Abstract

Integration of Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) and WiMAX technologies is regarded as a promising solution for next-generation broadband access networks. In implementing such networks, efficient bandwidth allocation schemes are essential to satisfy quality of service (QoS) and fairness requirements of various traffic classes. Existing proposals for solving the bandwidth allocation problem in EPON/WiMAX networks neglect interactions between the self-interested EPON and WiMAX service providers (WSPs). Accordingly, this study proposes a two-stage game-theoretic framework for the intra-ONU bandwidth allocation process where the interactions between the EPON and WSPs are taken into account. In the first stage of the proposed framework, a fair and efficient sharing of the available upstream bandwidth between the EPON and WiMAX networks is determined using two market models (i.e., noncooperative and cooperative). In the second stage, the bandwidth allocation obtained from the first stage is distributed among the different traffic classes within the Ethernet and WiMAX networks in accordance with their QoS requirements by means of a Nash bargaining game. Simulation results show that the proposed game-theoretic framework efficiently allocates bandwidth under different market models while simultaneously ensuring proportional fairness among the various traffic classes for the corresponding networks.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (5)

Y. Chen and K. J. Ray Liu, “Understanding microeconomic behaviors in social networking,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 53–64, Mar. 2012.

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar./Apr. 2012.

A. Fiat, “Why study the price of anarchy?: Technical perspective,” Commun. ACM, vol.  55, no. 7, p. 115, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Guo, and X. Wei, “Optimizing backup optical-network-units selection and backup fibers deployment in survivable hybrid wireless-optical broadband access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 10, pp. 1509–1523, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

G. Schütz and N. Correia, “Design of QoS-aware energy-efficient fiber–wireless access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 586–594, Aug. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (3)

N. Ghazisaidi and M. Maier, “Techno-economic analysis of EPON and WiMAX for future fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  54, no. 15, pp. 2640–2650, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. De, V. Singh, H. M. Gupta, N. Saxena, and A. Roy, “A new predictive dynamic priority scheduling in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 215–223Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dhaini, P.-H. Ho, and X. Jiang, “WiMAX-VPON: A framework of layer-2 VPNs for next-generation access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 7, pp. 400–414, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

Z. Han and H. V. Poor, “Coalition games with cooperative transmission: A cure for the curse of boundary nodes in selfish packet-forwarding wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  57, no. 1, pp. 203–213, Jan.2009.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, and H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Li and G. Shen, “Cost minimization planning for greenfield passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 17–29, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. O. Obele, M. Iftikhar, S. Manipornsut, and M. Kang, “Analysis of the behavior of self-similar traffic in a QoS-aware architecture for integrating WiMAX and GEPON,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 4, pp. 259–273, Sept. 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S.-L. Hew and L. B. White, “Cooperative resource allocation games in shared networks: Symmetric and asymmetric fair bargaining models,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol.  7, no. 11, pp. 4166–4175, Nov. 2008.
[CrossRef]

D. Niyato and E. Hossain, “Competitive pricing for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks: Dynamic game, inefficiency of Nash equilibrium, and collusion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 192–202, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

D. Niyato and E. Hossain, “Wireless broadband access WiMAX and beyond—integration of WiMAX and WiFi: Optimal pricing for bandwidth sharing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 5, pp. 140–146, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

Z. Ji and K. J. R. Liu, “Dynamic spectrum sharing: A game theoretical overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 5, pp. 88–94, 2007.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, and A. Shami, “Per-stream and admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 7, pp. 1659–1669, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C.-J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. Altman, T. Boulogne, R. El-Azouzi, T. Jiménez, and L. Wynter, “A survey on networking games in telecommunications,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  33, no. 2, pp. 286–311, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 2, pp. 15–22, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

L. He and J. Walrand, “Pricing and revenue sharing strategies for Internet service providers,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 5, pp. 942–951, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Shami, X. Bai, C. M. Assi, and N. Ghani, “Jitter performance in Ethernet passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, no. 4, pp. 1745–1753, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, Z. Ji, and K. J. Liu, “Fair multiuser channel allocation for OFDMA networks using Nash bargaining solutions and coalitions,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 8, pp. 1366–1376, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 13, pp. 1001–1002, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

M. Pulido, J. S. Soriano, and N. Llorca, “Game theory techniques for university management: An extended bankruptcy model,” Oper. Res., vol.  109, pp. 129–142, 2002.

