Abstract

Currently, the concept of greening the Internet is emerging with the increasingly acute energy crisis. Reducing the power consumption in IP over wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks is of great significance. From the perspective of traffic engineering, green grooming has performed well in terms of power savings. However, in a more realistic network, some traffic characteristics are not taken into account. Moreover, most methods of green grooming are applied to a single network. As the network scale continuously becomes larger, the backbone presents a multidomain structure. Considering the peak traffic distribution in the multidomain network, i.e., that the peak traffic tends to scatter over boundary nodes, we propose a novel hose-model separation to emulate the limited traffic information in a more realistic optical network. To maximize the power efficiency, we determine the inverse power-efficiency ratio by theoretical analysis. We then utilize a heuristic, referred to as minimizing the total inverse power-efficiency ratio (MTPR), to establish lightpaths. The simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of MTPR under different topologies and various traffic patterns.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Huang, B. Li, B. Guo, J. Zhang, P. Luo, and D. Tan, “Distributed protocol for removal of loop backs with asymmetric digraph using GMPLS in  p-cycle based optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 541–551, Feb. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Shen and R. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, June 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Xia, M. Tornatore, Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning for optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 437–445, Mar. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.
  5. M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Cape Town, South Africa, May 2010, pp. 1–5.
  6. W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Dynamic hybrid grooming based on power efficiency in green IP over WDM networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  23, no. 3, pp. 230–245, June 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: a changing role in green optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.
  8. A. Coiro, M. Listanti, and A. Valenti, “Dynamic power-aware routing and wavelength assignment for green WDM optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, pp. 1–6.
  9. Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM network,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Chen and A. Jaekel, “Energy efficient grooming of scheduled sub-wavelength traffic demands,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper OWI1.
  11. X. Zhang and L. Li, “Robust routing algorithms based on valiant load balancing for wavelength-division-multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  45, no. 8, pp. 1–10, Mar. 2006.
  12. X. Zhang, L. Li, and S. Wang, “Valiant load-balanced robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in traffic-grooming WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  30, no. 18, pp. 3498–3507, Dec. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Zhang, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Wei, “A novel robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in wavelength division multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 119–129, Apr. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Dai, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Survivable and traffic-oblivious routing in WDM networks: valiant load balancing versus tree routing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 438–453, May 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Liu, T. Frangieh, F. Xu, C. Xie, N. Ghani, A. Gumaste, T. Lehman, and S. Klasky, “Distributed grooming in multi-domain IP/MPLS-DWDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.
  16. D. Jiang and G. Hu, “GARCH model-based large-scale IP traffic matrix estimation,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  13, no. 1, pp. 52–54, Jan. 2009.
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Dynamic hybrid grooming based on power efficiency in green IP over WDM networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  23, no. 3, pp. 230–245, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM network,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, B. Li, B. Guo, J. Zhang, P. Luo, and D. Tan, “Distributed protocol for removal of loop backs with asymmetric digraph using GMPLS in  p-cycle based optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 541–551, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning for optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 437–445, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

R. Dai, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Survivable and traffic-oblivious routing in WDM networks: valiant load balancing versus tree routing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 438–453, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Jiang and G. Hu, “GARCH model-based large-scale IP traffic matrix estimation,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  13, no. 1, pp. 52–54, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen and R. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

X. Zhang, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Wei, “A novel robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in wavelength division multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 119–129, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. Zhang, L. Li, and S. Wang, “Valiant load-balanced robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in traffic-grooming WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  30, no. 18, pp. 3498–3507, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. Zhang and L. Li, “Robust routing algorithms based on valiant load balancing for wavelength-division-multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  45, no. 8, pp. 1–10, Mar. 2006.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and A. Jaekel, “Energy efficient grooming of scheduled sub-wavelength traffic demands,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper OWI1.

Chowdhury, P.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning for optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 437–445, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM network,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Coiro, A.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, and A. Valenti, “Dynamic power-aware routing and wavelength assignment for green WDM optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Dai, R.

R. Dai, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Survivable and traffic-oblivious routing in WDM networks: valiant load balancing versus tree routing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 438–453, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Dutta, R.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: a changing role in green optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Farahmand, F.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Cape Town, South Africa, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Frangieh, T.

Q. Liu, T. Frangieh, F. Xu, C. Xie, N. Ghani, A. Gumaste, T. Lehman, and S. Klasky, “Distributed grooming in multi-domain IP/MPLS-DWDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Ghani, N.

Q. Liu, T. Frangieh, F. Xu, C. Xie, N. Ghani, A. Gumaste, T. Lehman, and S. Klasky, “Distributed grooming in multi-domain IP/MPLS-DWDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Gong, X.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Dynamic hybrid grooming based on power efficiency in green IP over WDM networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  23, no. 3, pp. 230–245, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

Gumaste, A.

