Abstract

In this paper, we investigate energy-efficient resilience designs for the translucent optical networks using mixed regenerator placement (MRP). We consider both static and dynamic traffic scenarios and aim to provide 100% restoration against single-link failures while minimizing the total energy-cost on regenerators. For static traffic scenarios, we formulate an integer linear programming (ILP) model to solve the energy-efficient p-cycle design for translucent optical networks with MRP. The ILP model optimizes the allocation of working and protection resources jointly under the quality of transmission constraint, with the objective to minimize the total energy cost. A heuristic that can sequentially optimize the p-cycle designs for connections is proposed afterward. We use simulations to evaluate the performance of the algorithms with both uniform and nonuniform traffic models. For dynamic traffic scenarios, we design an algorithm that can handle the setting-up and tearing-down of p-cycles dynamically, according to the time-variant connections. We enhance this algorithm by introducing a reoptimization procedure, which can reassemble existing p-cycles for higher energy efficiency. An ILP model is formulated and solved for the p-cycle reoptimization. We then consider two reoptimization scenarios: (1) on demand (p-cycle-oDRO) and (2) on schedule (p-cycle-oSRO). In addition to the link-based p-cycle, we also study the path-based shared backup path protection scheme.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

A. Eshoul and H. Mouftah, “Survivability approaches using p-cycles in WDM mesh networks under static traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  17, pp. 671–683, Apr. 2009.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, and B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

L. Sahasrabuddhe, S. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Fault management in IP-over-WDM networks: WDM protection versus IP restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, pp. 21–33, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, R. Huang, and J. Pan, “Methodologies on designing a hybrid shared-mesh-protected WDM network with sparse wavelength conversion and regeneration,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4910, pp. 188–196, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Andriolli, N.

Autenrieth, A.

D. Schupke, C. Gruber, and A. Autenrieth, “Optimal configuration of p-cycles in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2761–2765.

Balmefrezol, E.

Blumenthal, D. J.

K. N. Nguyen, T. Kise, J. M. Garcia, H. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, “All-optical 2R regeneration of BPSK and QPSK data using a 90° optical hybrid and integrated SOA-MZI wavelength converter pairs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper OMT3.

Bolk, J.

Bouillet, E.

E. Bouillet, G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, and R. Ramamurthy, Path Routing in Mesh Optical Networks. Chichester: Wiley, 2007.

Brindel, P.

Castoldi, P.

N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Segment restoration scheme with QoT-guarantees in GMPLS-controlled translucent networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008, pp. 1–2.

Cecil, R.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Cerutti, I.

N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Segment restoration scheme with QoT-guarantees in GMPLS-controlled translucent networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008, pp. 1–2.

Chandrasekaran, R.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, A. Nag, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, R. Chandrasekaran, and J. P. Jue, “Optimal placement of combined 2R/3R regenerators in WDM networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2012, pp. 429–430.

Chatelian, B.

B. Chatelian, S. Mannor, F. Gagnon, and D. Plant, “Non-cooperative design of translucent networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Nov. 2007, pp. 2348–2352.

Chen, X.

Z. Zhu, X. Chen, F. Ji, L. Zhang, F. Farahmand, and J. Jue, “Energy-efficient translucent optical transport networks with mixed regenerator placement,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3147–3156, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, F. Ji, and Z. Zhu, “Energy-efficient protection designs for translucent optical networks using mixed regenerator placement,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper JTh2A.63.

Clements, M.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Contestabile, G.

Cugini, F.

N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Segment restoration scheme with QoT-guarantees in GMPLS-controlled translucent networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008, pp. 1–2.

Datta, D.

B. Ramamurthy, H. Feng, D. Datta, J. P. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, 1999, paper TuF2.

Ellinas, G.

E. Bouillet, G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, and R. Ramamurthy, Path Routing in Mesh Optical Networks. Chichester: Wiley, 2007.

Eshoul, A.