X.-R. Cao, H.-X. Shen, R. Milito, and P. Wirth, “Internet pricing with a game theoretical approach: Concepts and examples,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 2, pp. 208–216, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Yaïche, R. R. Mazumdar, and C. Rosenber, “A game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation and pricing in broadband networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 667–678, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

B. O’Neill, “A problem of rights arbitration from the Talmud,” Math. Social Sci., vol.  2, pp. 345–371, 1982.
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

J. Nash, “The bargaining problem,” Econometrica, vol.  18, no. 2, pp. 155–162, 1950.

Altman, E.

E. Altman, T. Boulogne, R. El-Azouzi, T. Jiménez, and L. Wynter, “A survey on networking games in telecommunications,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  33, no. 2, pp. 286–311, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Assi, C. M.

Bai, X.

Basar, T.

Z. Han, D. Niyato, W. Saad, T. Basar, and A. Hjorungnes, Game Theory in Wireless and Communication Networks: Theory, Models, and Applications. Cambridge University, 2011.

Bazant, A.

Berisa, T.

Berry, R.

P. Marbach and R. Berry, “Downlink resource allocation and pricing for wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2002, pp. 1470–1479.

Black, D.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

Blake, S.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

Boulogne, T.

E. Altman, T. Boulogne, R. El-Azouzi, T. Jiménez, and L. Wynter, “A survey on networking games in telecommunications,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  33, no. 2, pp. 286–311, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Byun, H.-J.

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 13, pp. 1001–1002, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.-R.

X.-R. Cao, H.-X. Shen, R. Milito, and P. Wirth, “Internet pricing with a game theoretical approach: Concepts and examples,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 2, pp. 208–216, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Carlson, M.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

Chae, C.-J.

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C.-J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.-R.

H.-T. Lin, Y.-Y. Lin, W.-R. Chang, and S.-M. Chen, “A game-theoretic framework for intra-ONU scheduling in integrated EPON/WiMAX networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2009.

Chen, H.-H.

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, and H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-M.

H.-T. Lin, Y.-Y. Lin, W.-R. Chang, and S.-M. Chen, “A game-theoretic framework for intra-ONU scheduling in integrated EPON/WiMAX networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2009.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and K. J. Ray Liu, “Understanding microeconomic behaviors in social networking,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 53–64, Mar. 2012.

Correia, N.

Das, T.

Davies, E.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

De, S.

S. De, V. Singh, H. M. Gupta, N. Saxena, and A. Roy, “A new predictive dynamic priority scheduling in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 215–223Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Dhaini, A. R.

El-Azouzi, R.

E. Altman, T. Boulogne, R. El-Azouzi, T. Jiménez, and L. Wynter, “A survey on networking games in telecommunications,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  33, no. 2, pp. 286–311, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Erramilli, A.

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, and A. Erramilli, “A bibliographical guide to self-similar traffic and performance modeling for modern high-speed networks,” in Stochastic Networks. Oxford, UK: Oxford University, 1996, pp. 339–366.

Fiat, A.

A. Fiat, “Why study the price of anarchy?: Technical perspective,” Commun. ACM, vol.  55, no. 7, p. 115, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

Fudenberg, D.

D. Fudenberg and J. Tirole, Game Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1991.

Ghani, N.

Ghazisaidi, N.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Scheutzow, and M. Maier, “Survivability analysis of next-generation passive optical networks and fiber-wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol.  60, no. 2, pp. 479–492, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi and M. Maier, “Techno-economic analysis of EPON and WiMAX for future fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  54, no. 15, pp. 2640–2650, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Gumaste, A.

