Abstract

In order to accommodate variable bit rates and achieve flexible transmission distances, a binary bit encoding scheme is incorporated in the dual-polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) transmitter to manipulate the signal polarization multiplexing schemes into polarization-multiplexed (PolMux), polarization-switched (PolSw), and polarization-alternated (PolAl) schemes, such that the transmission bit rate could vary among 4B, 3B, and 2B, where B stands for the baud rate of the DP-QPSK signal. With the versatile polarization schemes, the trade-off between the transmission performance and system bit rate could be flexibly adjusted depending on the system requirements and conditions. The performance of these modulation formats has been evaluated experimentally at 32 Gbaud in a dispersion-managed fiber (DMF) link. At a 0.5 dB system margin, the transmission reach of PolSw and PolAl QPSK increased to 6400 and 8500km, respectively, compared to the 4500km transmission distance using the PolMux QPSK signal. This improvement is attributed to the lower bit rate of PolSw QPSK (96Gbits/s) and PolAl QPSK (64Gbits/s) and to the superior characteristics of the PolSw and PolAl schemes. For example, PolAl QPSK performs as good as the PolMux BPSK format to show similar receiver sensitivity. At the end, a flexible transponder platform with full software-defined optics features is discussed using the proposed flexible transmitter configuration and other techniques, such as optical multi-tone generation and adaptive forward error correction, to enable the transponder to carry standard 10G/40G/100G data.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (5)

2011 (5)

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J.-I. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, and K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100  Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 14, pp. 13179–13184, 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. S. Millar and S. J. Savory, “Blind adaptive equalization of polarization-switched QPSK modulation,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 9, pp. 8533–8538, 2011.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, N. M. Suibhne, A. D. Ellis, and P. Magill, “Experimental comparison of coherent polarization-switched QPSK to polarization-multiplexed QPSK for 10×100  km WDM transmission,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10849–10856, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

M. Sjödin, P. Johannisson, H. Wymeersch, P. A. Andrekson, and M. Karlsson, “Comparison of polarization-switched QPSK and polarization-multiplexed QPSK at 30  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 8, pp. 7839–7846, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: Algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1164–1179, 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 11, pp. 1597–1607, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2004 (1)

Abe, J.-I.

Agrell, E.

Andrekson, P. A.

Aoki, Y.

Y. Aoki, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, L. Xu, S. Zhang, F. Yaman, and E. Mateo, “Next-generation 100  Gbits/s undersea optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s50–s57, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Aono, Y.

Autenrieth, A.

M. Eiselt, B. Teipen, K. Grobe, A. Autenrieth, and J.-P. Elbers, “Programmable modulation for high-capacity networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.5.

Batshon, H. G.

Bayvel, P.

C. Behrens, D. Lavery, D. Millar, S. Makovejs, B. C. Thomsen, R. Killey, S. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 7×42.9  Gbit/s PS-QPSK and PM-BPSK,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.2.

Behrens, C.

C. Behrens, D. Lavery, D. Millar, S. Makovejs, B. C. Thomsen, R. Killey, S. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 7×42.9  Gbit/s PS-QPSK and PM-BPSK,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.2.

Bergano, N. S.

Bernasconi, P.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Bigo, S.

J. Renaudier, O. B. Pardo, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, P. Tran, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison of 28 Gbaud polarization switched- and polarization division multiplexed- QPSK in WDM long-haul transmission system,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.3.

Buhl, L.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Bull, J. D.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Cai, J.-X.

Chandrasekhar, S.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Charlet, G.

J. Renaudier, O. B. Pardo, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, P. Tran, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison of 28 Gbaud polarization switched- and polarization division multiplexed- QPSK in WDM long-haul transmission system,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.3.

Chen, J.

Choi, H. Y.

L. Liu, H. Y. Choi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, R. M. Ramon Casellas, and R. Munoz, “First proof-of-concept demonstration of OpenFlow-controlled elastic optical networks employing flexible transmitter/receiver,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2012, paper PDP-1.

Cvijetic, M.

Davidson, C. R.

Djordjevic, I. B.

Doerr, C.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Dutisseuil, E.

J. Renaudier, O. B. Pardo, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, P. Tran, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison of 28 Gbaud polarization switched- and polarization division multiplexed- QPSK in WDM long-haul transmission system,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.3.

Eiselt, M.

M. Eiselt, B. Teipen, K. Grobe, A. Autenrieth, and J.-P. Elbers, “Programmable modulation for high-capacity networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.5.

Elbers, J.-P.

M. Eiselt, B. Teipen, K. Grobe, A. Autenrieth, and J.-P. Elbers, “Programmable modulation for high-capacity networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.5.

Ellis, A. D.

