Abstract

A large number of factors generate uncertainty on traffic demands and requirements. In order to deal with uncertainty optical nodes and networks are equipped with flexibility. In this context, we define several types of flexibility and propose a method, based on entropy maximization, to quantitatively evaluate the flexibility provided by optical node components, subsystems, and architectures. Using this method we demonstrate the equivalence, in terms of switching flexibility, of finer spectrum granularity, and faster reconfiguration rate. We also show that switching flexibility is closely related to bandwidth granularity. The proposed method is used to derive formulae for the switching flexibility of key optical node components and the switching and architectural flexibility of four elastic optical node configurations. The elastic optical nodes presented provide various degrees of flexibility and functionality that are discussed in the paper, from flexible spectrum switching to adaptive architectures that support elastic switching of frequency, time, and spatial resources plus on-demand spectrum defragmentation. We further complement this analysis by experimentally demonstrating flexible time, spectrum, and space switching plus dynamic architecture reconfiguration. The implemented architectures support continuous and subwavelength heterogeneous signals with bitrates ranging from 190Mb/s, for a subwavelength channel, to 555Gb/s for a multicarrier superchannel. Results show good performance and the feasibility of implementing the architecture-on-demand concept.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2011 (3)

2010 (4)

A. Bains and T. Biedl, “Reconstructing HV-convex multi-coloured polyominoes,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol.  411, pp. 3123–3128, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (slice),” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 21, pp. 22105–22118, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Tanaka, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, K. Yonenage, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive path allocation in elastic optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E94-B, pp. 1823–1830, 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. K. Korotky, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. W. Tkach, “Expectations of optical network traffic gain afforded by bit rate adaptive transmission,” Bell Lab. Tech. J., vol.  14, pp. 285–295, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

F. D. Carli, A. Frosini, S. Rinaldi, and L. Vuillon, “Annals of combinatorics on the tiling system recognizability of various classes of convex polyominoes,” Ann. Comb., vol.  13, pp. 169–191, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. Krithikaivasan, Y. Zeng, K. Deka, and D. Medhi, “Arch-based traffic forecasting and dynamic bandwidth provisioning for periodically measured nonstationary traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 683–696, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

E. Shuiabi, V. Thomson, and N. Bhuiyan, “Entropy as a measure of operational flexibility,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., vol.  165, no. 3, pp. 696–707, 2005.

2003 (1)

D. Shi and R. L. Daniels, “A survey of manufacturing flexibility: Implications for e-business flexibility,” IBM Syst. J., vol.  42, no. 3, pp. 414–427, 2003.

2001 (1)

A. Feldmann, A. Greenberg, C. Lund, N. Reingold, J. Rexford, and F. True, “Deriving traffic demands for operational IP networks: Methodology and experience,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 265–279, June 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Yamashita, H. Sawada, and A. Nagoya, “SPFD: A new method to express functional flexibility,” IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Syst., vol.  19, no. 8, pp. 840–849, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. P. Parker and A. Wirth, “Manufacturing flexibility: Measures and relationships,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., vol.  118, no. 3, pp. 429–449, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Q. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  8, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Thompson, G. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Netw., vol.  11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, Nov./Dec. 1997.

1996 (1)

S. Okamoto, A. Watanabe, and K.-I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect node architectures for photonic transport network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 1410–1422, June 1996.

1994 (1)

W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb. 1994.
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Rose and S. Brown, “Flexibility of interconnection structures for field-programmable gate arrays,” J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.  26, no. 3, pp. 277–282, Mar. 1991.

1989 (1)

M. Mandelbaum and P. H. Brill, “Examples of measurement of flexibility and adaptivity in manufacturing systems,” J. Oper. Res. Soc., vol.  40, pp. 603–609, June 1989.

1975 (1)

A. Maruoka and N. Honda, “The range of logical flexibility of tree networks,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol.  C-24, no. 1, pp. 9–28, Jan. 1975.
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol.  27, pp. 379–423, July/Oct. 1948.

Abakoumov, D.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2006.

