Abstract

Recently, optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing technology has attracted intensive research interest because spectrum-sliced elastic optical networks (EONs) can be constructed based on it. In this paper, we investigate how to serve multicast requests over EONs with multicast-capable routing, modulation level, and spectrum assignment (RMSA). Both EON planning with static multicast traffic and EON provisioning with dynamic traffic are studied. For static EON planning, we formulate two integer linear programming (ILP) models, i.e., the joint ILP and the separate ILP. The joint ILP optimizes all multicast requests together, while the separate ILP optimizes one request each time in a sequential way. We also propose a highly efficient heuristic that is based on an adaptive genetic algorithm (GA) with minimum solution revisits. The simulation results indicate that the ILPs and the GA provide more efficient EON planning than the existing multicast-capable RMSA algorithms that use the shortest path tree (SPT) and the minimal spanning tree (MST). The results also show that the GA obtains more efficient EON planning results than the separate ILP with much less running time, as it can optimize all multicast requests together in a highly efficient manner. For the dynamic EON provisioning, we demonstrate that the GA is also applicable, and it achieves lower request blocking probabilities than the benchmark algorithms using SPT and MST.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Shieh, X. Yi, and Y. Tang, “Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM systems over 1000 km SSMF fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol.  43, pp. 183–185, Feb. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, pp. 189–204, Feb. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gb/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.
  4. M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2009, paper OMQ4.
  6. B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Sone, A. Watanabe, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive spectrum allocation in elastic optical path network (SLICE) with bit per symbol adjustment,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010, paper OMU3.
  7. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Shanghai, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.
  9. L. Gong, X. Zhou, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “A two-population based evolutionary approach for optimizing routing, modulation and spectrum assignments (RMSA) in O-OFDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  16, pp. 1520–1523, Sept. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Scalable network planning for elastic optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks,” in 8th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), Poznan, July 2012, pp. 1–4.
  11. Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.
  12. N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD). Washington, D.C.: Optical Society of America, 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.
  13. X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, pp. 603–613, Aug. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. E. Johnston, “ESnet4: Networking for the future of DOE science,” May2008 [Online]. Available: https://es. net/assets/Uploads/ESnet4-Networking-for-the-Future-of- Science- 2008-05-05.NP.v1.pdf .
  15. L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: Rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, pp. 60–65, Feb. 2003.
  17. Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Hu, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Yamano, V. Akella, and B. Yoo, “Advanced optical-label routing system supporting multicast, optical TTL, and multimedia applications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, pp. 3270–3281, Oct. 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, pp. 621–629, Oct. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Chen and J. Wang, “Efficient routing and wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, pp. 97–109, Jan. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Hu and Q. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  10, pp. 970–972, July 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Lai and K. Bergman, “Broadband multicasting for wavelength-striped optical packets,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 1706–1718, June 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Gadkar, J. Plante, and V. Vokkarane, “Multicast overlay for high-bandwidth applications over WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, pp. 571–585, Aug. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  23. Q. Wang and L. Chen, “Performance analysis of multicast traffic over spectrum elastic optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTh3B.7.
  24. A. Ding and G. Poo, “A survey of optical multicast over WDM networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  26, pp. 193–200, Feb. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Kou, G. Markowsky, and L. Berman, “A fast algorithm for Steiner trees,” Acta Inf., vol.  15, pp. 141–145, 1981.
  26. Z. Yu, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, X. Yu, B. Chen, and X. Lin, “Multicast routing and spectrum assignment in elastic optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2012, paper AF3E.3.
  27. K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Soumplis, and E. Varvarigos, “Trading off transponders for spectrum in flexgrid networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2013, paper OTu2A.3.
  28. A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “On the impact of optimized guard band assignment for superchannels in flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2013, paper OTu2A.5.
  29. X. Zhou, W. Lu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic RMSA in elastic optical networks with an adaptive genetic algorithm,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012, pp. 1–6.
  30. J. Koza, Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1992.
  31. B. Miller, “Genetic algorithms, tournament selection, and effects of noise,” Complex Syst., vol.  9, pp. 193–212, July 1959.
  32. M. Srinivas and L. Patnaik, “Adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation in genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern., vol.  24, pp. 656–667, Apr. 1994.
    [CrossRef]
  33. “GLPK (GNU Linear Programming Kit)” [Online]. Available: http://www.gnu.org/software/glpk/ .
  34. B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. New York: Springer, 2006.
  35. S. Aidarous, D. Proudfoot, and X. Dam, “Service management in intelligent networks,” IEEE Network, vol.  4, pp. 18–24, Jan. 1990.

