Abstract

The provision of a quintuple-play service (fixed Internet and telephony, mobile telephony/Internet, security/control applications, and wireless high-definition audio/video distribution) along wavelength division multiplexing long-reach passive optical networks has been proposed recently. Five coexisting orthogonal frequency division multiplexing based signals have been used to deliver the quintuple-play service to each user. In this paper, the electrical power distribution (EPD) among those five coexisting signals is studied using numerical simulation. The need for EPD optimization is stressed, as the optimum EPD (OEPD) enables the maximization of the signal and network performances. The OEPD is achieved by setting optimized gains (OG) in the electrical amplifiers used to impose the electrical power level of each one of the coexisting signals. For practicability, the gains are optimized only for a specific fiber length. For other fiber lengths, the use of those OG may cause performance degradation. This degradation can be mitigated if a predistortion (PD) scheme, which compensates for the frequency-dependent losses (FDLs) of the transmission channel, is used with proper OG. It is shown that the main advantage of using OG+PD over using OG only is to enable the reduction of the performance degradation that occurs for other fiber lengths than the one considered in the OG optimization. The capability to mitigate the FDLs is more limited in the absence of PD. Therefore, the advantage of using OG+PD over OG increases with the magnitude of the variation of the FDLs inside the band of the signals. However, under the conditions considered in this work, the impact of the use of OG+PD on the maximum transmission reach (MTR) is determined to be reduced (less than 1% relative to the MTR obtained with OG only, 126.5 km of standard single-mode fiber).

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (5)

2011 (2)

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, and E. Weis, “Opportunities for next-generation optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  49, no. 2, pp. s16–s24, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Morgado, D. Fonseca, and A. Cartaxo, “Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 23, pp. 23601–23612, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Alves and A. Cartaxo, “Performance degradation due to OFDM-UWB radio signal transmission along dispersive single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 3, pp. 158–160, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Davey, D. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S. Yang, “Long reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 3, pp. 273–291, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Agarwal, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, J. Jackel, and G. Chang, “Photonic generation and processing technologies for converged ultra-high throughput fiber-wireless systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper OTuF6.

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, “Optical signal generation,” in Lightwave Technology: Telecommunication Systems, 1st ed. Wiley, 2005, ch. 2, sec. 2.3, pp. 37–47.

Albeyoglu, K.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Alves, T.

T. Alves, M. Morant, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission of OFDM wired-wireless quintuple-play services along WDM LR-PONs using centralized broadband impairment compensation,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 13748–13761, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

T. Alves and A. Cartaxo, “Performance degradation due to OFDM-UWB radio signal transmission along dispersive single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 3, pp. 158–160, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

M. Morant, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission impairment compensation using broadband channel sounding in multi-format OFDM-based long-reach PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW3B.2.

Antony, C.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Appathurai, S.

R. Davey, D. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S. Yang, “Long reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 3, pp. 273–291, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Ayhan, T.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Baekelandt, B.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Breuer, D.

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, and E. Weis, “Opportunities for next-generation optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  49, no. 2, pp. s16–s24, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Cartaxo, A.

T. Alves, M. Morant, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission of OFDM wired-wireless quintuple-play services along WDM LR-PONs using centralized broadband impairment compensation,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 13748–13761, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Morgado, D. Fonseca, and A. Cartaxo, “Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 23, pp. 23601–23612, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

T. Alves and A. Cartaxo, “Performance degradation due to OFDM-UWB radio signal transmission along dispersive single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 3, pp. 158–160, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

C. Rodrigues, A. Gamelas, F. Carvalho, and A. Cartaxo, “Evolution of FTTH networks based on radio-over-fibre,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011, paper Tu.B6.6.

A. Cartaxo, J. Morgado, and D. Fonseca, “A perspective on optical-wireless converged NG-FTTH networks using directly modulated lasers,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011, paper Mo.B4.3.

M. Morant, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission impairment compensation using broadband channel sounding in multi-format OFDM-based long-reach PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW3B.2.

Carvalho, F.

