Abstract

With the rising popularity of multicast applications, various algorithms using either lightpath or light-tree schemes have been proposed for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in meshed wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks. To the best of our knowledge, however, no systematic comparison has ever been made between the performance of the two schemes in minimizing network blocking probability. In this paper, we address the dynamic multicast traffic grooming problem in WDM networks and present comprehensive comparisons between these two schemes in different cases. Our main contributions are twofold: first, we compare the performance of the existing lightpath- and light-tree-based grooming algorithms and show that, in most cases, the lightpath-based methods outperform the light-tree-based ones. We discuss and explain such observations. Second, we propose a lightpath-based algorithm, called the LightPath Fragmentation (LPF) method, to further improve the network blocking performance. Numerous simulations show that the LPF method steadily outperforms the existing algorithms in different cases. Effects of the ratio of unicast traffic loads versus overall traffic loads and the average number of destinations of each multicast request are also studied.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Ramaswami, “Optical networking technologies: what worked and what didn’t,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 9, pp. 132–139, Sept. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. N. Rouskas and H. G. Perros, “A tutorial on optical networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol.  2497, pp. 155–193, May 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light-trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength-routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. E. Kamal, “Algorithms for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 11, pp. 96–105, Nov. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. V. Madhyastha, G. V. Chowdhary, N. Srinivas, and C. S. R. Murthy, “Grooming of multicast sessions in metropolitan WDM ring networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  49, no. 4, pp. 561–579, Nov. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, Oct. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Ul-Mustafa and A. E. Kamal, “Design and provisioning of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 37–53, Apr. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, and M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, June 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. S. W. Lee, H. H. Yen, and A. Chen, “Traffic grooming for IP multicast over WDM networks using light-path and light-tree schemes,” in Proc. of the Ninth Int. Conf. on Networks (ICN), Apr. 2010, pp. 291–293.
  11. M. A. Saleh and A. E. Kamal, “Dynamic provisioning of optical networks with many-to-many traffic grooming,” in Proc. IEEE ICCCN, Aug. 2010, pp. 1–7.
  12. G. V. Chowdhary, C. Siva, and R. Murthy, “Dynamic multicast traffic engineering in WDM groomed mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE Broadnets, 2004.
  13. B. Chen, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and Y. Jin, “Applying saturated cut method in dynamic multicast traffic grooming in IP/MPLS over WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Information, Communication and Signal Processing (ICICS), 2005, pp. 184–189.
  14. A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, C. M. Assi, A. Shami, G. Ellinas, and M. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of low-speed unicast/multicast traffic demands in mesh-based WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 681–693, Feb. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Lu, X. Nie, S. Wang, and L. Li, “Efficient dynamic multicast traffic grooming algorithm on WDM networks,” in Proc. SPIE, vol.  6022, 602230, Nov. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Lin, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 151–164, Oct. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Huang, F. Farahmand, and J. P. Jue, “Multicast traffic grooming in wavelength-routed WDM mesh networks using dynamically changing light-trees,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, no. 10, pp. 3178–3187, Oct. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Liao, H. Wen, L. Li, and S. Wang, “New dynamic grooming approaches for multicast traffic in meshed wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  46, no. 2, 25004, Feb. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefit of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  3531, pp. 209–220, Nov. 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.
  21. X. Yu, G. Xiao, and T. Cheng, “Historical data learning based dynamic LSP routing for overlay IP over WDM networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 309–318, Aug. 2013.

2013

X. Yu, G. Xiao, and T. Cheng, “Historical data learning based dynamic LSP routing for overlay IP over WDM networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 309–318, Aug. 2013.

2010

R. Lin, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 151–164, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2007

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, and M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, H. Wen, L. Li, and S. Wang, “New dynamic grooming approaches for multicast traffic in meshed wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  46, no. 2, 25004, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, C. M. Assi, A. Shami, G. Ellinas, and M. Ali, “Dynamic provisioning of low-speed unicast/multicast traffic demands in mesh-based WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 681–693, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami, “Optical networking technologies: what worked and what didn’t,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 9, pp. 132–139, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kamal, “Algorithms for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 11, pp. 96–105, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

R. Ul-Mustafa and A. E. Kamal, “Design and provisioning of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 37–53, Apr. 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005

H. V. Madhyastha, G. V. Chowdhary, N. Srinivas, and C. S. R. Murthy, “Grooming of multicast sessions in metropolitan WDM ring networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  49, no. 4, pp. 561–579, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

C. Lu, X. Nie, S. Wang, and L. Li, “Efficient dynamic multicast traffic grooming algorithm on WDM networks,” in Proc. SPIE, vol.  6022, 602230, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, F. Farahmand, and J. P. Jue, “Multicast traffic grooming in wavelength-routed WDM mesh networks using dynamically changing light-trees,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, no. 10, pp. 3178–3187, Oct. 2005.
[CrossRef]

2002

G. N. Rouskas and H. G. Perros, “A tutorial on optical networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol.  2497, pp. 155–193, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

1999

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light-trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength-routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefit of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  3531, pp. 209–220, Nov. 1998.
[CrossRef]

1992

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

1980

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Ali, M.

