Abstract

We propose a novel network architecture that exploits coarse granular routing while add/drop operations are done at wavelength granularity. For the proposal, we introduce a node architecture and a network design algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed architecture’s performance approaches that of single-layer optical path networks while substantially reducing hardware scale.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  2. K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Optical networking technologies that will create future bandwidth abundant networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. A81–A93, July 2009.
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  3. X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, “Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: Part I—multigranular cross-connect architectures,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  5, no. 12, pp. 1043–1055, Dec. 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.
  5. Y. Wang and X. Cao, “A study of dynamic waveband switching in multi-granular optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 5, pp. 390–398, May 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Song, O. Tadanaga, T. Umeki, I. Tomita, M. Asobe, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, and K. Yonenaga, “Flexible and transparent waveband conversion using multiple-QPM LiNbO3 waveguides,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper We.6.E.3.
  7. N. Naas and H. T. Mouftah, “On the benefits of traffic bifurcation in multi-granular optical transport networks,” in Proc. ONDM, Kyoto, Jan. 2010, paper P-10.
  8. N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Non-coherent high spectral efficiency long haul waveband transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 113–115, Jan. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. N. Patel, P. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Hierarchical multi-granular switching in flexible grid WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3B.6.
  10. S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E91-B, no. 10, pp. 3174–3184, Oct. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS,” in Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Aug. 2008, paper S-04-1.
  12. X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular routing in optical path networks and impact of supplemental intermediate grooming,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper Th.10.F.1.
  15. Y. Taniguchi, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A novel optical network scheme utilizing coarse granular optical routing and fine granular add/drop,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper JW2A.2.
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  18. K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, paper 4.2.2.
  19. S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, O. Moriwaki, and S. Kamei, “analysis and development of fixed and variable waveband MUX/DEMUX utilizing AWG routing functions,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 1, pp. 30–40, Jan. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proc. OECC, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 2011, paper 7E1_4.
  21. T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC transponder aggregators for colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.1.
  22. T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that construct colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.6.
  23. Y. Taniguchi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Dynamic grouped routing optical networks for cost effective and agile wavelength services,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OM3A.5.
  24. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightnet: lightpath based solutions for wide bandwidth WANs,” in INFOCOM, San Francisco, CA, June 1990, vol. 3, pp. 1014–1021.
  25. R. lnkret, A. Kuchar, and B. Mikac, Eds., “Advanced infrastructure for photonic networks—extended final report of COST 266 Action,” University of Zagreb, Croatia, 2003.
  26. S. F. Gieselman, N. K. Singhal, and B. Mukherjee, “Minimum-cost topology adaption for an ISP’s mesh network,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005.
  27. A. Allasia, V. Brizi, and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of Telecom Italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  27, no. 4, pp. 183–193, 2008.
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Non-coherent high spectral efficiency long haul waveband transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 113–115, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E91-B, no. 10, pp. 3174–3184, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

A. Allasia, V. Brizi, and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of Telecom Italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  27, no. 4, pp. 183–193, 2008.
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Non-coherent high spectral efficiency long haul waveband transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 113–115, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Allasia, A.

A. Allasia, V. Brizi, and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of Telecom Italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  27, no. 4, pp. 183–193, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, “Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: Part I—multigranular cross-connect architectures,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  5, no. 12, pp. 1043–1055, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

H. Song, O. Tadanaga, T. Umeki, I. Tomita, M. Asobe, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, and K. Yonenaga, “Flexible and transparent waveband conversion using multiple-QPM LiNbO3 waveguides,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper We.6.E.3.

Brizi, V.

A. Allasia, V. Brizi, and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of Telecom Italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  27, no. 4, pp. 183–193, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightnet: lightpath based solutions for wide bandwidth WANs,” in INFOCOM, San Francisco, CA, June 1990, vol. 3, pp. 1014–1021.

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightnet: lightpath based solutions for wide bandwidth WANs,” in INFOCOM, San Francisco, CA, June 1990, vol. 3, pp. 1014–1021.

Gieselman, S. F.

S. F. Gieselman, N. K. Singhal, and B. Mukherjee, “Minimum-cost topology adaption for an ISP’s mesh network,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005.

Harada, K.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.

Hasegawa, H.