Guo, L.

Gupta, H. M.

S. De, V. Singh, H. M. Gupta, N. Saxena, and A. Roy, “A new predictive dynamic priority scheduling in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 215–223Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Z. Han and H. V. Poor, “Coalition games with cooperative transmission: A cure for the curse of boundary nodes in selfish packet-forwarding wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  57, no. 1, pp. 203–213, Jan.2009.
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, Z. Ji, and K. J. Liu, “Fair multiuser channel allocation for OFDMA networks using Nash bargaining solutions and coalitions,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 8, pp. 1366–1376, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, D. Niyato, W. Saad, T. Basar, and A. Hjorungnes, Game Theory in Wireless and Communication Networks: Theory, Models, and Applications. Cambridge University, 2011.

He, L.

L. He and J. Walrand, “Pricing and revenue sharing strategies for Internet service providers,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 5, pp. 942–951, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

Hew, S.-L.

S.-L. Hew and L. B. White, “Cooperative resource allocation games in shared networks: Symmetric and asymmetric fair bargaining models,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol.  7, no. 11, pp. 4166–4175, Nov. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Hjorungnes, A.

Z. Han, D. Niyato, W. Saad, T. Basar, and A. Hjorungnes, Game Theory in Wireless and Communication Networks: Theory, Models, and Applications. Cambridge University, 2011.

Ho, P. H.

Ho, P.-H.

B. Lin, J. Tapolcai, and P.-H. Ho, “Dimensioning and site planning of integrated PON and wireless cooperative networks for fixed mobile convergence,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  60, no. 9, pp. 4528–4538, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dhaini, P.-H. Ho, and X. Jiang, “WiMAX-VPON: A framework of layer-2 VPNs for next-generation access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 7, pp. 400–414, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Hossain, E.

D. Niyato and E. Hossain, “Competitive pricing for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks: Dynamic game, inefficiency of Nash equilibrium, and collusion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 192–202, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

D. Niyato and E. Hossain, “Wireless broadband access WiMAX and beyond—integration of WiMAX and WiFi: Optimal pricing for bandwidth sharing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 5, pp. 140–146, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

Iftikhar, M.

Ilic, Z.

Ji, Z.

Z. Ji and K. J. R. Liu, “Dynamic spectrum sharing: A game theoretical overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 5, pp. 88–94, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, Z. Ji, and K. J. Liu, “Fair multiuser channel allocation for OFDMA networks using Nash bargaining solutions and coalitions,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 8, pp. 1366–1376, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Jiang, X. H.

Jiménez, T.

E. Altman, T. Boulogne, R. El-Azouzi, T. Jiménez, and L. Wynter, “A survey on networking games in telecommunications,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  33, no. 2, pp. 286–311, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Kang, M.

Ken, G.

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, and H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ketchpel, S. P.

S. P. Ketchpel, “Coalition formation among autonomous agents,” in Proc. of MAAMAW, 1993.

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lim, C.

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar./Apr. 2012.

Lim, J.-T.

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 13, pp. 1001–1002, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. Lin, J. Tapolcai, and P.-H. Ho, “Dimensioning and site planning of integrated PON and wireless cooperative networks for fixed mobile convergence,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  60, no. 9, pp. 4528–4538, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-T.

H.-T. Lin, Y.-Y. Lin, W.-R. Chang, and S.-M. Chen, “A game-theoretic framework for intra-ONU scheduling in integrated EPON/WiMAX networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2009.

Lin, Y.-Y.

H.-T. Lin, Y.-Y. Lin, W.-R. Chang, and S.-M. Chen, “A game-theoretic framework for intra-ONU scheduling in integrated EPON/WiMAX networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2009.

Liu, K. J.

Z. Han, Z. Ji, and K. J. Liu, “Fair multiuser channel allocation for OFDMA networks using Nash bargaining solutions and coalitions,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 8, pp. 1366–1376, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Liu, K. J. R.