Q. Liu, T. Frangieh, F. Xu, C. Xie, N. Ghani, A. Gumaste, T. Lehman, and S. Klasky, “Distributed grooming in multi-domain IP/MPLS-DWDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Guo, B.

S. Huang, B. Li, B. Guo, J. Zhang, P. Luo, and D. Tan, “Distributed protocol for removal of loop backs with asymmetric digraph using GMPLS in  p-cycle based optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 541–551, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Dynamic hybrid grooming based on power efficiency in green IP over WDM networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  23, no. 3, pp. 230–245, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

Hasan, M. M.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Cape Town, South Africa, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Hou, W.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Dynamic hybrid grooming based on power efficiency in green IP over WDM networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  23, no. 3, pp. 230–245, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

Hu, G.

D. Jiang and G. Hu, “GARCH model-based large-scale IP traffic matrix estimation,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  13, no. 1, pp. 52–54, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, B. Li, B. Guo, J. Zhang, P. Luo, and D. Tan, “Distributed protocol for removal of loop backs with asymmetric digraph using GMPLS in  p-cycle based optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 541–551, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: a changing role in green optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Jaekel, A.

Y. Chen and A. Jaekel, “Energy efficient grooming of scheduled sub-wavelength traffic demands,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper OWI1.

Jiang, D.

D. Jiang and G. Hu, “GARCH model-based large-scale IP traffic matrix estimation,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  13, no. 1, pp. 52–54, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Jue, J. P.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Cape Town, South Africa, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Klasky, S.

Q. Liu, T. Frangieh, F. Xu, C. Xie, N. Ghani, A. Gumaste, T. Lehman, and S. Klasky, “Distributed grooming in multi-domain IP/MPLS-DWDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Lehman, T.

Q. Liu, T. Frangieh, F. Xu, C. Xie, N. Ghani, A. Gumaste, T. Lehman, and S. Klasky, “Distributed grooming in multi-domain IP/MPLS-DWDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Li, B.

S. Huang, B. Li, B. Guo, J. Zhang, P. Luo, and D. Tan, “Distributed protocol for removal of loop backs with asymmetric digraph using GMPLS in  p-cycle based optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 541–551, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

R. Dai, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Survivable and traffic-oblivious routing in WDM networks: valiant load balancing versus tree routing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 438–453, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Wei, “A novel robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in wavelength division multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 119–129, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, L. Li, and S. Wang, “Valiant load-balanced robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in traffic-grooming WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  30, no. 18, pp. 3498–3507, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and L. Li, “Robust routing algorithms based on valiant load balancing for wavelength-division-multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  45, no. 8, pp. 1–10, Mar. 2006.

Listanti, M.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, and A. Valenti, “Dynamic power-aware routing and wavelength assignment for green WDM optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, T. Frangieh, F. Xu, C. Xie, N. Ghani, A. Gumaste, T. Lehman, and S. Klasky, “Distributed grooming in multi-domain IP/MPLS-DWDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Liu, Y.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Dynamic hybrid grooming based on power efficiency in green IP over WDM networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  23, no. 3, pp. 230–245, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

Luo, P.

S. Huang, B. Li, B. Guo, J. Zhang, P. Luo, and D. Tan, “Distributed protocol for removal of loop backs with asymmetric digraph using GMPLS in  p-cycle based optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 541–551, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Martel, C. U.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning for optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 437–445, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning for optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 437–445, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM network,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Patel, A. N.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Cape Town, South Africa, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Rouskas, G. N.

E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Seshadri, D.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: a changing role in green optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Shen, G.

G. Shen and R. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

S. Huang, B. Li, B. Guo, J. Zhang, P. Luo, and D. Tan, “Distributed protocol for removal of loop backs with asymmetric digraph using GMPLS in  p-cycle based optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 541–551, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning for optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 437–445, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM network,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R.

G. Shen and R. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Valenti, A.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, and A. Valenti, “Dynamic power-aware routing and wavelength assignment for green WDM optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Wang, S.

R. Dai, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Survivable and traffic-oblivious routing in WDM networks: valiant load balancing versus tree routing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 438–453, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Wei, “A novel robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in wavelength division multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 119–129, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, L. Li, and S. Wang, “Valiant load-balanced robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in traffic-grooming WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  30, no. 18, pp. 3498–3507, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

X. Zhang, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Wei, “A novel robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in wavelength division multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 119–129, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Xia, M.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning for optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 437–445, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Q. Liu, T. Frangieh, F. Xu, C. Xie, N. Ghani, A. Gumaste, T. Lehman, and S. Klasky, “Distributed grooming in multi-domain IP/MPLS-DWDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Xu, F.

Q. Liu, T. Frangieh, F. Xu, C. Xie, N. Ghani, A. Gumaste, T. Lehman, and S. Klasky, “Distributed grooming in multi-domain IP/MPLS-DWDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Yetginer, E.

