Abstract

Emerging services, such as high-definition Internet Protocol TV (IP-TV) or data center migration, are going to increase the amount of multicast traffic in the Internet. The support of multicast directly in the optical domain, instead of at the IP layer, is a target for reducing the amount of optical–electronic–optical conversions (thus, the network operational and capital expenditure) and energy consumption. In parallel, flex-grid technology (e.g., bandwidth variable wavelength selective switches) is emerging as a candidate solution to be adopted in future optical transport networks given its capacity of improving spectrum efficiency. This paper is focused on optical multicast in flex-grid optical networks and on its control through the Path Computation Element (PCE). First, we present two node architectures supporting optical multicast. The first node architecture achieves optical multicast through passive light split and requires that the multicast connection satisfies the spectrum continuity constraint. The second node architecture achieves optical multicast with frequency conversion. In particular, a specific implementation of the second architecture is proposed in this paper exploiting a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. Then, a PCE architecture to control optical multicast (with and without frequency conversion) is proposed. Optical multicasting, based on the proposed node architectures, at 100 and 200Gb/s is experimentally demonstrated in a flex-grid network testbed. In particular, multicasting is demonstrated with 112Gb/s polarization multiplexing 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (PM-16QAM) and polarization multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK), and with 224Gb/s PM-16QAM considering the light-split node architecture. Moreover, optical multicast with two frequency conversions, achieved in a single PPLN device, is demonstrated for the first time with a 224Gb/s PM-16QAM signal. The testbed also includes the PCE, which is extended to control optical multicast in flex-grid optical networks.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2013

G. Zhang, M. De Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, no. 1, pp. 65–87, 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012

W. Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, M. Colle, D. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Poti, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 5, pp. 727–733, Mar. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Ellinas, N. Antoniades, T. Panayiotou, A. Hadjiantonis, and A. Levine, “Multicast routing algorithms based on Q-factor physical-layer constraints in metro networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 6, pp. 365–367, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Rahman, G. Ellinas, and M. Ali, “Lightpath- and light-tree-based groupcast routing and wavelength assignment in mesh optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. A44–A55, July 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

2004

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 7, pp. 1775–1777, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Multicast routing algorithms and protocols: a tutorial,” IEEE Netw., vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 90–102, Jan./Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, R.

R. Aggarwal, D. Papadimitriou, and S. Yasukawa, “Resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) for point-to-multipoint TE label switched paths (LSPs),” IETF RFC 4875, May 2007.

Agrawal, A.

Ali, M.

Ali, Z.

Q. Zhao, D. King, F. Verhaeghe, T. Takeda, Z. Ali, and J. Meuric, “Extensions to the path computation element communication protocol (PCEP) for point-to-multipoint traffic engineering label switched paths,” , Sept. 2010.

Andriolli, N.

Antoniades, N.

G. Ellinas, N. Antoniades, T. Panayiotou, A. Hadjiantonis, and A. Levine, “Multicast routing algorithms based on Q-factor physical-layer constraints in metro networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 6, pp. 365–367, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Bafna, P.

Berrettini, G.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, and L. Potì, “Flex-grid optical network supporting multicasting at high transmission rates,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper Mo.2.D.5.

Bonetto, E.

E. Bonetto, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Cuda, G. Gavilanes Castillo, and F. Neri, “Optical technologies can improve the energy efficiency of networks,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Sept. 2009.

Bonneß, O.

C. Lange, O. Bonneß, and N. Leder, “Operator perspective on broadband network traffic evolution,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper Mo.2.D.1.

Bottari, G.

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.

Cai, X.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper TH.13.K.2.

Casellas, R.

R. Munoz, R. Casellas, and R. Martinez, “Dynamic distributed spectrum allocation in GMPLS-controlled elastic optical networks,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper Tu.5.K.4.