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and Y. Tang, “Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM systems over 1000 km SSMF fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol.  43, pp. 183–185, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

A. Ding and G. Poo, “A survey of optical multicast over WDM networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  26, pp. 193–200, Feb. 2003.
[CrossRef]

G. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: Rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, pp. 60–65, Feb. 2003.

2002 (2)

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, pp. 621–629, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen and J. Wang, “Efficient routing and wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, pp. 97–109, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. Hu and Q. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  10, pp. 970–972, July 1998.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Srinivas and L. Patnaik, “Adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation in genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern., vol.  24, pp. 656–667, Apr. 1994.
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Aidarous, D. Proudfoot, and X. Dam, “Service management in intelligent networks,” IEEE Network, vol.  4, pp. 18–24, Jan. 1990.

1981 (1)

L. Kou, G. Markowsky, and L. Berman, “A fast algorithm for Steiner trees,” Acta Inf., vol.  15, pp. 141–145, 1981.

1959 (1)

B. Miller, “Genetic algorithms, tournament selection, and effects of noise,” Complex Syst., vol.  9, pp. 193–212, July 1959.

Aidarous, S.

S. Aidarous, D. Proudfoot, and X. Dam, “Service management in intelligent networks,” IEEE Network, vol.  4, pp. 18–24, Jan. 1990.

Akella, V.

Armstrong, J.

Bergman, K.

Berman, L.

L. Kou, G. Markowsky, and L. Berman, “A fast algorithm for Steiner trees,” Acta Inf., vol.  15, pp. 141–145, 1981.

Bocoi, A.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2009, paper OMQ4.

Bottari, G.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD). Washington, D.C.: Optical Society of America, 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.

Bunge, C.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2009, paper OMQ4.

Cao, J.

Cao, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Shanghai, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Castoldi, P.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD). Washington, D.C.: Optical Society of America, 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.

Chen, B.

B. Chen and J. Wang, “Efficient routing and wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, pp. 97–109, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, X. Yu, B. Chen, and X. Lin, “Multicast routing and spectrum assignment in elastic optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2012, paper AF3E.3.

Chen, L.

Q. Wang and L. Chen, “Performance analysis of multicast traffic over spectrum elastic optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTh3B.7.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Soumplis, and E. Varvarigos, “Trading off transponders for spectrum in flexgrid networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2013, paper OTu2A.3.

Cugini, F.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD). Washington, D.C.: Optical Society of America, 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.

Dam, X.

S. Aidarous, D. Proudfoot, and X. Dam, “Service management in intelligent networks,” IEEE Network, vol.  4, pp. 18–24, Jan. 1990.

Ding, A.

A. Ding and G. Poo, “A survey of optical multicast over WDM networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  26, pp. 193–200, Feb. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Eira, A.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “On the impact of optimized guard band assignment for superchannels in flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2013, paper OTu2A.5.

Gadkar, A.

Goh, T.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gb/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Gong, L.

L. Gong, X. Zhou, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “A two-population based evolutionary approach for optimizing routing, modulation and spectrum assignments (RMSA) in O-OFDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  16, pp. 1520–1523, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Scalable network planning for elastic optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks,” in 8th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), Poznan, July 2012, pp. 1–4.

X. Zhou, W. Lu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic RMSA in elastic optical networks with an adaptive genetic algorithm,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012, pp. 1–6.

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

Hu, J.

Hu, W.

W. Hu and Q. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  10, pp. 970–972, July 1998.
[CrossRef]

Hua, N.

Iovanna, P.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD). Washington, D.C.: Optical Society of America, 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.

Ishida, O.