Foursa, D. G.

Fukuchi, K.

Fukumitsu, K.

Gnauck, A. H.

C. Xie, I. Kang, A. H. Gnauck, L. Möller, L. F. Mollenauer, and A. R. Grant, “Suppression of intrachannel nonlinear effects with alternate-polarization formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 806–812, 2004.
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Goh, T.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gbits/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Grant, A. R.

Grobe, K.

M. Eiselt, B. Teipen, K. Grobe, A. Autenrieth, and J.-P. Elbers, “Programmable modulation for high-capacity networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.5.

Guest, A.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Hirano, S.

Huang, M. F.

Huang, M.-F.

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, T. J. Xia, G. A. Wellbrock, M.-F. Huang, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and M. Cvijetic, “Mixed line-rate transmission (112  Gbits/s, 450  Gbits/s, and 1.15  Tb/s) over 3560 km of field-installed fiber with filterless coherent receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 4, pp. 609–617, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Huang, Y. K.

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

Huang, Y.-K.

Inada, Y.

Y. Aoki, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, L. Xu, S. Zhang, F. Yaman, and E. Mateo, “Next-generation 100  Gbits/s undersea optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s50–s57, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Inoue, T.

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

Ip, E.

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, T. J. Xia, G. A. Wellbrock, M.-F. Huang, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and M. Cvijetic, “Mixed line-rate transmission (112  Gbits/s, 450  Gbits/s, and 1.15  Tb/s) over 3560 km of field-installed fiber with filterless coherent receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 4, pp. 609–617, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Ji, P. N.

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Jinno, M.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gbits/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Johannisson, P.

Kam, P. Y.

Kang, I.

C. Xie, I. Kang, A. H. Gnauck, L. Möller, L. F. Mollenauer, and A. R. Grant, “Suppression of intrachannel nonlinear effects with alternate-polarization formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 806–812, 2004.
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Karlsson, M.

Kato, H.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Kawai, S.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gbits/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Killey, R.

C. Behrens, D. Lavery, D. Millar, S. Makovejs, B. C. Thomsen, R. Killey, S. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 7×42.9  Gbit/s PS-QPSK and PM-BPSK,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.2.

Kisaka, Y.

Komaki, K.

Kubo, K.

Lavery, D.

C. Behrens, D. Lavery, D. Millar, S. Makovejs, B. C. Thomsen, R. Killey, S. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 7×42.9  Gbit/s PS-QPSK and PM-BPSK,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.2.

Leuthold, J.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, H. Y. Choi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, R. M. Ramon Casellas, and R. Munoz, “First proof-of-concept demonstration of OpenFlow-controlled elastic optical networks employing flexible transmitter/receiver,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2012, paper PDP-1.

Lucero, A.

Magill, P.

Makovejs, S.

C. Behrens, D. Lavery, D. Millar, S. Makovejs, B. C. Thomsen, R. Killey, S. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 7×42.9  Gbit/s PS-QPSK and PM-BPSK,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.2.

Mardoyan, H.

J. Renaudier, O. B. Pardo, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, P. Tran, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison of 28 Gbaud polarization switched- and polarization division multiplexed- QPSK in WDM long-haul transmission system,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.3.

Mateo, E.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. B. Djordjevic, and T. Wang, “Transoceanic transmission of 40×117.6  Gbits/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3845–3856, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Aoki, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, L. Xu, S. Zhang, F. Yaman, and E. Mateo, “Next-generation 100  Gbits/s undersea optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s50–s57, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Matsui, J.

Matsuoka, S.

Mazurczyk, M.

Millar, D.

C. Behrens, D. Lavery, D. Millar, S. Makovejs, B. C. Thomsen, R. Killey, S. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 7×42.9  Gbit/s PS-QPSK and PM-BPSK,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.2.

Millar, D. S.

Miyamoto, Y.

Miyata, Y.

Mizuochi, T.

Mohs, G.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Möller, L.

Morita, I.

L. Liu, H. Y. Choi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, R. M. Ramon Casellas, and R. Munoz, “First proof-of-concept demonstration of OpenFlow-controlled elastic optical networks employing flexible transmitter/receiver,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2012, paper PDP-1.

Munoz, R.

L. Liu, H. Y. Choi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, R. M. Ramon Casellas, and R. Munoz, “First proof-of-concept demonstration of OpenFlow-controlled elastic optical networks employing flexible transmitter/receiver,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2012, paper PDP-1.

Murata, K.

Nakagawa, T.

Nakamura, Y.

Nakashima, H.

Nelson, L. E.

Nishimoto, H.

Noguchi, H.

Ogata, T.