Assi, C. M.

Bose, S. K.

R. Lin, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 151–164, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and Y. Jin, “Applying saturated cut method in dynamic multicast traffic grooming in IP/MPLS over WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Information, Communication and Signal Processing (ICICS), 2005, pp. 184–189.

Chen, A.

S. S. W. Lee, H. H. Yen, and A. Chen, “Traffic grooming for IP multicast over WDM networks using light-path and light-tree schemes,” in Proc. of the Ninth Int. Conf. on Networks (ICN), Apr. 2010, pp. 291–293.

Chen, B.

B. Chen, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and Y. Jin, “Applying saturated cut method in dynamic multicast traffic grooming in IP/MPLS over WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Information, Communication and Signal Processing (ICICS), 2005, pp. 184–189.

Cheng, T.

X. Yu, G. Xiao, and T. Cheng, “Historical data learning based dynamic LSP routing for overlay IP over WDM networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 309–318, Aug. 2013.

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Chowdhary, G. V.

H. V. Madhyastha, G. V. Chowdhary, N. Srinivas, and C. S. R. Murthy, “Grooming of multicast sessions in metropolitan WDM ring networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  49, no. 4, pp. 561–579, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

G. V. Chowdhary, C. Siva, and R. Murthy, “Dynamic multicast traffic engineering in WDM groomed mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE Broadnets, 2004.

Ellinas, G.

Farahmand, F.

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, and M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

Hadjiantonis, A.

Hu, W.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, and M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

Jin, Y.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, and M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and Y. Jin, “Applying saturated cut method in dynamic multicast traffic grooming in IP/MPLS over WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Information, Communication and Signal Processing (ICICS), 2005, pp. 184–189.

Jue, J. P.

Kamal, A. E.

R. Ul-Mustafa and A. E. Kamal, “Design and provisioning of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 37–53, Apr. 2006.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kamal, “Algorithms for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 11, pp. 96–105, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Saleh and A. E. Kamal, “Dynamic provisioning of optical networks with many-to-many traffic grooming,” in Proc. IEEE ICCCN, Aug. 2010, pp. 1–7.

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Khalil, A.

Lee, S. S. W.

S. S. W. Lee, H. H. Yen, and A. Chen, “Traffic grooming for IP multicast over WDM networks using light-path and light-tree schemes,” in Proc. of the Ninth Int. Conf. on Networks (ICN), Apr. 2010, pp. 291–293.

Li, L.

L. Liao, H. Wen, L. Li, and S. Wang, “New dynamic grooming approaches for multicast traffic in meshed wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  46, no. 2, 25004, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Lu, X. Nie, S. Wang, and L. Li, “Efficient dynamic multicast traffic grooming algorithm on WDM networks,” in Proc. SPIE, vol.  6022, 602230, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, H. Wen, L. Li, and S. Wang, “New dynamic grooming approaches for multicast traffic in meshed wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  46, no. 2, 25004, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Lin, R.

R. Lin, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 151–164, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

C. Lu, X. Nie, S. Wang, and L. Li, “Efficient dynamic multicast traffic grooming algorithm on WDM networks,” in Proc. SPIE, vol.  6022, 602230, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Madhyastha, H. V.

H. V. Madhyastha, G. V. Chowdhary, N. Srinivas, and C. S. R. Murthy, “Grooming of multicast sessions in metropolitan WDM ring networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  49, no. 4, pp. 561–579, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Malli, R.

R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefit of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  3531, pp. 209–220, Nov. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, A.

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Mukherjee, B.

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light-trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength-routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Murthy, C. S. R.

H. V. Madhyastha, G. V. Chowdhary, N. Srinivas, and C. S. R. Murthy, “Grooming of multicast sessions in metropolitan WDM ring networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  49, no. 4, pp. 561–579, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Murthy, R.

G. V. Chowdhary, C. Siva, and R. Murthy, “Dynamic multicast traffic engineering in WDM groomed mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE Broadnets, 2004.

Nie, X.

C. Lu, X. Nie, S. Wang, and L. Li, “Efficient dynamic multicast traffic grooming algorithm on WDM networks,” in Proc. SPIE, vol.  6022, 602230, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Perros, H. G.

G. N. Rouskas and H. G. Perros, “A tutorial on optical networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol.  2497, pp. 155–193, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefit of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  3531, pp. 209–220, Nov. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, “Optical networking technologies: what worked and what didn’t,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 9, pp. 132–139, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Rouskas, G. N.

G. N. Rouskas and H. G. Perros, “A tutorial on optical networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol.  2497, pp. 155–193, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light-trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength-routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Saleh, M. A.

M. A. Saleh and A. E. Kamal, “Dynamic provisioning of optical networks with many-to-many traffic grooming,” in Proc. IEEE ICCCN, Aug. 2010, pp. 1–7.

Shami, A.

Singhal, N. K.

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Siva, C.

G. V. Chowdhary, C. Siva, and R. Murthy, “Dynamic multicast traffic engineering in WDM groomed mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE Broadnets, 2004.