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gb/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Sone, A. Watanabe, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive spectrum allocation in elastic optical path network (SLICE) with bit per symbol adjustment,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010, paper OMU3.

Kadohata, A.

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

Kawai, S.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gb/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Kiese, M.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2009, paper OMQ4.

Kou, L.

L. Kou, G. Markowsky, and L. Berman, “A fast algorithm for Steiner trees,” Acta Inf., vol.  15, pp. 141–145, 1981.

Koza, J.

J. Koza, Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1992.

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Sone, A. Watanabe, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive spectrum allocation in elastic optical path network (SLICE) with bit per symbol adjustment,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010, paper OMU3.

Lai, C.

Libeskind-Hadas, R.

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, pp. 621–629, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.

Z. Yu, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, X. Yu, B. Chen, and X. Lin, “Multicast routing and spectrum assignment in elastic optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2012, paper AF3E.3.

Lu, W.

L. Gong, X. Zhou, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “A two-population based evolutionary approach for optimizing routing, modulation and spectrum assignments (RMSA) in O-OFDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  16, pp. 1520–1523, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Scalable network planning for elastic optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks,” in 8th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), Poznan, July 2012, pp. 1–4.

X. Zhou, W. Lu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic RMSA in elastic optical networks with an adaptive genetic algorithm,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012, pp. 1–6.

Markowsky, G.

L. Kou, G. Markowsky, and L. Berman, “A fast algorithm for Steiner trees,” Acta Inf., vol.  15, pp. 141–145, 1981.

Melhem, R.

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, pp. 621–629, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Miller, B.

B. Miller, “Genetic algorithms, tournament selection, and effects of noise,” Complex Syst., vol.  9, pp. 193–212, July 1959.

Mukherjee, B.

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. New York: Springer, 2006.

Okamoto, K.

Pan, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Shanghai, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Pan, Z.

Patnaik, L.

M. Srinivas and L. Patnaik, “Adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation in genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern., vol.  24, pp. 656–667, Apr. 1994.
[CrossRef]

Pedro, J.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “On the impact of optimized guard band assignment for superchannels in flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2013, paper OTu2A.5.

Pires, J.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “On the impact of optimized guard band assignment for superchannels in flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2013, paper OTu2A.5.

Plante, J.

Poo, G.

A. Ding and G. Poo, “A survey of optical multicast over WDM networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  26, pp. 193–200, Feb. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Proudfoot, D.

S. Aidarous, D. Proudfoot, and X. Dam, “Service management in intelligent networks,” IEEE Network, vol.  4, pp. 18–24, Jan. 1990.

Rambach, F.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2009, paper OMQ4.

Rouskas, G.

G. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: Rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, pp. 60–65, Feb. 2003.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Sambo, N.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD). Washington, D.C.: Optical Society of America, 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.

Schuster, M.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2009, paper OMQ4.

Shibahara, K.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gb/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and Y. Tang, “Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM systems over 1000 km SSMF fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol.  43, pp. 183–185, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Sone, A. Watanabe, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive spectrum allocation in elastic optical path network (SLICE) with bit per symbol adjustment,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010, paper OMU3.

Soumplis, P.

K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Soumplis, and E. Varvarigos, “Trading off transponders for spectrum in flexgrid networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2013, paper OTu2A.3.

Spinnler, B.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2009, paper OMQ4.

Srinivas, M.

M. Srinivas and L. Patnaik, “Adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation in genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern., vol.  24, pp. 656–667, Apr. 1994.
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gb/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Sone, A. Watanabe, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive spectrum allocation in elastic optical path network (SLICE) with bit per symbol adjustment,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010, paper OMU3.

Tanaka, T.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and Y. Tang, “Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM systems over 1000 km SSMF fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol.  43, pp. 183–185, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

Varvarigos, E.

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, and E. Varvarigos, “Elastic bandwidth allocation in flexible OFDM-based optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, pp. 1354–1366, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Soumplis, and E. Varvarigos, “Trading off transponders for spectrum in flexgrid networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2013, paper OTu2A.3.

Vokkarane, V.

Wan, X.