D. King, A. Farrel, Y. Li, F. Zhang, and R. Casellas, “Generalized labels for the flexi-grid in lambda-switch-capable (LSC) label switching routers,” IETF Internet Draft, Oct.2012 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-farrkingel-ccamp-flexigrid-lambda-label-04 .

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. Fàbrega, M. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OM3G.1.

Castoldi, P.

Chiaraviglio, L.

E. Bonetto, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Cuda, G. Gavilanes Castillo, and F. Neri, “Optical technologies can improve the energy efficiency of networks,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Sept. 2009.

Christen, L.

O. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, S. Khaleghi, J.-Y. Yang, L. Christen, and A. Willner, “Optical multiplexing of two 21.5  Gb/s DPSK signals into a single 43  Gb/s DQPSK channel with simultaneous 7-fold multicasting in a single PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

Ciaramella, E.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 7, pp. 1775–1777, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Cinkler, T.

P. Soproni and T. Cinkler, “Physical impairment aware multicast routing heuristics,” in 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, June 2011.

Colle, M.

W. Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, M. Colle, D. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Contestabile, G.

G. Contestabile, A. Maruta, S. Sekiguchi, K. Morito, M. Sugawara, and K. Kitayama, “All-optical wavelength multicasting in a QD-SOA,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  47, no. 4, pp. 541–547, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 7, pp. 1775–1777, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Cuda, D.

E. Bonetto, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Cuda, G. Gavilanes Castillo, and F. Neri, “Optical technologies can improve the energy efficiency of networks,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Sept. 2009.

Cugini, F.

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Poti, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 5, pp. 727–733, Mar. 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 8, pp. 610–619, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, and J. Poirrier, “Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  26, no. 19, pp. 3318–3328, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, and L. Potì, “Flex-grid optical network supporting multicasting at high transmission rates,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper Mo.2.D.5.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.

Das, T.

De Leenheer, M.

G. Zhang, M. De Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, no. 1, pp. 65–87, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Deering, S.

S. Deering, “Host extensions for IP multicasting,” , July 1986.

Demeester, P.

W. Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, M. Colle, D. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Ellinas, G.

G. Ellinas, N. Antoniades, T. Panayiotou, A. Hadjiantonis, and A. Levine, “Multicast routing algorithms based on Q-factor physical-layer constraints in metro networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 6, pp. 365–367, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Rahman, G. Ellinas, and M. Ali, “Lightpath- and light-tree-based groupcast routing and wavelength assignment in mesh optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. A44–A55, July 2009.
[CrossRef]

Fàbrega, J.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. Fàbrega, M. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OM3G.1.

Farrel, A.

D. King, A. Farrel, Y. Li, F. Zhang, and R. Casellas, “Generalized labels for the flexi-grid in lambda-switch-capable (LSC) label switching routers,” IETF Internet Draft, Oct.2012 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-farrkingel-ccamp-flexigrid-lambda-label-04 .

Fazal, I.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wang, J. Wang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, X. Wu, and A. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100  Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWP8.

Fontaine, N.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper TH.13.K.2.

Gao, X.

Gavilanes Castillo, G.

E. Bonetto, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Cuda, G. Gavilanes Castillo, and F. Neri, “Optical technologies can improve the energy efficiency of networks,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Sept. 2009.

Geisler, D.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper TH.13.K.2.

Gerardi, L.

Gerstel, O.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper TH.13.K.2.

Ghani, N.

Giorgetti, A.

Gumaste, A.

Hadjiantonis, A.

G. Ellinas, N. Antoniades, T. Panayiotou, A. Hadjiantonis, and A. Levine, “Multicast routing algorithms based on Q-factor physical-layer constraints in metro networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 6, pp. 365–367, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Heddeghem, W.

W. Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, M. Colle, D. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Idzikowski, F.

W. Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, M. Colle, D. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Iovanna, P.

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Jue, J.

Khaleghi, S.

O. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, S. Khaleghi, J.-Y. Yang, L. Christen, and A. Willner, “Optical multiplexing of two 21.5  Gb/s DPSK signals into a single 43  Gb/s DQPSK channel with simultaneous 7-fold multicasting in a single PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009.

King, D.

Q. Zhao, D. King, F. Verhaeghe, T. Takeda, Z. Ali, and J. Meuric, “Extensions to the path computation element communication protocol (PCEP) for point-to-multipoint traffic engineering label switched paths,” , Sept. 2010.

D. King, A. Farrel, Y. Li, F. Zhang, and R. Casellas, “Generalized labels for the flexi-grid in lambda-switch-capable (LSC) label switching routers,” IETF Internet Draft, Oct.2012 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-farrkingel-ccamp-flexigrid-lambda-label-04 .

Kitayama, K.

G. Contestabile, A. Maruta, S. Sekiguchi, K. Morito, M. Sugawara, and K. Kitayama, “All-optical wavelength multicasting in a QD-SOA,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  47, no. 4, pp. 541–547, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Lange, C.

C. Lange, O. Bonneß, and N. Leder, “Operator perspective on broadband network traffic evolution,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper Mo.2.D.1.

Le Rouzic, E.

Leder, N.

C. Lange, O. Bonneß, and N. Leder, “Operator perspective on broadband network traffic evolution,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper Mo.2.D.1.

Levine, A.

G. Ellinas, N. Antoniades, T. Panayiotou, A. Hadjiantonis, and A. Levine, “Multicast routing algorithms based on Q-factor physical-layer constraints in metro networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 6, pp. 365–367, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

D. King, A. Farrel, Y. Li, F. Zhang, and R. Casellas, “Generalized labels for the flexi-grid in lambda-switch-capable (LSC) label switching routers,” IETF Internet Draft, Oct.2012 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-farrkingel-ccamp-flexigrid-lambda-label-04 .

Liu, L.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. Fàbrega, M. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OM3G.1.

T. Tsuritani, A. Murakami, L. Liu, K. Ogaki, and M. Tsurusawa, “Power managed optical point-to-multipoint (P2MP) tree signalling demonstration in GMPLS-controlled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2010.

Lodha, A.

Martinez, R.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. Fàbrega, M. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OM3G.1.

R. Munoz, R. Casellas, and R. Martinez, “Dynamic distributed spectrum allocation in GMPLS-controlled elastic optical networks,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper Tu.5.K.4.

Maruta, A.

G. Contestabile, A. Maruta, S. Sekiguchi, K. Morito, M. Sugawara, and K. Kitayama, “All-optical wavelength multicasting in a QD-SOA,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  47, no. 4, pp. 541–547, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Meloni, G.

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Poti, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 5, pp. 727–733, Mar. 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, and L. Potì, “Flex-grid optical network supporting multicasting at high transmission rates,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper Mo.2.D.5.

Meuric, J.

Q. Zhao, D. King, F. Verhaeghe, T. Takeda, Z. Ali, and J. Meuric, “Extensions to the path computation element communication protocol (PCEP) for point-to-multipoint traffic engineering label switched paths,” , Sept. 2010.

Morea, A.

G. Zhang, M. De Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, no. 1, pp. 65–87, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Moreolo, M.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. Fàbrega, M. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OM3G.1.

Morita, I.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. Fàbrega, M. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OM3G.1.

Morito, K.

G. Contestabile, A. Maruta, S. Sekiguchi, K. Morito, M. Sugawara, and K. Kitayama, “All-optical wavelength multicasting in a QD-SOA,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  47, no. 4, pp. 541–547, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

G. Zhang, M. De Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, no. 1, pp. 65–87, 2013.
[CrossRef]

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Multicast routing algorithms and protocols: a tutorial,” IEEE Netw., vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 90–102, Jan./Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Munoz, R.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. Fàbrega, M. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OM3G.1.

