Abstract

High-speed, submicrosecond-latency, large-port-count (thousands) optical packet switches (OPSs) for intercluster communication networks can become a key element in the deployment of cloud-oriented large-scale data centers. In this work we numerically investigate the performance of a large-port-count wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) OPS based on a Spanke-type architecture with highly distributed control. We analyze it under a data center traffic model to determine its suitability for this type of environment. Results indicate that the proposed architecture can be scaled to 4096 ports while providing packet loss below 106 and latency under 1 μs, with a total switching capacity over 55Tbits/s. Additionally, we propose and analyze two WDM OPS architectures. The first one detects and processes small and large-sized Ethernet packets with two parallel switches. The second architecture includes multiple receivers to decrease packet losses and latency while using very limited electronic buffers. Results indicate that both techniques can lead to substantial improvements. In terms of packet loss and latency, they allow up to 40% higher input load with respect to the original WDM OPS architecture.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (5)

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, Y. Nazarathy, O. Raz, N. Calabretta, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low-latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A17–A28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. J. S. Dorren, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, O. Raz, and N. Calabretta, “Scaling photonic packet switches to a large number of ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A82–A89, 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Calabretta, “FPGA based label processor for low-latency and large port count optical packet switches,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 19, pp. 3173–3181, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, “Energy-efficient and bandwidth-reconfigurable photonic networks for high-performance computing (HPC) systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 384–395, 2010.

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

1994 (1)

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 203–213, 1994.
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, “On a class of rearrangeable switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 1579–1618, 1971.

Akella, A.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 2010, pp. 267–280.

Akella, V.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Anand, A.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

Andriolli, N.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

Barros, L. A.

L. A. Barros and U. Hölzle, “The datacenter as a computer: an introduction to the design of warehouse-scale machines,” in Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture. California: Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2009, pp. 1–107.

Benson, T.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 2010, pp. 267–280.

Bergman, K.

Bernasconi, P.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Biberman, A.

Calabretta, N.

S. Di Lucente, Y. Nazarathy, O. Raz, N. Calabretta, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low-latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A17–A28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. J. S. Dorren, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, O. Raz, and N. Calabretta, “Scaling photonic packet switches to a large number of ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A82–A89, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

N. Calabretta, “FPGA based label processor for low-latency and large port count optical packet switches,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 19, pp. 3173–3181, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

S. Di Lucente, R. Pueyo Centelles, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Study of the performance of an optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control in a data center environment,” in Optical Network Design Modeling, Colchester, UK, 2012.

R. Pueyo Centelles, S. Di Lucente, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Performance assessment of the optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control under data center traffic,” in 17th European Conf. Network Optical Communications (NOC 2012), Barcelona, 2012.

Castoldi, P.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

Centelles, R. Pueyo

R. Pueyo Centelles, S. Di Lucente, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Performance assessment of the optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control under data center traffic,” in 17th European Conf. Network Optical Communications (NOC 2012), Barcelona, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, R. Pueyo Centelles, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Study of the performance of an optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control in a data center environment,” in Optical Network Design Modeling, Colchester, UK, 2012.

Cerutti, I.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

Chaiken, R.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

Chao, H. J.

K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. J. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep., 2010.

Di Lucente, S.

H. J. S. Dorren, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, O. Raz, and N. Calabretta, “Scaling photonic packet switches to a large number of ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A82–A89, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, Y. Nazarathy, O. Raz, N. Calabretta, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low-latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A17–A28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

R. Pueyo Centelles, S. Di Lucente, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Performance assessment of the optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control under data center traffic,” in 17th European Conf. Network Optical Communications (NOC 2012), Barcelona, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, R. Pueyo Centelles, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Study of the performance of an optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control in a data center environment,” in Optical Network Design Modeling, Colchester, UK, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

Dorren, H. J. S.

S. Di Lucente, Y. Nazarathy, O. Raz, N. Calabretta, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Scaling low-latency optical packet switches to a thousand ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A17–A28, 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. J. S. Dorren, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, O. Raz, and N. Calabretta, “Scaling photonic packet switches to a large number of ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A82–A89, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

R. Pueyo Centelles, S. Di Lucente, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Performance assessment of the optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control under data center traffic,” in 17th European Conf. Network Optical Communications (NOC 2012), Barcelona, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, R. Pueyo Centelles, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Study of the performance of an optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control in a data center environment,” in Optical Network Design Modeling, Colchester, UK, 2012.

Greenberg, A.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

Gripp, J.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Grzybowski, R.

Heidemann, J.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: some observations,” USC/Information Sciences Institute, Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, May 2007.

Hemenway, R.

Hölzle, U.

L. A. Barros and U. Hölzle, “The datacenter as a computer: an introduction to the design of warehouse-scale machines,” in Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture. California: Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2009, pp. 1–107.

Kachris, C.

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Kandula, S.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

Kao, Y.-H.

K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. J. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep., 2010.

Kodi, A. K.

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, “Energy-efficient and bandwidth-reconfigurable photonic networks for high-performance computing (HPC) systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 384–395, 2010.

Kurumida, J.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Lai, C. P.

Lee, B. G.