Z. Ji and K. J. R. Liu, “Dynamic spectrum sharing: A game theoretical overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 5, pp. 88–94, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Llorca, N.

M. Pulido, J. S. Soriano, and N. Llorca, “Game theory techniques for university management: An extended bankruptcy model,” Oper. Res., vol.  109, pp. 129–142, 2002.

Lodha, A.

Maier, M.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Scheutzow, and M. Maier, “Survivability analysis of next-generation passive optical networks and fiber-wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol.  60, no. 2, pp. 479–492, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi and M. Maier, “Techno-economic analysis of EPON and WiMAX for future fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  54, no. 15, pp. 2640–2650, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dhaini, C. M. Assi, M. Maier, and A. Shami, “Per-stream and admission control in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  25, no. 7, pp. 1659–1669, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 2, pp. 15–22, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Manipornsut, S.

Marbach, P.

P. Marbach and R. Berry, “Downlink resource allocation and pricing for wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2002, pp. 1470–1479.

Mathew, A.

Mazumdar, R. R.

H. Yaïche, R. R. Mazumdar, and C. Rosenber, “A game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation and pricing in broadband networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 667–678, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

McGarry, M. P.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 2, pp. 15–22, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Milito, R.

X.-R. Cao, H.-X. Shen, R. Milito, and P. Wirth, “Internet pricing with a game theoretical approach: Concepts and examples,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 2, pp. 208–216, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Myerson, R. B.

R. B. Myerson, Game Theory: Analysis of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1991.

Nash, J.

J. Nash, “The bargaining problem,” Econometrica, vol.  18, no. 2, pp. 155–162, 1950.

Nho, J.-M.

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 13, pp. 1001–1002, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

Nirmalathas, A.

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar./Apr. 2012.

Niyato, D.

D. Niyato and E. Hossain, “Competitive pricing for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks: Dynamic game, inefficiency of Nash equilibrium, and collusion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 192–202, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

D. Niyato and E. Hossain, “Wireless broadband access WiMAX and beyond—integration of WiMAX and WiFi: Optimal pricing for bandwidth sharing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 5, pp. 140–146, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, D. Niyato, W. Saad, T. Basar, and A. Hjorungnes, Game Theory in Wireless and Communication Networks: Theory, Models, and Applications. Cambridge University, 2011.

O’Neill, B.

B. O’Neill, “A problem of rights arbitration from the Talmud,” Math. Social Sci., vol.  2, pp. 345–371, 1982.
[CrossRef]

Obele, B. O.

Ou, S.

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, and H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Poor, H. V.

Z. Han and H. V. Poor, “Coalition games with cooperative transmission: A cure for the curse of boundary nodes in selfish packet-forwarding wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  57, no. 1, pp. 203–213, Jan.2009.
[CrossRef]

Pulido, M.

M. Pulido, J. S. Soriano, and N. Llorca, “Game theory techniques for university management: An extended bankruptcy model,” Oper. Res., vol.  109, pp. 129–142, 2002.

Raiffa, H.

H. Raiffa, “Arbitration schemes for generalized two-person games” in Contributions to the Theory of Game II. Princeton University, 1953, pp. 361–388.

Ranaweera, C.

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar./Apr. 2012.

Ray Liu, K. J.

Y. Chen and K. J. Ray Liu, “Understanding microeconomic behaviors in social networking,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 53–64, Mar. 2012.

Reisslein, M.

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 2, pp. 15–22, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Rosenber, C.

H. Yaïche, R. R. Mazumdar, and C. Rosenber, “A game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation and pricing in broadband networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 667–678, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Roy, A.

S. De, V. Singh, H. M. Gupta, N. Saxena, and A. Roy, “A new predictive dynamic priority scheduling in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 215–223Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Saad, W.

Z. Han, D. Niyato, W. Saad, T. Basar, and A. Hjorungnes, Game Theory in Wireless and Communication Networks: Theory, Models, and Applications. Cambridge University, 2011.

Saxena, N.