Amaya, N.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, M. Irfan, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, and D. Simeonidou, “Experimental demonstration of gridless spectrum and time optical switching,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 12, pp. 11182–11188, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

G. S. Zervas, J. Triay, N. Amaya, Y. Qin, C. Cervelló-Pastor, and D. Simeonidou, “Time shared optical network (TSON): A novel metro architecture for flexible multi-granular services,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B509–B514, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Dzanko, B. Mikac, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Availability analysis of optical cross-connect implemented by architecture on demand,” in 14th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), July 2012.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5  Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in 2011 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeodinou, Y. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2011.

N. Amaya, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand for transparent optical networks,” in 2011 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011.

M. Garrich, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, P. Giaccone, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand: Synthesis and scalability,” in 16th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM), Apr. 2012.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10  g/40  g/100  g/555  g over 620 km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

Aono, Y.

P. Ji and Y. Aono, “Colorless and directionless multi-degree reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers,” in 19th Annu. Wireless and Optical Communications Conf. (WOCC), May 2010.

Bains, A.

A. Bains and T. Biedl, “Reconstructing HV-convex multi-coloured polyominoes,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol.  411, pp. 3123–3128, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Banias, K.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10  g/40  g/100  g/555  g over 620 km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

Bartos, A.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2006.

Baxter, G.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2006.

Bhuiyan, N.

E. Shuiabi, V. Thomson, and N. Bhuiyan, “Entropy as a measure of operational flexibility,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., vol.  165, no. 3, pp. 696–707, 2005.

Biedl, T.

A. Bains and T. Biedl, “Reconstructing HV-convex multi-coloured polyominoes,” Theor. Comput. Sci., vol.  411, pp. 3123–3128, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Bitting, M.

M. Bitting, “New optical switches enable automated testing with true flexibility,” in Proc. AUTOTESTCON, Sept. 2004, pp. 361–366.

Brill, P. H.

M. Mandelbaum and P. H. Brill, “Examples of measurement of flexibility and adaptivity in manufacturing systems,” J. Oper. Res. Soc., vol.  40, pp. 603–609, June 1989.

Brown, S.

J. Rose and S. Brown, “Flexibility of interconnection structures for field-programmable gate arrays,” J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.  26, no. 3, pp. 277–282, Mar. 1991.

Buchali, F.

A. Klekamp, O. Rival, A. Morea, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transparent WDM network with bitrate tunable optical OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2010.

Cai, X.

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, X. Cai, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

Carli, F. D.

F. D. Carli, A. Frosini, S. Rinaldi, and L. Vuillon, “Annals of combinatorics on the tiling system recognizability of various classes of convex polyominoes,” Ann. Comb., vol.  13, pp. 169–191, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Cervelló-Pastor, C.

Chang, S.

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 2011 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

Chong, A.

A. Morea, A. Chong, and O. Rival, “Impact of transparent network constraints on capacity gain of elastic channel spacing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2011.

Clarke, I.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2006.

Daniels, R. L.

D. Shi and R. L. Daniels, “A survey of manufacturing flexibility: Implications for e-business flexibility,” IBM Syst. J., vol.  42, no. 3, pp. 414–427, 2003.

Deka, K.

B. Krithikaivasan, Y. Zeng, K. Deka, and D. Medhi, “Arch-based traffic forecasting and dynamic bandwidth provisioning for periodically measured nonstationary traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 683–696, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

Devarajan, A.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless, and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), Jan. 2010.

Dischler, R.

A. Klekamp, O. Rival, A. Morea, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Transparent WDM network with bitrate tunable optical OFDM transponders,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2010.

Dzanko, M.

M. Dzanko, B. Mikac, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Availability analysis of optical cross-connect implemented by architecture on demand,” in 14th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), July 2012.

Essiambre, R.-J.

S. K. Korotky, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. W. Tkach, “Expectations of optical network traffic gain afforded by bit rate adaptive transmission,” Bell Lab. Tech. J., vol.  14, pp. 285–295, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, A.

A. Feldmann, A. Greenberg, C. Lund, N. Reingold, J. Rexford, and F. True, “Deriving traffic demands for operational IP networks: Methodology and experience,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 265–279, June 2001.
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N. K.