LeGrange, J. D.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Leland, W. E.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 203–213, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, A. Shacham, B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, H. Wang, C. P. Lai, A. Biberman, and K. Bergman, “The data vortex optical packet switched interconnection network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  26, pp. 1777–1789, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Louri, A.

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, “Energy-efficient and bandwidth-reconfigurable photonic networks for high-performance computing (HPC) systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 384–395, 2010.

Luijten, R.

Luo, J.

H. J. S. Dorren, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, O. Raz, and N. Calabretta, “Scaling photonic packet switches to a large number of ports,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 9, pp. A82–A89, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

Maltz, D. A.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 2010, pp. 267–280.

Minkenberg, C.

Nazarathy, Y.

Neilson, D. T.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Opferman, D. C.

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, “On a class of rearrangeable switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 1579–1618, 1971.

Papadopoulos, C.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: some observations,” USC/Information Sciences Institute, Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, May 2007.

Patel, A.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

Potter, A.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Proietti, R.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Ramirez, J.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

Raponi, P.

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

Raz, O.

Rohit, A.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

Sengupta, S.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

Shacham, A.

Simsarian, J. E.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Sinha, R.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: some observations,” USC/Information Sciences Institute, Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, May 2007.

Small, B. A.

Taqqu, M. S.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 203–213, 1994.
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Wang, H.

Williams, K. A.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

Willinger, W.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 203–213, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. V.

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 203–213, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Xi, K.

K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. J. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep., 2010.

Yang, M.

K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. J. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep., 2010.

Ye, X.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Yin, Y.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Yoo, S. J. B.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Yu, R.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Zhang, M.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

Zou, S.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, “On a class of rearrangeable switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol.  50, no. 5, pp. 1579–1618, 1971.

Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92–99, 2010.

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1021–1036, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, I. Cerutti, P. Raponi, N. Andriolli, and P. Castoldi, “Energy-efficient design of a scalable optical multiplane interconnection architecture,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 377–383, 2010.

A. K. Kodi and A. Louri, “Energy-efficient and bandwidth-reconfigurable photonic networks for high-performance computing (HPC) systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 384–395, 2010.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, A. Rohit, S. Zou, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch with distributed control based on InP wavelength-space switch modules,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  24, pp. 2151–2154, 2012.

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

W. E. Leland, M. S. Taqqu, W. Willinger, and D. V. Wilson, “On the self-similar nature of Ethernet traffic (extended version),” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 203–213, 1994.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

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L. A. Barros and U. Hölzle, “The datacenter as a computer: an introduction to the design of warehouse-scale machines,” in Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture. California: Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2009, pp. 1–107.

K. Xi, Y.-H. Kao, M. Yang, and H. J. Chao, “Petabit optical switch for data center networks,” Polytechnic Institute of New York University, New York, Tech. Rep., 2010.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 2010, pp. 267–280.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, A. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of datacenter traffic: measurements & analysis,” in Proc. of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC’09), 2009, pp. 202–208.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: some observations,” USC/Information Sciences Institute, Los Angeles, CA, Tech. Rep. ISI-TR-2007-643, May 2007.

Caida (The Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis), “Packet size distribution comparison between Internet links in 1998 and 2008,” http://www.caida.org/research/traffic-analysis/ .

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: the IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

The New Optical Data Center, Data Sheet, Polatis Inc., Cambridge, 2009.

iVX8000 Product Datasheet, InTune Networks, Dublin, 2010.

R. Proietti, X. Ye, Y. Yin, A. Potter, R. Yu, J. Kurumida, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “40  Gb/s8×8 low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with high distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, 2012, paper OW3J.2.

S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, A. Rohit, K. A. Williams, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Optical packet switch node with packet flow control for flat inter-cluster data center network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2013, paper OW3H.4.

S. Di Lucente, R. Pueyo Centelles, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Study of the performance of an optical packet switch architecture with highly distributed control in a data center environment,” in Optical Network Design Modeling, Colchester, UK, 2012.

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OMNeT++ Network Simulation, http://www.omnetpp.org .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed WDM OPS architecture interconnecting a large number of servers, grouped in clusters, with a flat topology.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Block diagram of the OPS architecture.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

OMNet++ simulation layout of the system under investigation. A downscaled version is shown to allow proper representation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) CDF and (b) histogram of the generated packets’ length.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CDF of the ON (a) and OFF (b) transmission periods of a simulated server under typical data center operation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Packet loss, (b) throughput, and (c) latency in function of the input load. 4, 16, 64, 256, 1024, and 1024 in/out-port systems are simulated with an electronic input buffer of 20 kB.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Packet loss and (b) latency in function of the input load and input buffer size for a 1024 in/out port system.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Average packet latency as a function of the input load for different optical link lengths. 1024 in/out ports, 20 kB electrical input buffer.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Histogram of lost packets. Total lost packet count is 18,508 out of 1,000,000 (106) generated packets. Results correspond to an average normalized load of 0.5 and 20 kB input buffer size.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Packet loss and (b) latency of both networks separately and combined (total) for 1024 ports in/out architecture.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Packet loss and (b) latency as a function of the input load and saved packets for 1024 OPS ports and 20 kB buffer.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Summary of Typical Data Center Loads and Their Probability

Equations (1)

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T=numports·datarateopt·loadnorm=4096·40Gbs·0.34=55.71Tbs,