Abstract

Round-trip nonlinear phase-shift of an input signal due to optically induced thermal effects and saturable index change in a low intensity resonant reflective vertical cavity semiconductor (quantum wells) saturable absorber (VCSSA) is investigated theoretically for 2R (re-amplification and re-shaping) regeneration. Calculations are carried out for a high contrast switching system to find the optimum value of parameters such as energy time filling factor (FF) of the input pump signal, top mirror reflectivity (Rt) of the Fabry–Pérot cavity and wavelength detuning from the low intensity resonant wavelength of the Fabry–Pérot cavity. It is observed that the optimum contrasts are almost the same for a wavelength tuning range as large as 8 nm around the low intensity resonance wavelength of the InGaAs/InP quantum-wells-based VCSSA with Rt of 0.72 and FF of 0.10. The simulation shows that the required average input power is minimal for high contrast 2R regeneration when operated in the short wavelength side.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, “Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55 μm laser diode amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  35, pp. 1894–1903, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1314–1317, 1985.
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, “Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng., vol.  134, pp. 35–40, 1987.
  6. D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, “Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  33, pp. 2029–2037, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Porzi, A. Isomaki, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impedance-detuned high-contrast vertical cavity semiconductor switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, California, 2005, paper OThM.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Pradhan, K. Hussain, and P. K. Datta, “Reflective vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber for functional operations with thermal limitations and saturable index change,” Opt. Commun., vol.  284, pp. 3416–3421, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
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  23. A. M. Fox, A. C. Maciel, M. G. Shorthose, J. F. Ryan, M. D. Scott, J. I. Davies, and J. R. Riffat, “Nonlinear excitonic optical absorption in GaLnAs/InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  51, pp. 30–32, 1987.
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. S. Weiner, D. B. Pearson, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemler, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  49, pp. 531–533, 1986.
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm photoresponses in low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  65, pp. 1790–1792, 1994.
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, and M. Missous, “Highly resistive annealed low-temperature-grown InGaAs with sub-500 fs carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  85, pp. 4965–4967, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Chen, S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralf, and D. T. McInturff, “Trapping and recombination dynamics of low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 439–441, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. L. Delpon, J. L. Oudar, N. Bouché, R. Raj, A. Shen, N. Stelmakh, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Ultrafast excitonic saturable absorption in ion-implanted InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 759–761, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. B. Johnson, T. C. McGill, and N. G. Paulter, “Carrier lifetimes in ion-damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  54, pp. 2424–2426, 1989.
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Lambsdorff, J. Kulh, J. Rosenzweig, A. Axmann, and J. Schneider, “Sub-picosecond lifetimes in radiation damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  58, pp. 1881–1883, 1991.
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Jiang, M. C. Teich, and W. I. Wang, “Enhanced exciton absorption and saturation limit in strained InGaAs/InP quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys., vol.  71, pp. 769–772, 1992.
    [CrossRef]

2013

R. Pradhan, S. Saha, and P. K. Datta, “Dispersive bi-stability in a vertical microcavity-based saturable absorber due to photo-thermal effect and initial phase-detuning,” Opt. Commun., vol.  287, pp. 203–209, 2013.
[CrossRef]

2011

P. K. Datta, R. Pradhan, L. Mishra, and S. Saha, “Effect of saturable index change on all-optical logic operations in passive vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, pp. 77–82, 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Pradhan, K. Hussain, and P. K. Datta, “Reflective vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber for functional operations with thermal limitations and saturable index change,” Opt. Commun., vol.  284, pp. 3416–3421, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

G. de Valicourt, C. Porzi, M. Guina, and N. Balkan, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity gate for all-optical logic at 1.3 mm,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  4, pp. 201–209, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Porzi, M. Guina, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “All-optical NAND/NOR logic gates based on semiconductor saturable absorber etalons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  14, pp. 927–937, 2008.

C. Porzi, M. Guina, L. Orsila, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “Simultaneous dual-wavelength conversion with multiresonant saturable absorption vertical-cavity semiconductor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  20, pp. 499–501, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, and M. Missous, “Highly resistive annealed low-temperature-grown InGaAs with sub-500 fs carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  85, pp. 4965–4967, 2004.
[CrossRef]

S. Waiyapot, S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Rousset, and O. Leclerc, “Optical 2R regeneration at 40  Gbit/s using saturable absorber in long-haul dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun., vol.  232, pp. 145–149, 2004.