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, X. Cai, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Flexible bandwidth arbitrary modulation format, coherent optical transmission system scalable to terahertz BW,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

Ford, J. E.

Frisken, S.

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S. Yamashita, H. Sawada, and A. Nagoya, “SPFD: A new method to express functional flexibility,” IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Syst., vol.  19, no. 8, pp. 840–849, Aug. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Flexible bandwidth arbitrary modulation format, coherent optical transmission system scalable to terahertz BW,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, X. Cai, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol.  27, pp. 379–423, July/Oct. 1948.

Shi, D.

D. Shi and R. L. Daniels, “A survey of manufacturing flexibility: Implications for e-business flexibility,” IBM Syst. J., vol.  42, no. 3, pp. 414–427, 2003.

Shuiabi, E.

E. Shuiabi, V. Thomson, and N. Bhuiyan, “Entropy as a measure of operational flexibility,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., vol.  165, no. 3, pp. 696–707, 2005.

Simeodinou, D.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeodinou, Y. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2011.

Simeonidou, D.

G. S. Zervas, J. Triay, N. Amaya, Y. Qin, C. Cervelló-Pastor, and D. Simeonidou, “Time shared optical network (TSON): A novel metro architecture for flexible multi-granular services,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B509–B514, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, M. Irfan, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, and D. Simeonidou, “Experimental demonstration of gridless spectrum and time optical switching,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 12, pp. 11182–11188, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Garrich, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, P. Giaccone, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand: Synthesis and scalability,” in 16th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM), Apr. 2012.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10  g/40  g/100  g/555  g over 620 km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

M. Dzanko, B. Mikac, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Availability analysis of optical cross-connect implemented by architecture on demand,” in 14th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), July 2012.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5  Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in 2011 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

N. Amaya, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand for transparent optical networks,” in 2011 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011.

Smith, K.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10  g/40  g/100  g/555  g over 620 km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

Solgaard, O.

Sone, Y.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Tanaka, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, K. Yonenage, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive path allocation in elastic optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E94-B, pp. 1823–1830, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Stone, A.

A. Stone, “An ontological approach to quantifying the functional flexibility of embedded systems,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  5, no. 1, pp. 111–120, Mar. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008.

Takara, H.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Tanaka, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, K. Yonenage, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive path allocation in elastic optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E94-B, pp. 1823–1830, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (slice),” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 21, pp. 22105–22118, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008.

Tanaka, T.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Tanaka, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, K. Yonenage, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive path allocation in elastic optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E94-B, pp. 1823–1830, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Taqqu, M.

W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb. 1994.
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Thompson, K.

K. Thompson, G. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Netw., vol.  11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, Nov./Dec. 1997.

Thomson, V.

E. Shuiabi, V. Thomson, and N. Bhuiyan, “Entropy as a measure of operational flexibility,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., vol.  165, no. 3, pp. 696–707, 2005.

Tkach, R. W.

S. K. Korotky, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. W. Tkach, “Expectations of optical network traffic gain afforded by bit rate adaptive transmission,” Bell Lab. Tech. J., vol.  14, pp. 285–295, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Triay, J.

True, F.

A. Feldmann, A. Greenberg, C. Lund, N. Reingold, J. Rexford, and F. True, “Deriving traffic demands for operational IP networks: Methodology and experience,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 265–279, June 2001.
[CrossRef]

Tsukishima, Y.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (slice),” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 21, pp. 22105–22118, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008.

Tucholski, A.

A. Tucholski, E. Kowalczyk, and A. Majka, “Autonomic provisioning in non-linear network traffic,” in 2010 Proc. 19th Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2010.

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A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless, and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. on Communication Systems and Networks (COMSNETS), Jan. 2010.

Vuillon, L.

F. D. Carli, A. Frosini, S. Rinaldi, and L. Vuillon, “Annals of combinatorics on the tiling system recognizability of various classes of convex polyominoes,” Ann. Comb., vol.  13, pp. 169–191, 2009.
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Watanabe, A.

S. Okamoto, A. Watanabe, and K.-I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect node architectures for photonic transport network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 1410–1422, June 1996.