A. Eshoul and H. Mouftah, “Survivability approaches using p-cycles in WDM mesh networks under static traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  17, pp. 671–683, Apr. 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. Eshoul and H. T. Mouftah, “Performance evaluation of dynamic p-cycle protection methods in WDM optical networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), July 2009, pp. 1–4.

Farahmand, F.

Faralli, S.

Feng, H.

B. Ramamurthy, H. Feng, D. Datta, J. P. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, 1999, paper TuF2.

Ford, C.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Funabashi, M.

Gagnon, F.

B. Chatelian, S. Mannor, F. Gagnon, and D. Plant, “Non-cooperative design of translucent networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Nov. 2007, pp. 2348–2352.

Garcia, J. M.

K. N. Nguyen, T. Kise, J. M. Garcia, H. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, “All-optical 2R regeneration of BPSK and QPSK data using a 90° optical hybrid and integrated SOA-MZI wavelength converter pairs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper OMT3.

Giorgetti, A.

N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Segment restoration scheme with QoT-guarantees in GMPLS-controlled translucent networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008, pp. 1–2.

Grover, W.

W. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: Ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 1998, vol. 1, pp. 537–543.

Gruber, C.

D. Schupke, C. Gruber, and A. Autenrieth, “Optimal configuration of p-cycles in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2761–2765.

Hariow, M.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Harris, D.

He, W.

W. He and A. Somani, “Comparison of protection mechanism: Capacity efficiency and recovery time,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2007, pp. 2218–2223.

Heritage, J. P.

B. Ramamurthy, H. Feng, D. Datta, J. P. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, 1999, paper TuF2.

Huang, R.

H. Zang, R. Huang, and J. Pan, “Methodologies on designing a hybrid shared-mesh-protected WDM network with sparse wavelength conversion and regeneration,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4910, pp. 188–196, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-K.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, A. Nag, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, R. Chandrasekaran, and J. P. Jue, “Optimal placement of combined 2R/3R regenerators in WDM networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2012, pp. 429–430.

Ip, E.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, A. Nag, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, R. Chandrasekaran, and J. P. Jue, “Optimal placement of combined 2R/3R regenerators in WDM networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2012, pp. 429–430.

Ji, F.

Z. Zhu, X. Chen, F. Ji, L. Zhang, F. Farahmand, and J. Jue, “Energy-efficient translucent optical transport networks with mixed regenerator placement,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3147–3156, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, F. Ji, and Z. Zhu, “Energy-efficient protection designs for translucent optical networks using mixed regenerator placement,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper JTh2A.63.

Ji, P. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, A. Nag, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, R. Chandrasekaran, and J. P. Jue, “Optimal placement of combined 2R/3R regenerators in WDM networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2012, pp. 429–430.

Johnston, L.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Jue, J.

Jue, J. P.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, A. Nag, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, R. Chandrasekaran, and J. P. Jue, “Optimal placement of combined 2R/3R regenerators in WDM networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2012, pp. 429–430.

King, J.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Kise, T.

K. N. Nguyen, T. Kise, J. M. Garcia, H. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, “All-optical 2R regeneration of BPSK and QPSK data using a 90° optical hybrid and integrated SOA-MZI wavelength converter pairs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper OMT3.

Kurumida, J.

Labourdette, J.-F.

E. Bouillet, G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, and R. Ramamurthy, Path Routing in Mesh Optical Networks. Chichester: Wiley, 2007.

Lavigne, B.

Lealman, I.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Leclerc, O.

Leijtens, X.

Lucas, S.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Manning, B.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Mannor, S.

B. Chatelian, S. Mannor, F. Gagnon, and D. Plant, “Non-cooperative design of translucent networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Nov. 2007, pp. 2348–2352.

Maxwell, G.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

McDougall, R.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Moore, R.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Mouftah, H.

A. Eshoul and H. Mouftah, “Survivability approaches using p-cycles in WDM mesh networks under static traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  17, pp. 671–683, Apr. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Mouftah, H. T.