E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

Zhang, J.

S. Huang, B. Li, B. Guo, J. Zhang, P. Luo, and D. Tan, “Distributed protocol for removal of loop backs with asymmetric digraph using GMPLS in  p-cycle based optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 541–551, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

R. Dai, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Survivable and traffic-oblivious routing in WDM networks: valiant load balancing versus tree routing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 438–453, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Wei, “A novel robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in wavelength division multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 119–129, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, L. Li, and S. Wang, “Valiant load-balanced robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in traffic-grooming WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  30, no. 18, pp. 3498–3507, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and L. Li, “Robust routing algorithms based on valiant load balancing for wavelength-division-multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  45, no. 8, pp. 1–10, Mar. 2006.

Zhang, Y.

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning for optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 437–445, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM network,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Commun. (1)

X. Zhang, L. Li, and S. Wang, “Valiant load-balanced robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in traffic-grooming WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  30, no. 18, pp. 3498–3507, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

D. Jiang and G. Hu, “GARCH model-based large-scale IP traffic matrix estimation,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  13, no. 1, pp. 52–54, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

G. Shen and R. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Xia, M. Tornatore, Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, C. U. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Green provisioning for optical WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 437–445, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

S. Huang, B. Li, B. Guo, J. Zhang, P. Luo, and D. Tan, “Distributed protocol for removal of loop backs with asymmetric digraph using GMPLS in  p-cycle based optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 2, pp. 541–551, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

R. Dai, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Survivable and traffic-oblivious routing in WDM networks: valiant load balancing versus tree routing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 438–453, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

X. Zhang and L. Li, “Robust routing algorithms based on valiant load balancing for wavelength-division-multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Eng., vol.  45, no. 8, pp. 1–10, Mar. 2006.

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

X. Zhang, L. Li, S. Wang, and X. Wei, “A novel robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in wavelength division multiplexing mesh networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 119–129, Apr. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Switch. Netw. (1)

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM network,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011.
[CrossRef]

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Gong, and Y. Liu, “Dynamic hybrid grooming based on power efficiency in green IP over WDM networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  23, no. 3, pp. 230–245, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: a changing role in green optical networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, and A. Valenti, “Dynamic power-aware routing and wavelength assignment for green WDM optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Y. Chen and A. Jaekel, “Energy efficient grooming of scheduled sub-wavelength traffic demands,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper OWI1.

E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Cape Town, South Africa, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Q. Liu, T. Frangieh, F. Xu, C. Xie, N. Ghani, A. Gumaste, T. Lehman, and S. Klasky, “Distributed grooming in multi-domain IP/MPLS-DWDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 2009, pp. 1–6.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustrations of (a) green grooming and (b) nonbypass.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Hose model separation. Here S denotes the source-node set and D denotes the destination-node set.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Test topologies in simulations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of TCP between MTPR and MHF.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of TSP between MTPR and MHF.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of PRAG between MTPR and MHF.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

TABLE I List of Notation

Tables Icon

TABLE II List of Notation for Our Heuristic

Tables Icon

Algorithm 1 MTPR Heuristic

Tables Icon

TABLE III Numerical Results of PRBG in the Small-Scale Test Topology

Tables Icon

TABLE IV Numerical Results of PRBG in the Big-Scale Test Topology

Equations (37)