Wen, K.

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 2011 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

Wilder, R.

K. Thompson, G. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Netw., vol.  11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, Nov./Dec. 1997.

Willinger, W.

W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb. 1994.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.

W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb. 1994.
[CrossRef]

Wirth, A.

R. P. Parker and A. Wirth, “Manufacturing flexibility: Measures and relationships,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., vol.  118, no. 3, pp. 429–449, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

J. Yao, M.-C. Lee, D. Leuenberger, and M. Wu, “Wavelength- and bandwidth-tunable filters based on MEMS-actuated microdisk resonators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2006.

Wu, M. C.

Yamashita, S.

S. Yamashita, H. Sawada, and A. Nagoya, “SPFD: A new method to express functional flexibility,” IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Syst., vol.  19, no. 8, pp. 840–849, Aug. 2000.
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Yao, J.

J. Yao, M.-C. Lee, D. Leuenberger, and M. Wu, “Wavelength- and bandwidth-tunable filters based on MEMS-actuated microdisk resonators,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2006.

Yin, Y.

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 2011 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, X. Cai, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

Yonenaga, K.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (slice),” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 21, pp. 22105–22118, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008.

Yonenage, K.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Tanaka, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, K. Yonenage, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive path allocation in elastic optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E94-B, pp. 1823–1830, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Yoo, M.

Q. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  8, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 1999.
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Yoo, S. J. B.

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, X. Cai, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Flexible bandwidth arbitrary modulation format, coherent optical transmission system scalable to terahertz BW,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 2011 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

Yoshimatsu, T.

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (slice),” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 21, pp. 22105–22118, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2008.

Zeng, Y.

B. Krithikaivasan, Y. Zeng, K. Deka, and D. Medhi, “Arch-based traffic forecasting and dynamic bandwidth provisioning for periodically measured nonstationary traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 683–696, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

Zervas, G.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10  g/40  g/100  g/555  g over 620 km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

N. Amaya, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand for transparent optical networks,” in 2011 13th Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2011.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeodinou, Y. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2011.

Zervas, G. S.

G. S. Zervas, J. Triay, N. Amaya, Y. Qin, C. Cervelló-Pastor, and D. Simeonidou, “Time shared optical network (TSON): A novel metro architecture for flexible multi-granular services,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 26, pp. B509–B514, Dec. 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, M. Irfan, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, and D. Simeonidou, “Experimental demonstration of gridless spectrum and time optical switching,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 12, pp. 11182–11188, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Garrich, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, P. Giaccone, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand: Synthesis and scalability,” in 16th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM), Apr. 2012.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5  Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in 2011 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

M. Dzanko, B. Mikac, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Availability analysis of optical cross-connect implemented by architecture on demand,” in 14th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), July 2012.

Zhou, H.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2006.

Zhou, Y.

N. Amaya, I. Muhammad, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeodinou, Y. Zhou, and A. Lord, “Experimental demonstration of a gridless multi-granular optical network supporting flexible spectrum switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2011.

Zhou, Y. R.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, M. Irfan, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, and D. Simeonidou, “Experimental demonstration of gridless spectrum and time optical switching,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 12, pp. 11182–11188, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10  g/40  g/100  g/555  g over 620 km field fiber,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

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F. D. Carli, A. Frosini, S. Rinaldi, and L. Vuillon, “Annals of combinatorics on the tiling system recognizability of various classes of convex polyominoes,” Ann. Comb., vol.  13, pp. 169–191, 2009.
[CrossRef]

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S. K. Korotky, R.-J. Essiambre, and R. W. Tkach, “Expectations of optical network traffic gain afforded by bit rate adaptive transmission,” Bell Lab. Tech. J., vol.  14, pp. 285–295, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

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C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol.  27, pp. 379–423, July/Oct. 1948.

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R. P. Parker and A. Wirth, “Manufacturing flexibility: Measures and relationships,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., vol.  118, no. 3, pp. 429–449, 1999.
[CrossRef]

E. Shuiabi, V. Thomson, and N. Bhuiyan, “Entropy as a measure of operational flexibility,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., vol.  165, no. 3, pp. 696–707, 2005.