Srinivas, N.

H. V. Madhyastha, G. V. Chowdhary, N. Srinivas, and C. S. R. Murthy, “Grooming of multicast sessions in metropolitan WDM ring networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  49, no. 4, pp. 561–579, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, and M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Ul-Mustafa, R.

R. Ul-Mustafa and A. E. Kamal, “Design and provisioning of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 37–53, Apr. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

L. Liao, H. Wen, L. Li, and S. Wang, “New dynamic grooming approaches for multicast traffic in meshed wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  46, no. 2, 25004, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

C. Lu, X. Nie, S. Wang, and L. Li, “Efficient dynamic multicast traffic grooming algorithm on WDM networks,” in Proc. SPIE, vol.  6022, 602230, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Wen, H.

L. Liao, H. Wen, L. Li, and S. Wang, “New dynamic grooming approaches for multicast traffic in meshed wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  46, no. 2, 25004, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-Y.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, and M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G.

X. Yu, G. Xiao, and T. Cheng, “Historical data learning based dynamic LSP routing for overlay IP over WDM networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 309–318, Aug. 2013.

Yen, H. H.

S. S. W. Lee, H. H. Yen, and A. Chen, “Traffic grooming for IP multicast over WDM networks using light-path and light-tree schemes,” in Proc. of the Ninth Int. Conf. on Networks (ICN), Apr. 2010, pp. 291–293.

Yu, X.

X. Yu, G. Xiao, and T. Cheng, “Historical data learning based dynamic LSP routing for overlay IP over WDM networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 309–318, Aug. 2013.

Zhang, X.

R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefit of multicasting in all-optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  3531, pp. 209–220, Nov. 1998.
[CrossRef]

Zhong, W. D.

R. Lin, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 151–164, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, and M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and Y. Jin, “Applying saturated cut method in dynamic multicast traffic grooming in IP/MPLS over WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Information, Communication and Signal Processing (ICICS), 2005, pp. 184–189.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, and M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

Zukerman, M.

R. Lin, W. D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 151–164, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw.

H. V. Madhyastha, G. V. Chowdhary, N. Srinivas, and C. S. R. Murthy, “Grooming of multicast sessions in metropolitan WDM ring networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  49, no. 4, pp. 561–579, Nov. 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

R. Ramaswami, “Optical networking technologies: what worked and what didn’t,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 9, pp. 132–139, Sept. 2006.
[CrossRef]

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light-trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength-routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kamal, “Algorithms for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 11, pp. 96–105, Nov. 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

R. Ul-Mustafa and A. E. Kamal, “Design and provisioning of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 37–53, Apr. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, W. D. Zhong, and M.-Y. Wu, “Multicast flow aggregation in IP over optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 5, pp. 1011–1021, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: an approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, Oct. 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.

G. N. Rouskas and H. G. Perros, “A tutorial on optical networks,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol.  2497, pp. 155–193, May 2002.
[CrossRef]

Math. Japonica

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

An example of multicast traffic grooming: (a) ordinary light-tree solution, (b) light-tree decomposition with LTD-ANCG, (c) ordinary lightpath solution, and (d) fragmentation of long lightpaths.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Two network topologies utilized for simulations: (a) 14-node NSFnet and (b) 11-node COST239.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Lightpath versus light-tree: BBR performance of the four different methods versus add/drop ratio under traffic with four different patterns. Traffic load is set to be 250 Erlangs. (a) M1, (b) M2, (c) M3, and (d) M4.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Lightpath versus light-tree: BBR performance versus add/drop ratio r under high traffic load ρ=450 Erlangs for M3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Lightpath versus light-tree: effects of the number of multicast destinations. (a) Network with port-limited nodes where r=0.6; traffic loads are 300 Erlangs. (b) Network with port-unlimited nodes where r=1.0; traffic loads are 500 Erlangs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Lightpath versus light-tree: effects of the unicast traffic ratio. (a) Network with port-limited nodes where r=0.6; traffic loads are 300 Erlangs. (b) Network with port-unlimited nodes where r=1.0; traffic loads are 500 Erlangs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Lightpath versus light-tree: average existing channel capacity utilization.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Average number of OEO conversions experienced by each admitted request. Traffic loads are 250 Erlangs.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Average number of transceiver pairs utilized all over the network, counted from the arrival of the 5000th connection request to the 105th connection request. Traffic loads are 250 Erlangs.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 LPF Multicast Traffic Grooming Algorithm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Procedure: Optical-layer-routing-sub-algorithm

Tables Icon

Table 3 Procedure: Lightpath-fragmentation-sub-algorithm

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

BBR=bandwidth of blocked requestsbandwidth of all requests.
αm=min(Tidi×ωout,Ridi×ωin),
α=1Hi,
Cij={(1r)p×r(H¯+1)Hijln(11ωij+1)ifωij>0andp>0ifωij=0orp=0,
Uw=deflimT1T0T1WuWuB(t)Bdt,
NOEO=NReqno. of OEO used for the requestNReq,