2003

2002

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, F. Segnineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40  Gbit/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett., vol.  38, pp. 1113–1114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000

E. Garmire, “Resonant optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  6, pp. 1094–1110, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, “Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55 μm laser diode amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  35, pp. 1894–1903, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Chen, S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralf, and D. T. McInturff, “Trapping and recombination dynamics of low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 439–441, 1998.
[CrossRef]

E. L. Delpon, J. L. Oudar, N. Bouché, R. Raj, A. Shen, N. Stelmakh, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Ultrafast excitonic saturable absorption in ion-implanted InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 759–761, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1997

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, “Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  33, pp. 2029–2037, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1994

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm photoresponses in low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  65, pp. 1790–1792, 1994.
[CrossRef]

1992

Y. Jiang, M. C. Teich, and W. I. Wang, “Enhanced exciton absorption and saturation limit in strained InGaAs/InP quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys., vol.  71, pp. 769–772, 1992.
[CrossRef]

C. Cacciatore, D. Campi, C. Coriasso, G. Meneghini, and C. Rigo, “Low-power, refractive nonlinearity in InGaAs/InP multi-quantum well waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  28, pp. 1624–1625, 1992.

1991

M. Lambsdorff, J. Kulh, J. Rosenzweig, A. Axmann, and J. Schneider, “Sub-picosecond lifetimes in radiation damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  58, pp. 1881–1883, 1991.
[CrossRef]

1989

M. B. Johnson, T. C. McGill, and N. G. Paulter, “Carrier lifetimes in ion-damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  54, pp. 2424–2426, 1989.
[CrossRef]

E. Garmire, “Criteria for optical bistability in a lossy saturating Fabry–Pérot,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  25, pp. 289–295, 1989.
[CrossRef]

1987

A. M. Fox, A. C. Maciel, M. G. Shorthose, J. F. Ryan, M. D. Scott, J. I. Davies, and J. R. Riffat, “Nonlinear excitonic optical absorption in GaLnAs/InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  51, pp. 30–32, 1987.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, “Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng., vol.  134, pp. 35–40, 1987.

1986

J. S. Weiner, D. B. Pearson, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemler, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  49, pp. 531–533, 1986.
[CrossRef]

1985

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1314–1317, 1985.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams, H. J. Wetlake, H. J. Wetlake, M. J. O’Mahony, and I. D. Henning, “A comparison of active and passive optical bistability in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1498–1504, 1985.
[CrossRef]

1983

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, “Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol.  19, pp. 262–263, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, “Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55 μm laser diode amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  35, pp. 1894–1903, 1999.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, “Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng., vol.  134, pp. 35–40, 1987.

M. J. Adams, H. J. Wetlake, H. J. Wetlake, M. J. O’Mahony, and I. D. Henning, “A comparison of active and passive optical bistability in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1498–1504, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, “Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  33, pp. 2029–2037, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Aubin, G.

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, F. Segnineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40  Gbit/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett., vol.  38, pp. 1113–1114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Axmann, A.

M. Lambsdorff, J. Kulh, J. Rosenzweig, A. Axmann, and J. Schneider, “Sub-picosecond lifetimes in radiation damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  58, pp. 1881–1883, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, and M. Missous, “Highly resistive annealed low-temperature-grown InGaAs with sub-500 fs carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  85, pp. 4965–4967, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Balkan, N.

G. de Valicourt, C. Porzi, M. Guina, and N. Balkan, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity gate for all-optical logic at 1.3 mm,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  4, pp. 201–209, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Bogoni, A.

C. Porzi, M. Guina, L. Orsila, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “Simultaneous dual-wavelength conversion with multiresonant saturable absorption vertical-cavity semiconductor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  20, pp. 499–501, 2008.
[CrossRef]

C. Porzi, M. Guina, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “All-optical NAND/NOR logic gates based on semiconductor saturable absorber etalons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  14, pp. 927–937, 2008.

Bouché, N.