C. Rodrigues, A. Gamelas, F. Carvalho, and A. Cartaxo, “Evolution of FTTH networks based on radio-over-fibre,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011, paper Tu.B6.6.

Chang, G.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Agarwal, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, J. Jackel, and G. Chang, “Photonic generation and processing technologies for converged ultra-high throughput fiber-wireless systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper OTuF6.

Cheng, N.

N. Cheng and F. Effenberger, “WDM PON: Systems and technologies,” presented at the 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turino, Italy, Sept. 2010.

Chien, H.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Agarwal, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, J. Jackel, and G. Chang, “Photonic generation and processing technologies for converged ultra-high throughput fiber-wireless systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper OTuF6.

Chowdhury, A.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Agarwal, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, J. Jackel, and G. Chang, “Photonic generation and processing technologies for converged ultra-high throughput fiber-wireless systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper OTuF6.

Cluzeaud, P.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Cvijetic, N.

Davey, R.

Effenberger, F.

N. Cheng and F. Effenberger, “WDM PON: Systems and technologies,” presented at the 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turino, Italy, Sept. 2010.

Ellinas, G.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Agarwal, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, J. Jackel, and G. Chang, “Photonic generation and processing technologies for converged ultra-high throughput fiber-wireless systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper OTuF6.

Fonseca, D.

J. Morgado, D. Fonseca, and A. Cartaxo, “Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 23, pp. 23601–23612, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Cartaxo, J. Morgado, and D. Fonseca, “A perspective on optical-wireless converged NG-FTTH networks using directly modulated lasers,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011, paper Mo.B4.3.

Gamelas, A.

C. Rodrigues, A. Gamelas, F. Carvalho, and A. Cartaxo, “Evolution of FTTH networks based on radio-over-fibre,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011, paper Tu.B6.6.

Geilhardt, F.

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, and E. Weis, “Opportunities for next-generation optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  49, no. 2, pp. s16–s24, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Giddings, R.

R. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Jin, J. Wei, and J. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of colourless real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 7.5  Gb/s over 25 km SSMF using a 1 GHz RSOA,” presented at the 19th Future Network Mobile Summit, Florence, Italy, June 2010, session 8A.

Grossman, D.

Guo, L.

Herman, M.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Herrera, J.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Hugues-Salas, E.

R. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Jin, J. Wei, and J. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of colourless real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 7.5  Gb/s over 25 km SSMF using a 1 GHz RSOA,” presented at the 19th Future Network Mobile Summit, Florence, Italy, June 2010, session 8A.

Hülsermann, R.

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, and E. Weis, “Opportunities for next-generation optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  49, no. 2, pp. s16–s24, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Agarwal, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, J. Jackel, and G. Chang, “Photonic generation and processing technologies for converged ultra-high throughput fiber-wireless systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper OTuF6.

Jia, Z.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Agarwal, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, J. Jackel, and G. Chang, “Photonic generation and processing technologies for converged ultra-high throughput fiber-wireless systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper OTuF6.

Jin, X.

R. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Jin, J. Wei, and J. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of colourless real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 7.5  Gb/s over 25 km SSMF using a 1 GHz RSOA,” presented at the 19th Future Network Mobile Summit, Florence, Italy, June 2010, session 8A.

Kawakami, H.

Kazovsky, L.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A.

Kind, M.

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, and E. Weis, “Opportunities for next-generation optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  49, no. 2, pp. s16–s24, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Krimmel, H.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Lange, C.

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, and E. Weis, “Opportunities for next-generation optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  49, no. 2, pp. s16–s24, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Llorente, R.

T. Alves, M. Morant, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission of OFDM wired-wireless quintuple-play services along WDM LR-PONs using centralized broadband impairment compensation,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 13748–13761, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Morant, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission impairment compensation using broadband channel sounding in multi-format OFDM-based long-reach PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW3B.2.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Martinez, F.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Miyamoto, Y.

Monath, T.

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, and E. Weis, “Opportunities for next-generation optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  49, no. 2, pp. s16–s24, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Monroy, I.

I. Monroy and E. Tangdiongga, “Crosstalk in WDM networks,” in Crosstalk in WDM Communication Networks. Kluwer Academic, 2002, ch. 3, sec. 1.2, pp. 25–26.