Y. Aoki, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, L. Xu, S. Zhang, F. Yaman, and E. Mateo, “Next-generation 100  Gbits/s undersea optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s50–s57, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Onaka, H.

Onohara, K.

Pardo, O. B.

J. Renaudier, O. B. Pardo, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, P. Tran, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison of 28 Gbaud polarization switched- and polarization division multiplexed- QPSK in WDM long-haul transmission system,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.3.

Patterson, W. W.

Pilipetskii, A.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

Qian, D.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. B. Djordjevic, and T. Wang, “Transoceanic transmission of 40×117.6  Gbits/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3845–3856, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Ramon Casellas, R. M.

L. Liu, H. Y. Choi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, R. M. Ramon Casellas, and R. Munoz, “First proof-of-concept demonstration of OpenFlow-controlled elastic optical networks employing flexible transmitter/receiver,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2012, paper PDP-1.

Renaudier, J.

J. Renaudier, O. B. Pardo, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, P. Tran, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison of 28 Gbaud polarization switched- and polarization division multiplexed- QPSK in WDM long-haul transmission system,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.3.

Sakamoto, Y.

Sakano, T.

Salsi, M.

J. Renaudier, O. B. Pardo, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, P. Tran, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison of 28 Gbaud polarization switched- and polarization division multiplexed- QPSK in WDM long-haul transmission system,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.3.

Savory, S.

C. Behrens, D. Lavery, D. Millar, S. Makovejs, B. C. Thomsen, R. Killey, S. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 7×42.9  Gbit/s PS-QPSK and PM-BPSK,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.2.

Savory, S. J.

D. S. Millar and S. J. Savory, “Blind adaptive equalization of polarization-switched QPSK modulation,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 9, pp. 8533–8538, 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: Algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1164–1179, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. B. Djordjevic, and T. Wang, “Transoceanic transmission of 40×117.6  Gbits/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3845–3856, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Shibahara, K.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gbits/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Shibayama, A.

Sinkin, O. V.

Sjödin, M.

Suibhne, N. M.

Sun, Y.

Tajima, T.

Takara, H.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gbits/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Takeuchi, O.

Teipen, B.

M. Eiselt, B. Teipen, K. Grobe, A. Autenrieth, and J.-P. Elbers, “Programmable modulation for high-capacity networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.5.

Thomsen, B. C.

C. Behrens, D. Lavery, D. Millar, S. Makovejs, B. C. Thomsen, R. Killey, S. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 7×42.9  Gbit/s PS-QPSK and PM-BPSK,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.2.

Tomizawa, M.

Tran, P.

J. Renaudier, O. B. Pardo, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, P. Tran, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison of 28 Gbaud polarization switched- and polarization division multiplexed- QPSK in WDM long-haul transmission system,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.3.

Tsuritani, T.

L. Liu, H. Y. Choi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, R. M. Ramon Casellas, and R. Munoz, “First proof-of-concept demonstration of OpenFlow-controlled elastic optical networks employing flexible transmitter/receiver,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching, 2012, paper PDP-1.

Wang, T.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. B. Djordjevic, and T. Wang, “Transoceanic transmission of 40×117.6  Gbits/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3845–3856, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Wellbrock, G. A.

Wymeersch, H.

Xia, T. J.

Xie, C.

C. Xie, I. Kang, A. H. Gnauck, L. Möller, L. F. Mollenauer, and A. R. Grant, “Suppression of intrachannel nonlinear effects with alternate-polarization formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 806–812, 2004.
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

Xu, L.

Y. Aoki, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, L. Xu, S. Zhang, F. Yaman, and E. Mateo, “Next-generation 100  Gbits/s undersea optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s50–s57, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. B. Djordjevic, and T. Wang, “Transoceanic transmission of 40×117.6  Gbits/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3845–3856, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yaman, F.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. B. Djordjevic, and T. Wang, “Transoceanic transmission of 40×117.6  Gbits/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3845–3856, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Aoki, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, L. Xu, S. Zhang, F. Yaman, and E. Mateo, “Next-generation 100  Gbits/s undersea optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s50–s57, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Yamanaka, S.

Yamazaki, E.

Yonenaga, K.

H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400  Gbits/s multi-flow, multi-rate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Tu.5.A.4.

Yoshida, E.

Yu, C.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, S.