R. Munoz, R. Casellas, and R. Martinez, “Dynamic distributed spectrum allocation in GMPLS-controlled elastic optical networks,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper Tu.5.K.4.

Murakami, A.

T. Tsuritani, A. Murakami, L. Liu, K. Ogaki, and M. Tsurusawa, “Power managed optical point-to-multipoint (P2MP) tree signalling demonstration in GMPLS-controlled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2010.

Neri, F.

E. Bonetto, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Cuda, G. Gavilanes Castillo, and F. Neri, “Optical technologies can improve the energy efficiency of networks,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication, Sept. 2009.

Nuccio, S.

O. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, S. Khaleghi, J.-Y. Yang, L. Christen, and A. Willner, “Optical multiplexing of two 21.5  Gb/s DPSK signals into a single 43  Gb/s DQPSK channel with simultaneous 7-fold multicasting in a single PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009.

Nuccio, S. R.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wang, J. Wang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, X. Wu, and A. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100  Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWP8.

Ogaki, K.

T. Tsuritani, A. Murakami, L. Liu, K. Ogaki, and M. Tsurusawa, “Power managed optical point-to-multipoint (P2MP) tree signalling demonstration in GMPLS-controlled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2010.

Panayiotou, T.

G. Ellinas, N. Antoniades, T. Panayiotou, A. Hadjiantonis, and A. Levine, “Multicast routing algorithms based on Q-factor physical-layer constraints in metro networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 6, pp. 365–367, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Paolucci, F.

Papadimitriou, D.

R. Aggarwal, D. Papadimitriou, and S. Yasukawa, “Resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) for point-to-multipoint TE label switched paths (LSPs),” IETF RFC 4875, May 2007.

Paraschis, L.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper TH.13.K.2.

Pickavet, D.

W. Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, M. Colle, D. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Poirrier, J.

Poti, L.

Potì, L.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, and L. Potì, “Flex-grid optical network supporting multicasting at high transmission rates,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper Mo.2.D.5.

Presi, M.

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 7, pp. 1775–1777, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

Proietti, R.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper TH.13.K.2.

Rahman, T.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Multicast routing algorithms and protocols: a tutorial,” IEEE Netw., vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 90–102, Jan./Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

Sambo, N.

F. Cugini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, M. Secondini, L. Gerardi, L. Poti, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of flexible optical network based on path computation element,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 5, pp. 727–733, Mar. 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, and P. Castoldi, “Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 8, pp. 610–619, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, N. Sambo, N. Andriolli, A. Giorgetti, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, E. Le Rouzic, and J. Poirrier, “Enhancing GMPLS signaling protocol for encompassing quality of transmission (QoT) in all-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  26, no. 19, pp. 3318–3328, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Distributed setup in optical networks with flexible grid,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper We.10.P1.100.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, and L. Potì, “Flex-grid optical network supporting multicasting at high transmission rates,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper Mo.2.D.5.

Scott, R.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper TH.13.K.2.

Secondini, M.

Sekiguchi, S.

G. Contestabile, A. Maruta, S. Sekiguchi, K. Morito, M. Sugawara, and K. Kitayama, “All-optical wavelength multicasting in a QD-SOA,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  47, no. 4, pp. 541–547, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Soproni, P.

P. Soproni and T. Cinkler, “Physical impairment aware multicast routing heuristics,” in 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, June 2011.

Sugawara, M.

G. Contestabile, A. Maruta, S. Sekiguchi, K. Morito, M. Sugawara, and K. Kitayama, “All-optical wavelength multicasting in a QD-SOA,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  47, no. 4, pp. 541–547, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Takeda, T.

Q. Zhao, D. King, F. Verhaeghe, T. Takeda, Z. Ali, and J. Meuric, “Extensions to the path computation element communication protocol (PCEP) for point-to-multipoint traffic engineering label switched paths,” , Sept. 2010.

Tanaka, T.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

Tsuritani, T.