S. De, V. Singh, H. M. Gupta, N. Saxena, and A. Roy, “A new predictive dynamic priority scheduling in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 215–223Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Scheutzow, M.

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Scheutzow, and M. Maier, “Survivability analysis of next-generation passive optical networks and fiber-wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol.  60, no. 2, pp. 479–492, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

Schütz, G.

Shami, A.

Shen, G.

J. Li and G. Shen, “Cost minimization planning for greenfield passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 17–29, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C.-J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.-X.

X.-R. Cao, H.-X. Shen, R. Milito, and P. Wirth, “Internet pricing with a game theoretical approach: Concepts and examples,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 2, pp. 208–216, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Singh, V.

S. De, V. Singh, H. M. Gupta, N. Saxena, and A. Roy, “A new predictive dynamic priority scheduling in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 215–223Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Soriano, J. S.

M. Pulido, J. S. Soriano, and N. Llorca, “Game theory techniques for university management: An extended bankruptcy model,” Oper. Res., vol.  109, pp. 129–142, 2002.

Tapolcai, J.

B. Lin, J. Tapolcai, and P.-H. Ho, “Dimensioning and site planning of integrated PON and wireless cooperative networks for fixed mobile convergence,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  60, no. 9, pp. 4528–4538, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Taqqu, M. S.

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, and A. Erramilli, “A bibliographical guide to self-similar traffic and performance modeling for modern high-speed networks,” in Stochastic Networks. Oxford, UK: Oxford University, 1996, pp. 339–366.

Tirole, J.

D. Fudenberg and J. Tirole, Game Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1991.

Tucker, R. S.

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C.-J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Walrand, J.

L. He and J. Walrand, “Pricing and revenue sharing strategies for Internet service providers,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 5, pp. 942–951, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

Wei, X.

Weiss, W.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

White, L. B.

S.-L. Hew and L. B. White, “Cooperative resource allocation games in shared networks: Symmetric and asymmetric fair bargaining models,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol.  7, no. 11, pp. 4166–4175, Nov. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Willinger, W.

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, and A. Erramilli, “A bibliographical guide to self-similar traffic and performance modeling for modern high-speed networks,” in Stochastic Networks. Oxford, UK: Oxford University, 1996, pp. 339–366.

Wirth, P.

X.-R. Cao, H.-X. Shen, R. Milito, and P. Wirth, “Internet pricing with a game theoretical approach: Concepts and examples,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 2, pp. 208–216, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Wong, E.

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar./Apr. 2012.

Wynter, L.

E. Altman, T. Boulogne, R. El-Azouzi, T. Jiménez, and L. Wynter, “A survey on networking games in telecommunications,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  33, no. 2, pp. 286–311, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Yaïche, H.

H. Yaïche, R. R. Mazumdar, and C. Rosenber, “A game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation and pricing in broadband networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 667–678, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, and H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Commun. ACM (1)

A. Fiat, “Why study the price of anarchy?: Technical perspective,” Commun. ACM, vol.  55, no. 7, p. 115, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw. (1)

N. Ghazisaidi and M. Maier, “Techno-economic analysis of EPON and WiMAX for future fiber-wireless (FiWi) networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  54, no. 15, pp. 2640–2650, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Oper. Res. (1)

E. Altman, T. Boulogne, R. El-Azouzi, T. Jiménez, and L. Wynter, “A survey on networking games in telecommunications,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  33, no. 2, pp. 286–311, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Econometrica (1)

J. Nash, “The bargaining problem,” Econometrica, vol.  18, no. 2, pp. 155–162, 1950.

Electron. Lett. (1)

H.-J. Byun, J.-M. Nho, and J.-T. Lim, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm in Ethernet passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  39, no. 13, pp. 1001–1002, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (7)

Z. Ji and K. J. R. Liu, “Dynamic spectrum sharing: A game theoretical overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 5, pp. 88–94, 2007.
[CrossRef]