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Optical networking technologies that will create future bandwidth abundant networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. A81–A93, July 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, O. Moriwaki, and S. Kamei, “analysis and development of fixed and variable waveband MUX/DEMUX utilizing AWG routing functions,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 1, pp. 30–40, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E91-B, no. 10, pp. 3174–3184, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS,” in Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Aug. 2008, paper S-04-1.

Y. Taniguchi, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A novel optical network scheme utilizing coarse granular optical routing and fine granular add/drop,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper JW2A.2.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular routing in optical path networks and impact of supplemental intermediate grooming,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper Th.10.F.1.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, Mar. 2010, postdeadline paper PDPC9.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, paper 4.2.2.

Y. Taniguchi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Dynamic grouped routing optical networks for cost effective and agile wavelength services,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OM3A.5.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that construct colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.6.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proc. OECC, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 2011, paper 7E1_4.

Hirako, R.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that construct colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.6.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proc. OECC, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 2011, paper 7E1_4.

Ishii, K.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proc. OECC, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 2011, paper 7E1_4.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, paper 4.2.2.

Ji, P.

A. N. Patel, P. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Hierarchical multi-granular switching in flexible grid WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3B.6.

Jue, J. P.

A. N. Patel, P. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Hierarchical multi-granular switching in flexible grid WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3B.6.

Kakehashi, S.

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, O. Moriwaki, and S. Kamei, “analysis and development of fixed and variable waveband MUX/DEMUX utilizing AWG routing functions,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 1, pp. 30–40, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E91-B, no. 10, pp. 3174–3184, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Kamei, S.

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, O. Moriwaki, and S. Kamei, “analysis and development of fixed and variable waveband MUX/DEMUX utilizing AWG routing functions,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 1, pp. 30–40, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, paper 4.2.2.

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightnet: lightpath based solutions for wide bandwidth WANs,” in INFOCOM, San Francisco, CA, June 1990, vol. 3, pp. 1014–1021.

Kudou, T.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.

Mitsui, S.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS,” in Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Aug. 2008, paper S-04-1.

Mori, K.

H. Song, O. Tadanaga, T. Umeki, I. Tomita, M. Asobe, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, and K. Yonenaga, “Flexible and transparent waveband conversion using multiple-QPM LiNbO3 waveguides,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper We.6.E.3.

Moriwaki, O.

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, O. Moriwaki, and S. Kamei, “analysis and development of fixed and variable waveband MUX/DEMUX utilizing AWG routing functions,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 1, pp. 30–40, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, Mar. 2010, postdeadline paper PDPC9.

Mouftah, H. T.

N. Naas and H. T. Mouftah, “On the benefits of traffic bifurcation in multi-granular optical transport networks,” in Proc. ONDM, Kyoto, Jan. 2010, paper P-10.

Mukherjee, B.

S. F. Gieselman, N. K. Singhal, and B. Mukherjee, “Minimum-cost topology adaption for an ISP’s mesh network,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005.

Myslivets, E.

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Non-coherent high spectral efficiency long haul waveband transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 113–115, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Naas, N.

N. Naas and H. T. Mouftah, “On the benefits of traffic bifurcation in multi-granular optical transport networks,” in Proc. ONDM, Kyoto, Jan. 2010, paper P-10.

Niwa, T.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that construct colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.6.

Noguchi, K.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, Mar. 2010, postdeadline paper PDPC9.

Ohmori, Y.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, Mar. 2010, postdeadline paper PDPC9.

Okuno, M.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, Mar. 2010, postdeadline paper PDPC9.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, paper 4.2.2.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proc. OECC, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 2011, paper 7E1_4.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that construct colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.6.

Ozeki, T.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.

Patel, A. N.

A. N. Patel, P. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Hierarchical multi-granular switching in flexible grid WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3B.6.

Potenza, M.

A. Allasia, V. Brizi, and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of Telecom Italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  27, no. 4, pp. 183–193, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

X. Cao, V. Anand, and C. Qiao, “Framework for waveband switching in multigranular optical networks: Part I—multigranular cross-connect architectures,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  5, no. 12, pp. 1043–1055, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Non-coherent high spectral efficiency long haul waveband transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 113–115, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, Mar. 2010, postdeadline paper PDPC9.