T. Tsuritani, A. Murakami, L. Liu, K. Ogaki, and M. Tsurusawa, “Power managed optical point-to-multipoint (P2MP) tree signalling demonstration in GMPLS-controlled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2010.

R. Casellas, R. Munoz, J. Fàbrega, M. Moreolo, R. Martinez, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Experimental assessment of a combined PCE-RMA and distributed spectrum allocation mechanism for GMPLS elastic CO-OFDM optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2012, paper OM3G.1.

Tsurusawa, M.

T. Tsuritani, A. Murakami, L. Liu, K. Ogaki, and M. Tsurusawa, “Power managed optical point-to-multipoint (P2MP) tree signalling demonstration in GMPLS-controlled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2010.

Valcarenghi, L.

Varvarigos, E.

Vereecken, W.

W. Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, M. Colle, D. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Verhaeghe, F.

Q. Zhao, D. King, F. Verhaeghe, T. Takeda, Z. Ali, and J. Meuric, “Extensions to the path computation element communication protocol (PCEP) for point-to-multipoint traffic engineering label switched paths,” , Sept. 2010.

Wang, J.

A. Gumaste, N. Ghani, P. Bafna, A. Lodha, A. Agrawal, T. Das, J. Wang, and S. Q. Zheng, “Dynaspot: Dynamic services provisioned optical transport test-bed—achieving multirate multiservice dynamic provisioning using strongly connected light-trail (slit) technology,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 183–195, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wang, J. Wang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, X. Wu, and A. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100  Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWP8.

Wang, X.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wang, J. Wang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, X. Wu, and A. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100  Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWP8.

Watanabe, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Willner, A.

O. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, S. Khaleghi, J.-Y. Yang, L. Christen, and A. Willner, “Optical multiplexing of two 21.5  Gb/s DPSK signals into a single 43  Gb/s DQPSK channel with simultaneous 7-fold multicasting in a single PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wang, J. Wang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, X. Wu, and A. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100  Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWP8.

Wu, W.

Wu, X.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wang, J. Wang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, X. Wu, and A. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100  Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWP8.

Yang, J.-Y.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wang, J. Wang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, X. Wu, and A. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100  Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWP8.

O. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, S. Khaleghi, J.-Y. Yang, L. Christen, and A. Willner, “Optical multiplexing of two 21.5  Gb/s DPSK signals into a single 43  Gb/s DQPSK channel with simultaneous 7-fold multicasting in a single PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009.

Yasukawa, S.

R. Aggarwal, D. Papadimitriou, and S. Yasukawa, “Resource reservation protocol-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) for point-to-multipoint TE label switched paths (LSPs),” IETF RFC 4875, May 2007.

Yilmaz, O.

O. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, S. Khaleghi, J.-Y. Yang, L. Christen, and A. Willner, “Optical multiplexing of two 21.5  Gb/s DPSK signals into a single 43  Gb/s DQPSK channel with simultaneous 7-fold multicasting in a single PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009.

Yilmaz, O. F.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wang, J. Wang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, X. Wu, and A. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100  Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWP8.

Yin, Y.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper TH.13.K.2.

Yoo, S.

D. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. Scott, X. Cai, N. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in Proc. 37th European Conf. and Expo. on Optical Communications, Sept. 2011, paper TH.13.K.2.

Zhang, F.

D. King, A. Farrel, Y. Li, F. Zhang, and R. Casellas, “Generalized labels for the flexi-grid in lambda-switch-capable (LSC) label switching routers,” IETF Internet Draft, Oct.2012 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-farrkingel-ccamp-flexigrid-lambda-label-04 .

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, M. De Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, no. 1, pp. 65–87, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

Q. Zhao, D. King, F. Verhaeghe, T. Takeda, Z. Ali, and J. Meuric, “Extensions to the path computation element communication protocol (PCEP) for point-to-multipoint traffic engineering label switched paths,” , Sept. 2010.