D. Niyato and E. Hossain, “Wireless broadband access WiMAX and beyond—integration of WiMAX and WiFi: Optimal pricing for bandwidth sharing,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 5, pp. 140–146, May 2007.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

M. P. McGarry, M. Reisslein, and M. Maier, “WDM Ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 2, pp. 15–22, Feb. 2006.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, and C. M. Assi, “Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 2, pp. 160–167, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, and C.-J. Chae, “Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 8, pp. 44–50, Aug. 2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

K. Yang, S. Ou, G. Ken, and H.-H. Chen, “Convergence of Ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  27, no. 2, pp. 101–116, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

L. He and J. Walrand, “Pricing and revenue sharing strategies for Internet service providers,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 5, pp. 942–951, May 2006.
[CrossRef]

D. Niyato and E. Hossain, “Competitive pricing for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks: Dynamic game, inefficiency of Nash equilibrium, and collusion,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 192–202, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

C. Ranaweera, E. Wong, C. Lim, and A. Nirmalathas, “Next generation optical-wireless converged network architectures,” IEEE Network, vol.  26, no. 2, pp. 22–27, Mar./Apr. 2012.

IEEE Signal Process. Mag. (1)

Y. Chen and K. J. Ray Liu, “Understanding microeconomic behaviors in social networking,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 53–64, Mar. 2012.

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

Z. Han, Z. Ji, and K. J. Liu, “Fair multiuser channel allocation for OFDMA networks using Nash bargaining solutions and coalitions,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  53, no. 8, pp. 1366–1376, Aug. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Z. Han and H. V. Poor, “Coalition games with cooperative transmission: A cure for the curse of boundary nodes in selfish packet-forwarding wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  57, no. 1, pp. 203–213, Jan.2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Reliab. (1)

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Scheutzow, and M. Maier, “Survivability analysis of next-generation passive optical networks and fiber-wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol.  60, no. 2, pp. 479–492, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. (1)

B. Lin, J. Tapolcai, and P.-H. Ho, “Dimensioning and site planning of integrated PON and wireless cooperative networks for fixed mobile convergence,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  60, no. 9, pp. 4528–4538, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

S.-L. Hew and L. B. White, “Cooperative resource allocation games in shared networks: Symmetric and asymmetric fair bargaining models,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol.  7, no. 11, pp. 4166–4175, Nov. 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (2)

X.-R. Cao, H.-X. Shen, R. Milito, and P. Wirth, “Internet pricing with a game theoretical approach: Concepts and examples,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  10, no. 2, pp. 208–216, Apr. 2002.
[CrossRef]

H. Yaïche, R. R. Mazumdar, and C. Rosenber, “A game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation and pricing in broadband networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 667–678, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (4)

Math. Social Sci. (1)

B. O’Neill, “A problem of rights arbitration from the Talmud,” Math. Social Sci., vol.  2, pp. 345–371, 1982.
[CrossRef]

Oper. Res. (1)

M. Pulido, J. S. Soriano, and N. Llorca, “Game theory techniques for university management: An extended bankruptcy model,” Oper. Res., vol.  109, pp. 129–142, 2002.

Opt. Switch. Netw. (1)

S. De, V. Singh, H. M. Gupta, N. Saxena, and A. Roy, “A new predictive dynamic priority scheduling in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs),” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  7, no. 4, pp. 215–223Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

P. Marbach and R. Berry, “Downlink resource allocation and pricing for wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2002, pp. 1470–1479.

R. B. Myerson, Game Theory: Analysis of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1991.

S. P. Ketchpel, “Coalition formation among autonomous agents,” in Proc. of MAAMAW, 1993.

D. Fudenberg and J. Tirole, Game Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1991.

H.-T. Lin, Y.-Y. Lin, W.-R. Chang, and S.-M. Chen, “A game-theoretic framework for intra-ONU scheduling in integrated EPON/WiMAX networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2009.

S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang, and W. Weiss, “An architecture for differentiated services,” Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 2475, Dec. 1998.