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( n = 1 N H t m n ) R , m ,
( m = 1 N H t m n ) C , n ,
t m n = { 0 if m = n rand [ 0 , R / ( N H 1 ) ] if m n ,
3 · R v R b 2 > 0 R b < 3 · R v ,
R b R v 2 > 3 · R v R b 2 2 · R v < R b .
P R = C P r a + C P r l + C P t S P r ,
{ ( 1 / W c ) · [ ( 1 + W c ) · P r · θ · R b + P t · γ · E C m i , b ] if i N b m ( 1 / W c ) · [ ( 1 + W c ) · P r · θ · R v + P t · γ · E C m i , v ] if i N v m ,
C P r a ( i , m ) = { P r · ( θ in · R b + θ out · C b ) i N b m P r · ( θ in · R v + θ out · C v ) i N v m .
C P r l ( i , m ) = { P r · ( 1 / W c ) · ( θ in · R b + θ out · C b ) i N b m P r · ( 1 / W c ) · ( θ in · R v + θ out · C v ) i N v m .
C P t ( i , m ) = { P t · ( 1 / W c ) · γ · E C m i , b i N b m P t · ( 1 / W c ) · γ · E C m i , v i N v m .
E C m i , b = j N b m j i [ α j m · ( R b + R v ) / 2 + α i m · ( C b + C v ) / 2 ] + j N v m [ α j m · ( R b R v ) / 2 + α i m · ( C b C v ) / 2 ] , i N b m ,
E C m i , v = j N b m [ α j m · ( R b R v ) / 2 + α i m · ( C b C v ) / 2 ] + j N v m j i [ α j m · ( 3 · R v R b ) / 2 + α i m · ( 3 · C v C b ) / 2 ] , i N v m .
{ ( 1 / W c ) · ( P r + P t ) · θ · R b · ( W c · H o p m i 1 ) i N b m ( 1 / W c ) · ( P r + P t ) · θ · R v · ( W c · H o p m i 1 ) i N v m .
S P r 1 ( i , m ) = { 2 · ( P r + P t ) · [ θ in · R b ( θ in · R b ) / W c ] i N b m 2 · ( P r + P t ) · [ θ in · R v ( θ in · R v ) / W c ] i N v m .
S P r 2 ( i , m ) = { 2 · ( P r + P t ) · ( H o p m i 1 ) · θ in · R b i N b m 2 · ( P r + P t ) · ( H o p m i 1 ) · θ in · R v i N v m .
H o p m i = 1 | N m | · ( j N m j i h m i j + j N m j i h m j i ) , i N m ,
N m = ( N b m N v m ) .
P R m i = C P ( i , m ) S P ( i , m ) = { P r P r + P t · ( 1 + W c ) + P t P r + P t · γ θ · E C m i , b R b W c · H o p m i 1 i N b m P r P r + P t · ( 1 + W c ) + P t P r + P t · γ θ · E C m i , v R v W c · H o p m i 1 i N v m .
E C m i , b R b = R b + R v 2 · R b · [ j N b m j i α j m + ( | N b m | 1 ) · α i m ] + R b R v 2 · R b · ( j N v m α j m + | N v m | · α i m ) , i N b m ,
E C m i , v R v = R b R v 2 · R v · ( j N b m α j m + | N b m | · α i m ) + 3 · R v R b 2 · R v · [ j N v m j i α j m + ( | N v m | 1 ) · α i m ] , i N v m .
E C m i , b R b = 1 2 + 1 2 · [ ( | N m | 2 ) + R v R b · ( | N b m | | N v m | 2 ) ] · α i m , i N b m ,
E C m i , v R v = 1 2 + 1 2 · [ ( 3 · | N v m | | N b m | 6 ) + R b R v · ( | N b m | | N v m | + 2 ) ] · α i m , i N v m .
P R m i = { P R 0 + ( Δ 0 · [ Ω b m ] · α i m ) / ( W c · H o p m i 1 ) i N b m P R 0 + ( Δ 0 · [ Ω v m ] · α i m ) / ( W c · H o p m i 1 ) i N v m ,
Δ 0 = 1 2 · P t P r + P t · γ θ ,
P R 0 = P r P r + P t · ( 1 + W c ) + Δ 0 W c · H o p m i 1 ,
[ Ω b m ] = [ ( | N m | 2 ) + R v R b · ( | N b m | | N v m | 2 ) ] ,
[ Ω v m ] = [ ( 3 · | N v m | | N b m | 6 ) + R b R v · ( | N b m | | N v m | + 2 ) ] .
min P R = m = 1 K i N m P R m i .
min P R = Δ 0 · m = 1 K [ Ω b m ] · i N b m [ α i m / ( W c · H o p m i 1 ) ] + Δ 0 · m = 1 K [ Ω v m ] · i N v m [ α i m / ( W c · H o p m i 1 ) ] .
Θ⃗ m = [ α 1 m , α 2 m , , α | N m | m ] ,
α i m = ( 1 / K m i ) i N m ( 1 / K m i ) , m [ 1 , K ] .
T a b c m = { [ T a c m × α b m ] , Case 1 . [ ( T a c m + T a c m , out ) × α b m ] , Case 2 . [ ( T a c m + T a c m , in ) × α b m ] , Case 3 . [ ( T a c m + T a c m , out + T a c m , in ) × α b m ] , Case 4 .
( 1 / W c ) · { α j m · ( R b + R v ) / 2 + α i m · ( C b + C v ) / 2 , Case 1 . α j m · ( R b R v ) / 2 + α i m · ( C b C v ) / 2 , Case 2 . α j m · ( 3 · R v R b ) / 2 + α i m · ( 3 · C v C b ) / 2 , Case 3 .
PRBG = P R = m = 1 K i N m P R m i .
TCP = 2 · P r · N l p + 2 · P r · m = 1 K a , b , c N m ( T a b c m T a b c m ) + P t · m = 1 K i = 1 | N b m | E C m i , b + i = 1 | N v m | E C m i , v W c ,
TSP = m = 1 K a , b , c N m { [ ( T a b c m T a b c m ) · ( 1 1 W c ) ] + [ ( T a b c m T a b c m ) · ( h m a b + h m b c 1 ) ] } · 2 · ( P r + P t ) ,
PRAG = TCP TSP .