Wang, J.

B. Chen and J. Wang, “Efficient routing and wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, pp. 97–109, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang and L. Chen, “Performance analysis of multicast traffic over spectrum elastic optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTh3B.7.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Shanghai, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Watanabe, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Sone, A. Watanabe, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive spectrum allocation in elastic optical path network (SLICE) with bit per symbol adjustment,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010, paper OMU3.

Yamano, S.

Yang, H.

Yang, J.

Yi, X.

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and Y. Tang, “Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM systems over 1000 km SSMF fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol.  43, pp. 183–185, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Yonenaga, K.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gb/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Yoo, B.

Yu, X.

Z. Yu, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, X. Yu, B. Chen, and X. Lin, “Multicast routing and spectrum assignment in elastic optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2012, paper AF3E.3.

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, X. Yu, B. Chen, and X. Lin, “Multicast routing and spectrum assignment in elastic optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2012, paper AF3E.3.

Zeng, Q.

W. Hu and Q. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  10, pp. 970–972, July 1998.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Z. Yu, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, X. Yu, B. Chen, and X. Lin, “Multicast routing and spectrum assignment in elastic optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2012, paper AF3E.3.

Zhao, Y.

Z. Yu, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, X. Yu, B. Chen, and X. Lin, “Multicast routing and spectrum assignment in elastic optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2012, paper AF3E.3.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, X.

L. Gong, X. Zhou, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “A two-population based evolutionary approach for optimizing routing, modulation and spectrum assignments (RMSA) in O-OFDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  16, pp. 1520–1523, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Scalable network planning for elastic optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks,” in 8th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), Poznan, July 2012, pp. 1–4.

X. Zhou, W. Lu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic RMSA in elastic optical networks with an adaptive genetic algorithm,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012, pp. 1–6.

Zhu, Z.

L. Gong, X. Zhou, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “A two-population based evolutionary approach for optimizing routing, modulation and spectrum assignments (RMSA) in O-OFDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  16, pp. 1520–1523, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Hu, Z. Zhu, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Yamano, V. Akella, and B. Yoo, “Advanced optical-label routing system supporting multicast, optical TTL, and multimedia applications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, pp. 3270–3281, Oct. 2005.
[CrossRef]

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Scalable network planning for elastic optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks,” in 8th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), Poznan, July 2012, pp. 1–4.

X. Zhou, W. Lu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic RMSA in elastic optical networks with an adaptive genetic algorithm,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012, pp. 1–6.

Acta Inf. (1)

L. Kou, G. Markowsky, and L. Berman, “A fast algorithm for Steiner trees,” Acta Inf., vol.  15, pp. 141–145, 1981.

Complex Syst. (1)

B. Miller, “Genetic algorithms, tournament selection, and effects of noise,” Complex Syst., vol.  9, pp. 193–212, July 1959.

Comput. Commun. (1)

A. Ding and G. Poo, “A survey of optical multicast over WDM networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  26, pp. 193–200, Feb. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and Y. Tang, “Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM systems over 1000 km SSMF fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol.  43, pp. 183–185, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

L. Gong, X. Zhou, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “A two-population based evolutionary approach for optimizing routing, modulation and spectrum assignments (RMSA) in O-OFDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  16, pp. 1520–1523, Sept. 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

B. Chen and J. Wang, “Efficient routing and wavelength assignment for multicast in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, pp. 97–109, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (2)

G. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: Rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, pp. 60–65, Feb. 2003.

S. Aidarous, D. Proudfoot, and X. Dam, “Service management in intelligent networks,” IEEE Network, vol.  4, pp. 18–24, Jan. 1990.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Hu and Q. Zeng, “Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  10, pp. 970–972, July 1998.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

M. Srinivas and L. Patnaik, “Adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation in genetic algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern., vol.  24, pp. 656–667, Apr. 1994.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, pp. 621–629, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Other (16)

Q. Wang and L. Chen, “Performance analysis of multicast traffic over spectrum elastic optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2012, paper OTh3B.7.