A. Eshoul and H. T. Mouftah, “Performance evaluation of dynamic p-cycle protection methods in WDM optical networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), July 2009, pp. 1–4.

Mukherjee, B.

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 466–475, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, and B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, pp. 870–883, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

L. Sahasrabuddhe, S. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Fault management in IP-over-WDM networks: WDM protection versus IP restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, pp. 21–33, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks.Berlin: Springer, 2006.

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks. Part I—protection,” in 18th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE INFOCOM), Mar. 1999, pp. 744–751.

B. Ramamurthy, H. Feng, D. Datta, J. P. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, 1999, paper TuF2.

Nag, A.

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 466–475, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, A. Nag, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, R. Chandrasekaran, and J. P. Jue, “Optimal placement of combined 2R/3R regenerators in WDM networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2012, pp. 429–430.

Nguyen, K. N.

K. N. Nguyen, T. Kise, J. M. Garcia, H. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, “All-optical 2R regeneration of BPSK and QPSK data using a 90° optical hybrid and integrated SOA-MZI wavelength converter pairs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper OMT3.

Nield, M.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Oliver, S.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Ouyang, Y.

Pan, J.

H. Zang, R. Huang, and J. Pan, “Methodologies on designing a hybrid shared-mesh-protected WDM network with sparse wavelength conversion and regeneration,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4910, pp. 188–196, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Paraschis, L.

Patel, A. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, A. Nag, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, R. Chandrasekaran, and J. P. Jue, “Optimal placement of combined 2R/3R regenerators in WDM networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2012, pp. 429–430.

Perrin, S.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Pierre, L.

Plant, D.

B. Chatelian, S. Mannor, F. Gagnon, and D. Plant, “Non-cooperative design of translucent networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Nov. 2007, pp. 2348–2352.

Poulsen, H.

K. N. Nguyen, T. Kise, J. M. Garcia, H. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, “All-optical 2R regeneration of BPSK and QPSK data using a 90° optical hybrid and integrated SOA-MZI wavelength converter pairs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper OMT3.

Poustie, A.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Ramamurthy, B.

X. Yang, L. Shen, and B. Ramamurthy, “Survivable lightpath provisioning in WDM mesh networks under shared path protection and signal quality constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, pp. 1556–1567, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, H. Feng, D. Datta, J. P. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, 1999, paper TuF2.

Ramamurthy, R.

E. Bouillet, G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, and R. Ramamurthy, Path Routing in Mesh Optical Networks. Chichester: Wiley, 2007.

Ramamurthy, S.

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, pp. 870–883, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

L. Sahasrabuddhe, S. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Fault management in IP-over-WDM networks: WDM protection versus IP restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, pp. 21–33, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks. Part I—protection,” in 18th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE INFOCOM), Mar. 1999, pp. 744–751.

Reid, I.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Rivers, L.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Rouvillain, D.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, pp. 870–883, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

L. Sahasrabuddhe, S. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Fault management in IP-over-WDM networks: WDM protection versus IP restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, pp. 21–33, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Sambo, N.

N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Segment restoration scheme with QoT-guarantees in GMPLS-controlled translucent networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008, pp. 1–2.

Schupke, D.

D. Schupke, C. Gruber, and A. Autenrieth, “Optimal configuration of p-cycles in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2761–2765.

Scrase, D.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Seguineau, F.

Shen, L.

Somani, A.

W. He and A. Somani, “Comparison of protection mechanism: Capacity efficiency and recovery time,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2007, pp. 2218–2223.

Stamatelakis, D.

W. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: Ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 1998, vol. 1, pp. 537–543.

Tornatore, M.

Townley, P.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Valcarenghi, L.

N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Segment restoration scheme with QoT-guarantees in GMPLS-controlled translucent networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008, pp. 1–2.

Wan, C.

Z. Zhu, W. Zhong, and C. Wan, “Joint optimization of mixed regenerator placement and wavelength assignment for green translucent optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), Nov. 2011, pp. 1–6.

Webb, R.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

Wei, W.