IEEE Standard 802.16 Working Group, “IEEE 802.16e-2005 Standard for Local, and Metropolitan Area Networks: Air interface for fixed broadband wireless access systems-amendment for physical, and medium access control layers for combined fixed, and mobile operation in licensed bands,” Dec. 2005.

Z. Han, D. Niyato, W. Saad, T. Basar, and A. Hjorungnes, Game Theory in Wireless and Communication Networks: Theory, Models, and Applications. Cambridge University, 2011.

H. Raiffa, “Arbitration schemes for generalized two-person games” in Contributions to the Theory of Game II. Princeton University, 1953, pp. 361–388.

IEEE 802.3ah, Ethernet in the First Mile Task Force. [Online] Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/efm/ .

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, and A. Erramilli, “A bibliographical guide to self-similar traffic and performance modeling for modern high-speed networks,” in Stochastic Networks. Oxford, UK: Oxford University, 1996, pp. 339–366.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Integrated EPON/WiMAX system. (a) Integrated EPON/WiMAX architecture. (b) Queue management scheme at each ONU.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Prices pw,u and pw under Stackelberg equilibrium conditions for various network-offered loads and Ethernet-to-WiMAX traffic load ratios.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Achieved throughput of ESP and WSP under Stackelberg equilibrium conditions for various network offered loads and Ethernet-to-WiMAX traffic load ratios.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Utilities of SE and SW under Stackelberg equilibrium conditions for various network-offered loads and Ethernet-to-WiMAX traffic load ratios.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Achieved throughput of ESP and WSP using the coalition game approach for various network-offered loads and Ethernet-to-WiMAX traffic load ratios.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mean queuing delay of SE using Stackelberg NBS scheme, coalition NBS scheme, and Co-VoB scheme for various network-offered loads. Note that the Ethernet traffic and WiMAX traffic have a 11 load ratio.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Mean queuing delay of SW using the Stackelberg NBS scheme, coalition NBS scheme, and Co-VoB scheme for various network offered loads. Note that the Ethernet traffic and WiMAX traffic have a 11 load ratio.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Mean queuing delay of SE using the Stackelberg NBS scheme, coalition NBS scheme, and Co-VoB scheme for various network-offered loads. Note that the Ethernet traffic and WiMAX traffic have a 12 load ratio.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Mean queuing delay of SW using the Stackelberg NBS scheme, coalition NBS scheme, and Co-VoB scheme for various network-offered loads. Note that the Ethernet traffic and WiMAX traffic have a 12 load ratio.

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

jΞRONU[j]BONU.
0BONU[j]RONU[j],jP,
jΞBONU[j]=BONU.
Ξ,(BONU[j])jΞ,(Uj(·))jΞ,
CE=Cinstall+Ccabling,
UE(pW)=pEBONU[SE]+pWBONU[SW]CE,
dW(pW,u)=[qWαWpW,u+βWRW]+,
max{pW}UE(pW)=pEBONU[SE]+pWdW(pW,u)CEs.t.pE,pW0.
UW(pW,u)=pW,udW(pW,u)CW,
max{pW}UW(pW,u)=pW,udW(pW,u)pWdW(pW,u)s.t.pW,pW,u0.
pW,u*=qW+βWRW+αWpW2αW.
pW*=qW+βWRW+αWpE2αW.
RONU[j]=SONU[j],
f(C)=max(0,BONUjCRONU[j]),
θj(f)=BONU[j]=CΞj|C|!(N|C|1)!N!(f(C{j})f(C)).
BONU[SE,rem]=BONU[SE]BSE[EF]BSE[BE,min],
U(BSE[l])=11+exp(σ[l]×(BSE[l]gE[l])),l{AF,BE},
0U(BSE[l])1,
(BSE[AF]*,BSE[BE]*)=argmaxBSE[AF],BSE[BE]{(U(BSE[AF])Umin(BSE[AF]))×(U(BSE[BE])Umin(BSE[BE]))},
BONU,R[SW]=BONU[SW]BSW[EF],