Y. Aoki, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, L. Xu, S. Zhang, F. Yaman, and E. Mateo, “Next-generation 100  Gbits/s undersea optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s50–s57, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. B. Djordjevic, and T. Wang, “Transoceanic transmission of 40×117.6  Gbits/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3845–3856, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 11, pp. 1597–1607, 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181 km,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Th.13.K.3.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, X.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. Aoki, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, L. Xu, S. Zhang, F. Yaman, and E. Mateo, “Next-generation 100  Gbits/s undersea optical communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s50–s57, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: Algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1164–1179, 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 11, pp. 1597–1607, 2010.
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “20  Tbit/s transmission over 6860 km with sub-Nyquist channel spacing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 4, pp. 651–657, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, T. J. Xia, G. A. Wellbrock, M.-F. Huang, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and M. Cvijetic, “Mixed line-rate transmission (112  Gbits/s, 450  Gbits/s, and 1.15  Tb/s) over 3560 km of field-installed fiber with filterless coherent receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 4, pp. 609–617, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. B. Djordjevic, and T. Wang, “Transoceanic transmission of 40×117.6  Gbits/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, pp. 3845–3856, 2012.
[CrossRef]

E. Agrell and M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 22, pp. 5115–5126, 2009.
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, I. Kang, A. H. Gnauck, L. Möller, L. F. Mollenauer, and A. R. Grant, “Suppression of intrachannel nonlinear effects with alternate-polarization formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  22, no. 3, pp. 806–812, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J.-I. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, and K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100  Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 14, pp. 13179–13184, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Sjödin, P. Johannisson, H. Wymeersch, P. A. Andrekson, and M. Karlsson, “Comparison of polarization-switched QPSK and polarization-multiplexed QPSK at 30  Gbit/s,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 8, pp. 7839–7846, 2011.
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, H. Zhang, C. R. Davidson, Y. Sun, M. Mazurczyk, D. G. Foursa, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “25  Tb/s transmission over 5,530 km using 16QAM at 5.2  b/s/hz spectral efficiency,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, pp. 1555–1560, 2013.
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, J.-X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, C. R. Davidson, Y. Sun, M. Mazurczyk, D. G. Foursa, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “16QAM transmission with 5.2  bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over transoceanic distance,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 11, pp. 11688–11693, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. S. Millar and S. J. Savory, “Blind adaptive equalization of polarization-switched QPSK modulation,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 9, pp. 8533–8538, 2011.
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, N. M. Suibhne, A. D. Ellis, and P. Magill, “Experimental comparison of coherent polarization-switched QPSK to polarization-multiplexed QPSK for 10×100  km WDM transmission,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10849–10856, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. K. Huang, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, Y. Shao, E. Ip, T. Inoue, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, Y. Aoki, and T. Wang, “4×1.15  Tb/s DP-QPSK superchannel transmission over 10,181 km of EDFA amplified hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber spans with 2 db FEC margin,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  8309, 83092A, 2011.

Other (9)

“PatternPro serial data test instruments” [Online]. Available: http://www.picosecond.com/applications/content.asp?spid=120 .

J. Renaudier, O. B. Pardo, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, P. Tran, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison of 28 Gbaud polarization switched- and polarization division multiplexed- QPSK in WDM long-haul transmission system,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.3.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, “6×42.7  Gb/s transmission over ten 200 km EDFA-amplified SSMF spans using polarization-alternating RZ-DPSK,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2004, paper PD35.

M. Mazurczyk, D. G. Foursa, H. G. Batshon, H. Zhang, C. R. Davidson, J.-X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. S. Bergano, “30  Tb/s transmission over 6,630 km using 16QAM signals at 6.1  bits/s/hz spectral efficiency,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper Th.3.C.2.

C. Behrens, D. Lavery, D. Millar, S. Makovejs, B. C. Thomsen, R. Killey, S. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Ultra-long-haul transmission of 7×42.9  Gbit/s PS-QPSK and PM-BPSK,” in 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, 2011, paper Mo.2.B.2.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

General configuration of DP-QPSK transmitter. CW, continuous wave; PBS/PBC, polarization beam splitter/combiner.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the PolMux, PolSw, and PolAl schemes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Alternative way to represent signals with two polarization states.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Bit encoder for (a) PolSw QPSK and (b) PolAl QPSK.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup for evaluating the flexible-bit-rate transmitter.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission link and receiver setup. OTF, optical tunable filter; VOA, variable optical attenuator.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured BTB WDM performance of different signals versus OSNR at 0.1 nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Received signal spectrum at 0.1 nm resolution after 12 loops.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured Q-factor as a function of channel power at 12 loops.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Q-factor versus transmission distance at a channel power of 2.8dBm.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Recovered constellation of (a) PolMux BPSK after 16 loops, (b) PolAl QPSK after 16 loops, (c) PolSw QPSK after 12 loops, and (d) PolMux QPSK after 8 loops.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Potential SDO platform with a software controlled manager.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Potential SDO-based receiver corresponding to our proposed flexible transponder in Fig. 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I In-Phase and Quadrature Bits of PolSw QPSK Signal