Yang, X.

Yi, X.

Yoo, B.

Yoo, S.

Yu, R.

Zang, H.

H. Zang, R. Huang, and J. Pan, “Methodologies on designing a hybrid shared-mesh-protected WDM network with sparse wavelength conversion and regeneration,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4910, pp. 188–196, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Q.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, and B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Zhong, P.

Zhong, W.

Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, and B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, W. Zhong, and C. Wan, “Joint optimization of mixed regenerator placement and wavelength assignment for green translucent optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), Nov. 2011, pp. 1–6.

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, X. Chen, F. Ji, L. Zhang, F. Farahmand, and J. Jue, “Energy-efficient translucent optical transport networks with mixed regenerator placement,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3147–3156, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, M. Funabashi, P. Zhong, L. Paraschis, D. Harris, and S. Yoo, “High-performance optical 3R regeneration for scalable fiber transmission system applications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, pp. 504–511, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, W. Zhong, and C. Wan, “Joint optimization of mixed regenerator placement and wavelength assignment for green translucent optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), Nov. 2011, pp. 1–6.

X. Chen, F. Ji, and Z. Zhu, “Energy-efficient protection designs for translucent optical networks using mixed regenerator placement,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper JTh2A.63.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

Z. Zhang, W. Zhong, and B. Mukherjee, “A heuristic method for design of survivable WDM networks with p-cycles,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  8, pp. 467–469, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

L. Sahasrabuddhe, S. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Fault management in IP-over-WDM networks: WDM protection versus IP restoration,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, pp. 21–33, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

A. Eshoul and H. Mouftah, “Survivability approaches using p-cycles in WDM mesh networks under static traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  17, pp. 671–683, Apr. 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

Z. Zhu, M. Funabashi, P. Zhong, L. Paraschis, D. Harris, and S. Yoo, “High-performance optical 3R regeneration for scalable fiber transmission system applications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, pp. 504–511, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 466–475, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

X. Yi, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, and B. Yoo, “A theoretical and experimental study on modulation-format-independent wavelength conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 587–595, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, X. Chen, F. Ji, L. Zhang, F. Farahmand, and J. Jue, “Energy-efficient translucent optical transport networks with mixed regenerator placement,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3147–3156, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Andriolli, S. Faralli, X. Leijtens, J. Bolk, and G. Contestabile, “Monolithically integrated all-optical regenerator for constant envelope WDM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, pp. 322–327, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

S. Ramamurthy, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, pp. 870–883, Apr. 2003.
[CrossRef]

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain, and F. Seguineau, “Optical regeneration at 40  Gb/s and beyond,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  21, pp. 2779–2790, Nov. 2003.
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, L. Shen, and B. Ramamurthy, “Survivable lightpath provisioning in WDM mesh networks under shared path protection and signal quality constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, pp. 1556–1567, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Zang, R. Huang, and J. Pan, “Methodologies on designing a hybrid shared-mesh-protected WDM network with sparse wavelength conversion and regeneration,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  4910, pp. 188–196, Oct. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Other (17)

B. Chatelian, S. Mannor, F. Gagnon, and D. Plant, “Non-cooperative design of translucent networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), Nov. 2007, pp. 2348–2352.

N. Sambo, I. Cerutti, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Segment restoration scheme with QoT-guarantees in GMPLS-controlled translucent networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008, pp. 1–2.

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks. Part I—protection,” in 18th Annu. Joint Conf. of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (IEEE INFOCOM), Mar. 1999, pp. 744–751.

E. Bouillet, G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, and R. Ramamurthy, Path Routing in Mesh Optical Networks. Chichester: Wiley, 2007.

W. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed preconfiguration: Ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 1998, vol. 1, pp. 537–543.

D. Schupke, C. Gruber, and A. Autenrieth, “Optimal configuration of p-cycles in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2761–2765.