Zheng, S. Q.

Zhu, Y.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials

G. Zhang, M. De Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, no. 1, pp. 65–87, 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Contestabile, A. Maruta, S. Sekiguchi, K. Morito, M. Sugawara, and K. Kitayama, “All-optical wavelength multicasting in a QD-SOA,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  47, no. 4, pp. 541–547, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Netw.

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Multicast routing algorithms and protocols: a tutorial,” IEEE Netw., vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 90–102, Jan./Feb. 2000.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Ellinas, N. Antoniades, T. Panayiotou, A. Hadjiantonis, and A. Levine, “Multicast routing algorithms based on Q-factor physical-layer constraints in metro networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  21, no. 6, pp. 365–367, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “Multiple wavelength conversion for WDM multicasting by FWM in an SOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  16, no. 7, pp. 1775–1777, July 2004.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Photon. Netw. Commun.

W. Heddeghem, F. Idzikowski, W. Vereecken, M. Colle, D. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Power consumption modeling in optical multilayer networks,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  24, no. 2, pp. 86–102, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Other

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Berrettini, G. Meloni, F. Paolucci, and L. Potì, “Flex-grid optical network supporting multicasting at high transmission rates,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2012, paper Mo.2.D.5.

P. Soproni and T. Cinkler, “Physical impairment aware multicast routing heuristics,” in 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks, June 2011.

T. Tsuritani, A. Murakami, L. Liu, K. Ogaki, and M. Tsurusawa, “Power managed optical point-to-multipoint (P2MP) tree signalling demonstration in GMPLS-controlled wavelength switched optical networks,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Sept. 2010.

O. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, S. Khaleghi, J.-Y. Yang, L. Christen, and A. Willner, “Optical multiplexing of two 21.5  Gb/s DPSK signals into a single 43  Gb/s DQPSK channel with simultaneous 7-fold multicasting in a single PPLN waveguide,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2009.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wang, J. Wang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, X. Wu, and A. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100  Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Mar. 2010, paper OWP8.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Examples of (a) optical multicasting, (b) optical multicasting based on light split and adding a new leaf, and (c) optical multicasting based on a MulConv module and adding a new leaf.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Node architecture supporting optical multicast. (a) Architecture supporting optical multicast through light split. (b) Architecture, equipped with MulConv module, supporting optical multicast with tunable frequency conversion.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Principle of optical multicast with frequency conversion obtained within PPLN.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

PPLN module responsible for optical multicast with tunable frequency conversion.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Flowchart for PCE using MBT when (a) a new light tree is requested and (b) a new destination is requested to be added to an active light tree.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Flex-grid network testbed supporting optical multicast at 100 and 200Gb/s, exploiting light split.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

BER versus distance with 100Gb/s PM-QPSK and PM-16QAM and 200Gb/s PM-16QAM.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Constellation of the received signals for both polarizations: (a) 200Gb/s PM-16QAM b2b, (b) 200Gb/s PM-16QAM after 240 km, (c) 100Gb/s PM-16QAM b2b, (d) 100Gb/s PM-16QAM after 320 km, (e) 100Gb/s PM-QPSK in the b2b case, and (f) 100Gb/s PM-QPSK after 2400 km.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Flex-grid network testbed supporting optical multicast at 200Gb/s, exploiting the PPLN-based MulConv module.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Spectrum before and after the PPLN module.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Spectrum of multicast signals.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

BER versus OSNR with 200Gb/s PM-16QAM, b2b transmission, PPLN bypass, and PPLN-based multicasting.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Constellation for both polarizations of 200Gb/s PM-16QAM: (a) b2b, (b) at C if PPLN-module is bypassed, (c) converted signal (using PPLN) at C, and (d) converted signal (using PPLN) at H.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Control plane capture: light-tree request.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Control plane capture: additional branch PCEP PCReq.