Sato, K.

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, O. Moriwaki, and S. Kamei, “analysis and development of fixed and variable waveband MUX/DEMUX utilizing AWG routing functions,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 1, pp. 30–40, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Optical networking technologies that will create future bandwidth abundant networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. A81–A93, July 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E91-B, no. 10, pp. 3174–3184, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Y. Taniguchi, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A novel optical network scheme utilizing coarse granular optical routing and fine granular add/drop,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper JW2A.2.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, Mar. 2010, postdeadline paper PDPC9.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular routing in optical path networks and impact of supplemental intermediate grooming,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper Th.10.F.1.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, paper 4.2.2.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS,” in Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Aug. 2008, paper S-04-1.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that construct colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.6.

Y. Taniguchi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Dynamic grouped routing optical networks for cost effective and agile wavelength services,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OM3A.5.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proc. OECC, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 2011, paper 7E1_4.

Shimizu, K.

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.

Singhal, N. K.

S. F. Gieselman, N. K. Singhal, and B. Mukherjee, “Minimum-cost topology adaption for an ISP’s mesh network,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005.

Song, H.

H. Song, O. Tadanaga, T. Umeki, I. Tomita, M. Asobe, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, and K. Yonenaga, “Flexible and transparent waveband conversion using multiple-QPM LiNbO3 waveguides,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper We.6.E.3.

Suzuki, K.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC transponder aggregators for colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.1.

Tadanaga, O.

H. Song, O. Tadanaga, T. Umeki, I. Tomita, M. Asobe, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, and K. Yonenaga, “Flexible and transparent waveband conversion using multiple-QPM LiNbO3 waveguides,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper We.6.E.3.

Takahashi, H.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, paper 4.2.2.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, Mar. 2010, postdeadline paper PDPC9.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proc. OECC, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 2011, paper 7E1_4.

Takahashi, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC transponder aggregators for colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.1.

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Taniguchi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Dynamic grouped routing optical networks for cost effective and agile wavelength services,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OM3A.5.

Y. Taniguchi, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A novel optical network scheme utilizing coarse granular optical routing and fine granular add/drop,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper JW2A.2.

Tomita, I.

H. Song, O. Tadanaga, T. Umeki, I. Tomita, M. Asobe, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, and K. Yonenaga, “Flexible and transparent waveband conversion using multiple-QPM LiNbO3 waveguides,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper We.6.E.3.

Umeki, T.

H. Song, O. Tadanaga, T. Umeki, I. Tomita, M. Asobe, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, and K. Yonenaga, “Flexible and transparent waveband conversion using multiple-QPM LiNbO3 waveguides,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper We.6.E.3.

Wang, T.

A. N. Patel, P. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Hierarchical multi-granular switching in flexible grid WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3B.6.

Wang, Y.

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC transponder aggregators for colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.1.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that construct colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.6.

Xiong, Y.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Yagyu, I.

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

Y. Taniguchi, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A novel optical network scheme utilizing coarse granular optical routing and fine granular add/drop,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper JW2A.2.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular routing in optical path networks and impact of supplemental intermediate grooming,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper Th.10.F.1.

Yamamoto, S.

H. Song, O. Tadanaga, T. Umeki, I. Tomita, M. Asobe, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, and K. Yonenaga, “Flexible and transparent waveband conversion using multiple-QPM LiNbO3 waveguides,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper We.6.E.3.

Yonenaga, K.

H. Song, O. Tadanaga, T. Umeki, I. Tomita, M. Asobe, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, and K. Yonenaga, “Flexible and transparent waveband conversion using multiple-QPM LiNbO3 waveguides,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper We.6.E.3.

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

A. Allasia, V. Brizi, and M. Potenza, “Characteristics and trends of Telecom Italia transport networks,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol.  27, no. 4, pp. 183–193, 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

I. Yagyu, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “An efficient hierarchical optical path network design algorithm based on a traffic demand expression in a Cartesian product space,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  26, no. 6, pp. 22–31, Aug. 2008.
[CrossRef]

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N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Non-coherent high spectral efficiency long haul waveband transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 113–115, Jan. 2012.
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IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

S. Kakehashi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Optical cross-connect switch architectures for hierarchical optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E91-B, no. 10, pp. 3174–3184, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

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Other (18)

K. Harada, K. Shimizu, T. Kudou, and T. Ozeki, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999, pp. 356–358.

H. Song, O. Tadanaga, T. Umeki, I. Tomita, M. Asobe, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, and K. Yonenaga, “Flexible and transparent waveband conversion using multiple-QPM LiNbO3 waveguides,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper We.6.E.3.