G. Maxwell, B. Manning, M. Nield, M. Hariow, C. Ford, M. Clements, S. Lucas, P. Townley, R. McDougall, S. Oliver, R. Cecil, L. Johnston, A. Poustie, R. Webb, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, J. King, S. Perrin, R. Moore, I. Reid, and D. Scrase, “Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 1–2.

K. N. Nguyen, T. Kise, J. M. Garcia, H. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, “All-optical 2R regeneration of BPSK and QPSK data using a 90° optical hybrid and integrated SOA-MZI wavelength converter pairs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper OMT3.

Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2011–2016, Cisco, 2011.

B. Ramamurthy, H. Feng, D. Datta, J. P. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, 1999, paper TuF2.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, A. Nag, Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, R. Chandrasekaran, and J. P. Jue, “Optimal placement of combined 2R/3R regenerators in WDM networks,” in 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), July 2012, pp. 429–430.

W. He and A. Somani, “Comparison of protection mechanism: Capacity efficiency and recovery time,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), June 2007, pp. 2218–2223.

Z. Zhu, W. Zhong, and C. Wan, “Joint optimization of mixed regenerator placement and wavelength assignment for green translucent optical networks,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conf. and Exhibition (ACP), Nov. 2011, pp. 1–6.

A. Eshoul and H. T. Mouftah, “Performance evaluation of dynamic p-cycle protection methods in WDM optical networks,” in 11th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), July 2009, pp. 1–4.

X. Chen, F. Ji, and Z. Zhu, “Energy-efficient protection designs for translucent optical networks using mixed regenerator placement,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper JTh2A.63.

GLPK (GNU Linear Programming Kit), http://www.gnu.org/software/glpk/ .

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks.Berlin: Springer, 2006.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Resilience based on a p -cycle in a translucent network with MRP.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

NSFNET topology for simulations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulation results for static uniform traffic: (a) Total regenerator energy cost and (b) average wavelength usage per link.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulation results on average PE per p -cycle for static uniform traffic.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulation results for static nonuniform traffic: (a) Total regenerator energy cost and (b) average wavelength usage per link.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulation results on average PE per p -cycle for static nonuniform traffic.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Resilience based on SBPP in a translucent network with MRP.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Blocking probability versus traffic load from different dynamic resilience design algorithms: (a) Total energy budget is 15 k units and (b) total energy budget is 20 k units.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparisons of (a) backup energy cost and (b) backup wavelength usage, before and after reoptimization with p -cycle-oSRO and the total energy budget of 15 k units.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Distributions of request blocking reasons for different dynamic resilience design algorithms: (a) Total energy budget is 15 k units and (b) total energy budget is 20 k units.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Algorithm 1: Energy-Efficient Resilience Design for Translucent Networks With MRP and Static Traffic

Tables Icon

TABLE I Traffic Matrix Λ for Nonuniform Traffic Distribution

Tables Icon

Algorithm 2: Dynamic Resilience Design With SBPP

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P = i ω i u C i j = 2 3 f u , i C , j · P R j + s , d r k ψ r , s , d , k u R s , d k j = 2 3 f u , s , d , k R , j · P R j .
Minimize P .
i ω i · q i , e C + s , d r q s , d , e , r R W , e E .
k ψ r , s , d , k = 1 , s , d , r .
r k ψ r , s , d , k λ s , d , s , d .
j f u , i C , j 1 , u , i ,
j f u , s , d , k R , j 1 , u , s , d , k .
i ω i · χ i , e s , d r q s , d , e , r R , e E .
ω i [ 0 , W ] , χ i , e , f u , i C , j , f u , s , d , k R , j , ψ r , s , d , k , q i , e C , q s , d , e , r R { 0 , 1 } .
P backup = i ω i u C i j = 2 3 f u , i C , j · P R j .
Minimize P backup .
i ω i · q i , e C + D e W , e E .
i ω i · χ i , e D e , e E .
i ω i · f u , i C , j N u R , j , u V , j { 2 , 3 } .
ω i [ 0 , W ] , χ i , e , f u , i C , j , q i , e C { 0 , 1 } .