Morant, M.

T. Alves, M. Morant, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission of OFDM wired-wireless quintuple-play services along WDM LR-PONs using centralized broadband impairment compensation,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 13748–13761, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Morant, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission impairment compensation using broadband channel sounding in multi-format OFDM-based long-reach PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OW3B.2.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Morgado, J.

J. Morgado, D. Fonseca, and A. Cartaxo, “Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 23, pp. 23601–23612, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Cartaxo, J. Morgado, and D. Fonseca, “A perspective on optical-wireless converged NG-FTTH networks using directly modulated lasers,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011, paper Mo.B4.3.

Nesset, D.

Ossieur, P.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Payne, D.

Piesiewicz, R.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Poustie, A.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Qiu, X.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Quinlan, T.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Rafel, A.

Rasztovits-Wiech, M.

Ribeiro, M.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Rico, E.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Ridder, T.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Rodrigues, C.

C. Rodrigues, A. Gamelas, F. Carvalho, and A. Cartaxo, “Evolution of FTTH networks based on radio-over-fibre,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011, paper Tu.B6.6.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Rohde, H.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Sambaraju, R.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Schmidt, A.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Shastri, A.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Smolorz, S.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Tang, J.

R. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Jin, J. Wei, and J. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of colourless real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 7.5  Gb/s over 25 km SSMF using a 1 GHz RSOA,” presented at the 19th Future Network Mobile Summit, Florence, Italy, June 2010, session 8A.

Tangdiongga, E.

I. Monroy and E. Tangdiongga, “Crosstalk in WDM networks,” in Crosstalk in WDM Communication Networks. Kluwer Academic, 2002, ch. 3, sec. 1.2, pp. 25–26.

Townsend, P.

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

Walker, S.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

Wei, J.

R. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Jin, J. Wei, and J. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of colourless real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 7.5  Gb/s over 25 km SSMF using a 1 GHz RSOA,” presented at the 19th Future Network Mobile Summit, Florence, Italy, June 2010, session 8A.

Wei, X.

Weis, E.

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, and E. Weis, “Opportunities for next-generation optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  49, no. 2, pp. s16–s24, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Wong, S.

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Yoshida, E.

Yu, J.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Agarwal, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, J. Jackel, and G. Chang, “Photonic generation and processing technologies for converged ultra-high throughput fiber-wireless systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper OTuF6.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. Breuer, F. Geilhardt, R. Hülsermann, M. Kind, C. Lange, T. Monath, and E. Weis, “Opportunities for next-generation optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. vol.  49, no. 2, pp. s16–s24, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Alves and A. Cartaxo, “Performance degradation due to OFDM-UWB radio signal transmission along dispersive single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 3, pp. 158–160, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

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Proc. IEEE (1)

L. Kazovsky, S. Wong, T. Ayhan, K. Albeyoglu, M. Ribeiro, and A. Shastri, “Hybrid optical wireless access networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  100, no. 5, pp. 1197–1225, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

S. Smolorz, H. Rohde, P. Ossieur, C. Antony, P. Townsend, T. Ridder, B. Baekelandt, X. Qiu, S. Appathurai, H. Krimmel, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Next generation access networks: PIEMAN and beyond,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Pisa, Italy, Sept. 2009.

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“IEEE 802.16, Part 16: Air interface for fixed broadband wireless access systems, standard for local and metropolitan area networks,” , 2009.

A. Cartaxo, J. Morgado, and D. Fonseca, “A perspective on optical-wireless converged NG-FTTH networks using directly modulated lasers,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011, paper Mo.B4.3.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Agarwal, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, J. Jackel, and G. Chang, “Photonic generation and processing technologies for converged ultra-high throughput fiber-wireless systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, paper OTuF6.

R. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Jin, J. Wei, and J. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of colourless real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 7.5  Gb/s over 25 km SSMF using a 1 GHz RSOA,” presented at the 19th Future Network Mobile Summit, Florence, Italy, June 2010, session 8A.