W. E. Johnston, “ESnet4: Networking for the future of DOE science,” May2008 [Online]. Available: https://es. net/assets/Uploads/ESnet4-Networking-for-the-Future-of- Science- 2008-05-05.NP.v1.pdf .

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Shanghai, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gb/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2009, paper OMQ4.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Sone, A. Watanabe, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive spectrum allocation in elastic optical path network (SLICE) with bit per symbol adjustment,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010, paper OMU3.

W. Lu, X. Zhou, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Scalable network planning for elastic optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks,” in 8th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), Poznan, July 2012, pp. 1–4.

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD). Washington, D.C.: Optical Society of America, 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.

Z. Yu, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, X. Yu, B. Chen, and X. Lin, “Multicast routing and spectrum assignment in elastic optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf., 2012, paper AF3E.3.

K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Soumplis, and E. Varvarigos, “Trading off transponders for spectrum in flexgrid networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2013, paper OTu2A.3.

A. Eira, J. Pedro, and J. Pires, “On the impact of optimized guard band assignment for superchannels in flexible grid optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2013, paper OTu2A.5.

X. Zhou, W. Lu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic RMSA in elastic optical networks with an adaptive genetic algorithm,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Anaheim, CA, Dec. 2012, pp. 1–6.

J. Koza, Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1992.

“GLPK (GNU Linear Programming Kit)” [Online]. Available: http://www.gnu.org/software/glpk/ .

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. New York: Springer, 2006.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Same-spectrum multicast scheme and (b) definition of slot block (SB) on EON links.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

NSFNET topology with fiber lengths in kilometers marked on each link.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Convergence performance of adaptive GA for EON planning when the traffic scenario is | I | = 100 and average | D i | is 5.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

US Backbone topology with fiber lengths in kilometers marked on each link.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Multicast request blocking probability results from EON provisioning simulations using the NSFNET topology with (a)  | D i | = 3 and (b)  | D i | = 4 .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Multicast request blocking probability results from EON provisioning simulations using the US Backbone topology with (a)  | D i | = 4 and (b)  | D i | = 6 .

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Algorithm 1 Adaptive GA for EON Planning With Multicast-Capable RMSA

Tables Icon

TABLE I Simulation Parameters

Tables Icon

TABLE II Simulation Results for EON Planning With Multicast Traffic

Equations (31)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n p = C i m p · C slot BPSK + N GB ,
n i = max n p , p { R s i , d i , j , d i , j D i } .
Minimize max i ( z i ) , i I .
z i T , i I .
Minimize T .
p P s i , d i , j V x p , i = 1 , d i , j D i , i I .
y e , i x p , i , i I , p P e E P s i , d i , j V , e E , d i , j D i ,
y e , i 1 , i I , e E .
n i n p · x p , i , p P s i , d i , j V , d i , j D i , i I .
c i , j y e , i + y e , j 1 , i , j I , i j , e E .
o i , j + o j , i = 1 , i , j I , i j .
z j w i + 1 B · ( 1 + o i , j c i , j ) , i , j I , i j .
z i w j + 1 B · ( 2 o i , j c i , j ) , i , j I , i j .
z i w i + 1 n i , i I .
w i , z i , T ( 0 , B ] , i I .
m i = min m p , { p : x p , i = 1 } .
Minimize z
p P s i , d i , j V x p = 1 , d i , j D i .
y e x p , e E , p P e E ,
y e 1 , e E .
n i n p · x p , p P s i , d i , j V , d i , j D i , i I .
w w e , k · u e , k , e E , k ,
z ( z e , k B ) · u e , k + B , e E , k .
z w + 1 n i , p P .
k u e , k = y e , e E .
w , z ( 0 , B ] .
m = min m p , { p : x p = 1 } .
p c = { α c T ¯ l 1 , l 2 T min T mean T min + p c 0 , T ¯ l 1 , l 2 T mean , β c , otherwise
p m = { α m T l T min T mean T min + p m 0 , T l T mean , β m otherwise
D P = 2 | P | ( | P | 1 ) l 1 = 1 | P | 1 l 2 = l 1 + 1 | P | d ( l 1 , l 2 ) | I | ,
Fitness = T + H · u ( F b ) + F b ,