Recently, optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing technology has attracted intensive research interest because spectrum-sliced elastic optical networks (EONs) can be constructed based on it. In this paper, we investigate how to serve multicast requests over EONs with multicast-capable routing, modulation level, and spectrum assignment (RMSA). Both EON planning with static multicast traffic and EON provisioning with dynamic traffic are studied. For static EON planning, we formulate two integer linear programming (ILP) models, i.e., the joint ILP and the separate ILP. The joint ILP optimizes all multicast requests together, while the separate ILP optimizes one request each time in a sequential way. We also propose a highly efficient heuristic that is based on an adaptive genetic algorithm (GA) with minimum solution revisits. The simulation results indicate that the ILPs and the GA provide more efficient EON planning than the existing multicast-capable RMSA algorithms that use the shortest path tree (SPT) and the minimal spanning tree (MST). The results also show that the GA obtains more efficient EON planning results than the separate ILP with much less running time, as it can optimize all multicast requests together in a highly efficient manner. For the dynamic EON provisioning, we demonstrate that the GA is also applicable, and it achieves lower request blocking probabilities than the benchmark algorithms using SPT and MST.
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