E. L. Delpon, J. L. Oudar, N. Bouché, R. Raj, A. Shen, N. Stelmakh, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Ultrafast excitonic saturable absorption in ion-implanted InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 759–761, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Bradley, I. V.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, and M. Missous, “Highly resistive annealed low-temperature-grown InGaAs with sub-500 fs carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  85, pp. 4965–4967, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Bramerie, L.

Brindel, P.

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, F. Segnineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40  Gbit/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett., vol.  38, pp. 1113–1114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Cacciatore, C.

C. Cacciatore, D. Campi, C. Coriasso, G. Meneghini, and C. Rigo, “Low-power, refractive nonlinearity in InGaAs/InP multi-quantum well waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  28, pp. 1624–1625, 1992.

Campi, D.

C. Cacciatore, D. Campi, C. Coriasso, G. Meneghini, and C. Rigo, “Low-power, refractive nonlinearity in InGaAs/InP multi-quantum well waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  28, pp. 1624–1625, 1992.

Chemler, D. S.

J. S. Weiner, D. B. Pearson, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemler, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  49, pp. 531–533, 1986.
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralf, and D. T. McInturff, “Trapping and recombination dynamics of low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 439–441, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Choumane, H.

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, F. Segnineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40  Gbit/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett., vol.  38, pp. 1113–1114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Coriasso, C.

C. Cacciatore, D. Campi, C. Coriasso, G. Meneghini, and C. Rigo, “Low-power, refractive nonlinearity in InGaAs/InP multi-quantum well waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  28, pp. 1624–1625, 1992.

Datta, P. K.

R. Pradhan, S. Saha, and P. K. Datta, “Dispersive bi-stability in a vertical microcavity-based saturable absorber due to photo-thermal effect and initial phase-detuning,” Opt. Commun., vol.  287, pp. 203–209, 2013.
[CrossRef]

P. K. Datta, R. Pradhan, L. Mishra, and S. Saha, “Effect of saturable index change on all-optical logic operations in passive vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, pp. 77–82, 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Pradhan, K. Hussain, and P. K. Datta, “Reflective vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber for functional operations with thermal limitations and saturable index change,” Opt. Commun., vol.  284, pp. 3416–3421, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Davies, J. I.

A. M. Fox, A. C. Maciel, M. G. Shorthose, J. F. Ryan, M. D. Scott, J. I. Davies, and J. R. Riffat, “Nonlinear excitonic optical absorption in GaLnAs/InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  51, pp. 30–32, 1987.
[CrossRef]

de Valicourt, G.

G. de Valicourt, C. Porzi, M. Guina, and N. Balkan, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity gate for all-optical logic at 1.3 mm,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  4, pp. 201–209, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Decobert, J. J.

Delpon, E. L.

E. L. Delpon, J. L. Oudar, N. Bouché, R. Raj, A. Shen, N. Stelmakh, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Ultrafast excitonic saturable absorption in ion-implanted InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 759–761, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Evans, M. J.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, and M. Missous, “Highly resistive annealed low-temperature-grown InGaAs with sub-500 fs carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  85, pp. 4965–4967, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Fedoruk, M. P.

S. Waiyapot, S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Rousset, and O. Leclerc, “Optical 2R regeneration at 40  Gbit/s using saturable absorber in long-haul dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun., vol.  232, pp. 145–149, 2004.

Fève, S.

Fox, A. M.

A. M. Fox, A. C. Maciel, M. G. Shorthose, J. F. Ryan, M. D. Scott, J. I. Davies, and J. R. Riffat, “Nonlinear excitonic optical absorption in GaLnAs/InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  51, pp. 30–32, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

E. Garmire, “Resonant optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  6, pp. 1094–1110, 2000.
[CrossRef]

E. Garmire, “Criteria for optical bistability in a lossy saturating Fabry–Pérot,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  25, pp. 289–295, 1989.
[CrossRef]

Gay, M.

Gregory, I. S.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, and M. Missous, “Highly resistive annealed low-temperature-grown InGaAs with sub-500 fs carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  85, pp. 4965–4967, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Guina, M.

