, a PCC, and an OCC for GMPLS support. The OSC wavelength is filtered in the ingress port and is reused by a dedicated optical component (*** box) to perform an inner topology discovery procedure. (b) Resulting knowledge is then sent into the control plane.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Layered view of a filterless optical network. The control plane is composed of two specialized PCEs which both maintain a network topology view: RWA-PCE computes the route and performs wavelength assignment. IA-PCE validates proposed routes according to physical constraints.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Lightpath establishment in an active photonic switching network. The two disjoint lightpaths (1–2 and 3–4) can use the same wavelength (λ1). RSVP message exchange is performed along the path. (b) Lightpath establishment in a filterless network. The control plane needs to be aware of the unfiltered channel propagating through the passive tree (dotted line). In this case, the two disjoint lightpaths must use two different wavelengths (λ1, λ2) in order to avoid the unfiltered channel from the backward connection causing a collision with a forward connection. In a distributed signaling scheme, RSVP messages must be exchanged along the entire passive tree, outside the path, in order to avoid collision with unfiltered channels.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Concept of backward and forward nodes. In order to know the available wavelengths for port 2, the control plane must determine the busy wavelengths of port 1 (backward port) and port 3 (forward ports) to ensure awareness of the existing connections and unfiltered channels.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Six reference network topologies considered in this study [9]: (a) 7-node German, (b) 10-node Italian, (c) 17-node German, (d) 8-node European, (e) 11-node East US, and (f) 17-node Californian.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Network Parameters of the Six Reference Network Topologies Used for Evaluating the Dynamic RWA Approach [9]

Tables Icon

TABLE II Number of Unfiltered Channels for Dynamic and Static RWA Schemes as a Function of the Number of Connections to be Established

Tables Icon

TABLE III Wavelength Usage for Dynamic and Static RWA Schemes as a Function of the Number of Connections to be Establisheda