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D. Shi and R. L. Daniels, “A survey of manufacturing flexibility: Implications for e-business flexibility,” IBM Syst. J., vol.  42, no. 3, pp. 414–427, 2003.

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M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 11, pp. 66–73, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Netw. (1)

K. Thompson, G. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Netw., vol.  11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, Nov./Dec. 1997.

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A. Stone, “An ontological approach to quantifying the functional flexibility of embedded systems,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  5, no. 1, pp. 111–120, Mar. 2011.
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[CrossRef]

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W. Leland, M. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, no. 1, pp. 1–15, Feb. 1994.
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

B. Krithikaivasan, Y. Zeng, K. Deka, and D. Medhi, “Arch-based traffic forecasting and dynamic bandwidth provisioning for periodically measured nonstationary traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  15, no. 3, pp. 683–696, June 2007.
[CrossRef]

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B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Tanaka, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, K. Yonenage, and M. Jinno, “Distance-adaptive path allocation in elastic optical path networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol.  E94-B, pp. 1823–1830, 2010.
[CrossRef]

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Q. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  8, no. 1, pp. 71–86, 1999.
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S. Okamoto, A. Watanabe, and K.-I. Sato, “Optical path cross-connect node architectures for photonic transport network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 1410–1422, June 1996.

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, and J. E. Ford, “Optical MEMS for lightwave communication,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 12, pp. 4433–4454, Dec. 2006.
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K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 2011 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2011.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of flexible spectrum demultiplexing. Signals with different spectral requirements are separated using an SSS: (a) SSS input, (b) programmed flattop passbands, and (c) SSS output.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of elastic time and frequency allocation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Elastic optical node architectures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Interconnection of N transmitters to N receivers using (a) a dedicated link per Tx-Rx pair and (b) an N×N optical switch.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Definition of times involved in state transitions.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

AoD nodes with different levels of complexity for the calculation of architecture flexibility.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Normalized (nkW=1) switching flexibility of the BS and SR architectures as a function of the number of degrees plus one (N). The ratio R=FBS/FSR is also shown. The logarithm to the base 10 was used.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Configuration of the AoD node used in the experimental demonstration.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimental demonstration of elastic spectrum, elastic time, and space switching using an AoD node

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Experimental results of elastic time switching.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Elastic time allocation demonstration.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

BER performance results of the experimental demonstration.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Experimental demonstration of flexible architecture composition. Switching between architectures is shown with a 20 ms delay per cross connection.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Comparison of Elastic Optical Node Architecturesa

Tables Icon

TABLE II Summary of Channels in the AoD Demonstration

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H(S,P)=i=1Mpilog(pi).
F(S)=max[H(S,P)].
F(S)=log(M).
F(a,b)Fa+Fb,
F(S)=Wlog(2).
F(S)=Wlog(N+1).
F(S)=kWlog(N+1).
F(S)=log(N!)+log(i=0N1i!(Ni)).
F(S,T)=mF(S)=mlog(M).
F(S,T)SSS=nF(S)=n·kWlog(N+1),
F(S,T)WSS=z·nF(S)=z·nWlog(N+1).
CΔf=eBkW.
Dmin=tTCΔf=eBTnkW.
F(S,T)SSS=eBTDminlog(N+1).
F(S,T)SSS=CtotlCminlog(N+1).
F(S,T)BS=nkW(N1)log(N+1).
F(S,T)SR=nkWlog(i=0N12i(N1i)(N1)!i!).
Farch(S)=log(M)=log(i=0mi!(mi)),
Farch(S)=log(n)+log(i=0m(mi)(n+i1)!).
Farch(S)log(K!)
(Ni)2(Ni)!.
F(S)=log(i=0N(Ni)2(Ni)!).
(N1i)(N)(Ni1).
F(S,T)BS=nkWlog(i=0N1(N1i)(N)(Ni1))
F(S,T)BS=nkW(N1)log(N+1).
2i(N1i)(N1Ni1)(Ni1)!.
2i(N1i)(N1)!i!.
F(S,T)SR=nkWlog(i=0N12i(N1i)(N1)!i!).