N. Naas and H. T. Mouftah, “On the benefits of traffic bifurcation in multi-granular optical transport networks,” in Proc. ONDM, Kyoto, Jan. 2010, paper P-10.

S. Mitsui, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Hierarchical optical path cross-connect node architecture using WSS/WBSS,” in Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Aug. 2008, paper S-04-1.

A. N. Patel, P. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Hierarchical multi-granular switching in flexible grid WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3B.6.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proc. OECC, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 2011, paper 7E1_4.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC transponder aggregators for colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.1.

T. Niwa, R. Hirako, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, and T. Watanabe, “Compact wavelength tunable filter fabricated on a PLC chip that construct colorless/directionless/contentionless drop function in optical cross-connect,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper OTh3D.6.

Y. Taniguchi, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Dynamic grouped routing optical networks for cost effective and agile wavelength services,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2013, paper OM3A.5.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightnet: lightpath based solutions for wide bandwidth WANs,” in INFOCOM, San Francisco, CA, June 1990, vol. 3, pp. 1014–1021.

R. lnkret, A. Kuchar, and B. Mikac, Eds., “Advanced infrastructure for photonic networks—extended final report of COST 266 Action,” University of Zagreb, Croatia, 2003.

S. F. Gieselman, N. K. Singhal, and B. Mukherjee, “Minimum-cost topology adaption for an ISP’s mesh network,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2005.

Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Coarse granular routing in optical path networks and impact of supplemental intermediate grooming,” in Proc. ECOC, Torino, Sept. 2010, paper Th.10.F.1.

Y. Taniguchi, Y. Yamada, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A novel optical network scheme utilizing coarse granular optical routing and fine granular add/drop,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper JW2A.2.

“Digital transmission systems,” , Mar. 2006.

O. Moriwaki, K. Noguchi, H. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, M. Okuno, and Y. Ohmori, “Terabit-scale compact hierarchical optical cross-connect system employing PLC devices and optical backplane,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, Mar. 2010, postdeadline paper PDPC9.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, M. Okuno, S. Kamei, and H. Takahashi, “An ultra-compact waveband cross-connect switch module to create cost-effective multi-degree reconfigurable optical node,” in Proc. ECOC, Vienna, Sept. 2009, paper 4.2.2.

“Parameter values for an expanded hierarchy of LSDI image formats for production and international program exchange,” , 2006.

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Figures (22)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed node architecture for grouped routing (GR-OXC).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Routing of GRE pipes at GR-OXC.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

GRE pipe forming closed loop.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Grooming and add/drop operation in hierarchical optical path networks.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

GR-OXC using matrix switches.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

GR-OXC using WBSSs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Monolithic 1 × 10 WBSS chip [16].

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Large degree WBSS construction.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Multilayered graph represents free capacity of GRE.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Normalized number of fibers with different GRE capacity.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Normalized number of ports with different GRE capacity.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Normalized number of selective switches with different GRE capacity.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Normalized number of fibers for regular mesh networks.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Normalized number of ports for regular mesh networks.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Normalized number of selective switches for regular mesh networks.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

COST266 pan-European network topology.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

USNET topology.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Phoenix network topology.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Normalized number of fibers for real topologies.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Normalized number of ports for real topologies.

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Normalized number of selective switches for real topologies.

Fig. 22.
Fig. 22.

Distribution of WBSSs in 5 × 5 network.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dem ( n s , n d ) = dem ( n s , n d ) M dem ( n s , n d ) M .
W i ( n s , n d ) = { C F ( n s , n d ) N if b th GRE is not used in some fiber on the ( n s , n d ) ( 1 + Δ ) C F ( n s , n d ) N otherwise ,
C before C F a + i = 0 N 1 2 C B _ NNI × hop GRE F a i ,
C after p = 1 P 2 C B _ NNI × hop GRE p ,
C after < C before ,