N. Cheng and F. Effenberger, “WDM PON: Systems and technologies,” presented at the 36th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Turino, Italy, Sept. 2010.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, F. Martinez, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, J. Herrera, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Sambaraju, E. Rico, R. Piesiewicz, and M. Herman, “Impairment compensation in long-reach integrated optical-wireless PON,” presented at the 21st Future Network Mobile Summit, Berlin, Germany, July 2012, session 3C.

I. Monroy and E. Tangdiongga, “Crosstalk in WDM networks,” in Crosstalk in WDM Communication Networks. Kluwer Academic, 2002, ch. 3, sec. 1.2, pp. 25–26.

Anadigics Inc., “AWM6268 2.5-2.7GHz Mobile WiMAX/LTE Power Amplifier Module” [Online]. Available: http://www.anadigics.com/sites/default/files/datasheets/AWM6268_Rev_1.1.pdf .

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C. Rodrigues, A. Gamelas, F. Carvalho, and A. Cartaxo, “Evolution of FTTH networks based on radio-over-fibre,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011, paper Tu.B6.6.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the DS of the WDM LR-PON, using a continuous-wave laser (CWL) and a voltage controller (VC) in each downstream signal-bundle generator (DSBG) at the optical line termination (OLT), an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) at the remote node (RN), a PIN with transimpedance amplifier (TIA), and a low-pass filter (LPF) at each optical network unit (ONU). The optical path uses standard single-mode fiber (SSMF).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Equivalent model of the voltage controller obtained from experimental data. The model consists of LPFs, noise addition, a gain of 27.5 dB, an amplitude limiter, and a VEA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Equivalent model of the PIN TIA obtained from experimental data. The model consists of ideal photodetection, an optical power-to-voltage conversion factor of 52 dB, an LPF, and noise addition.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Illustrative representation of the effect of the optimized gains (OG) and predistorter (PD) on the normalized PSD of the signal bundle at VC input, required to mitigate a given |Hc(f)|.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Power loss of the electrical signal after photodetection in dB, as a function of the total SSMF length and frequency, caused by (a) fiber losses and (b) power fading. The gray area indicates the cases where the power fading loss exceeds the fiber losses.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

PSD of (a) all the signals after the LPF in the ONU with 127 km of SSMF, using G=G127,PD and PD, corresponding to EPD=(5.9,0.8,3.0,28.8,61.5) at 127.4 km of SSMF (solid line) and using G=G127 without PD, corresponding to EPD=(5.8,0.8,2.8,28.3,62.3) at 126.5 km of SSMF (dashed line). Zoom of the PSD of the (b) OFDM-GbE signal and (c) UWB signal.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

EVMM of all signals as a function of the total SSMF length, with PD, using G=G127,PD, corresponding to OEPDmax at 127.4 km of SSMF with PD. The insets show the constellations of the received OFDM-GbE, LTE, WiMAX, and UWB3 signals after 125 km of SSMF.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

EVMM of all signals as a function of the total SSMF length, without PD, using G127, corresponding to OEPDmax at 126.5 km of SSMF without PD.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

EVMM of all signals as a function of the signal rms voltage at MZM input, with 127 km of SSMF in the WDM LR-PON and with PD, using G=G127,PD, corresponding to OEPDmax at 127.4 km of SSMF with PD.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

EVMM of all signals as a function of the signal rms voltage at MZM input, with 127 km of SSMF in the WDM LR-PON and without PD, using G=G127, corresponding to OEPDmax at 126.5 km of SSMF without PD.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Main Characteristics of the OFDM-Based Signals Used in This Work

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TABLE II Frequency of the Outband RF-Pilots

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TABLE III p-Values of the OEPDmax and Corresponding EVMMs Obtained for the WDM LR-PON Without PD

Tables Icon

TABLE IV p-Values of the OEPDmax and Corresponding EVMMs Obtained for the WDM LR-PON With PD

Tables Icon

TABLE V List of Abbreviations (Part One)

Tables Icon

TABLE VI List of Abbreviations (Part Two)

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

da,b=dGbE2+dLTE2+dWMX2+dUWB22+dUWB32,