G. de Valicourt, C. Porzi, M. Guina, and N. Balkan, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity gate for all-optical logic at 1.3 mm,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  4, pp. 201–209, 2010.
[CrossRef]

C. Porzi, M. Guina, L. Orsila, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “Simultaneous dual-wavelength conversion with multiresonant saturable absorption vertical-cavity semiconductor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  20, pp. 499–501, 2008.
[CrossRef]

C. Porzi, M. Guina, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “All-optical NAND/NOR logic gates based on semiconductor saturable absorber etalons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  14, pp. 927–937, 2008.

Y. Tang, A. Siahmakoun, G. Sergio, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Optical switching in a resonant Fabry–Pérot saturable absorber,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol.  8, pp. 991–995, 2006.

M. Guina, A. Vainionpää, A. Harkonen, L. Orsila, J. Lyytikäinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Vertical-cavity saturable-absorber intensity modulator,” Opt. Lett., vol.  28, pp. 43–45, 2003.
[CrossRef]

C. Porzi, A. Isomaki, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impedance-detuned high-contrast vertical cavity semiconductor switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, California, 2005, paper OThM.

Harkonen, A.

Henning, I. D.

M. J. Adams, H. J. Wetlake, H. J. Wetlake, M. J. O’Mahony, and I. D. Henning, “A comparison of active and passive optical bistability in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1498–1504, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Hussain, K.

R. Pradhan, K. Hussain, and P. K. Datta, “Reflective vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber for functional operations with thermal limitations and saturable index change,” Opt. Commun., vol.  284, pp. 3416–3421, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1314–1317, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Isomaki, A.

C. Porzi, A. Isomaki, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impedance-detuned high-contrast vertical cavity semiconductor switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, California, 2005, paper OThM.

Iwamura, H.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm photoresponses in low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  65, pp. 1790–1792, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, M. C. Teich, and W. I. Wang, “Enhanced exciton absorption and saturation limit in strained InGaAs/InP quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys., vol.  71, pp. 769–772, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. B.

M. B. Johnson, T. C. McGill, and N. G. Paulter, “Carrier lifetimes in ion-damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  54, pp. 2424–2426, 1989.
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, T.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm photoresponses in low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  65, pp. 1790–1792, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, H.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1314–1317, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, Y.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm photoresponses in low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  65, pp. 1790–1792, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, “Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol.  19, pp. 262–263, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Kulh, J.

M. Lambsdorff, J. Kulh, J. Rosenzweig, A. Axmann, and J. Schneider, “Sub-picosecond lifetimes in radiation damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  58, pp. 1881–1883, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Lambsdorff, M.

M. Lambsdorff, J. Kulh, J. Rosenzweig, A. Axmann, and J. Schneider, “Sub-picosecond lifetimes in radiation damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  58, pp. 1881–1883, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Le Cren, E.

Leclerc, O.

S. Waiyapot, S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Rousset, and O. Leclerc, “Optical 2R regeneration at 40  Gbit/s using saturable absorber in long-haul dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun., vol.  232, pp. 145–149, 2004.

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, F. Segnineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40  Gbit/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett., vol.  38, pp. 1113–1114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, and M. Missous, “Highly resistive annealed low-temperature-grown InGaAs with sub-500 fs carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  85, pp. 4965–4967, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Lobo, S.

Lourtioz, J. M.

E. L. Delpon, J. L. Oudar, N. Bouché, R. Raj, A. Shen, N. Stelmakh, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Ultrafast excitonic saturable absorption in ion-implanted InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 759–761, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Lyytikäinen, J.

Maciel, A. C.

A. M. Fox, A. C. Maciel, M. G. Shorthose, J. F. Ryan, M. D. Scott, J. I. Davies, and J. R. Riffat, “Nonlinear excitonic optical absorption in GaLnAs/InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  51, pp. 30–32, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Massoubre, D.

Matsuoka, T.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1314–1317, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Maywar, D. N.

D. N. Maywar and G. P. Agrawal, “Transfer-matrix analysis of optical bistability in DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers with nonuniform gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  33, pp. 2029–2037, 1997.
[CrossRef]

McGill, T. C.

M. B. Johnson, T. C. McGill, and N. G. Paulter, “Carrier lifetimes in ion-damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  54, pp. 2424–2426, 1989.
[CrossRef]

McInturff, D. T.

Y. Chen, S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralf, and D. T. McInturff, “Trapping and recombination dynamics of low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 439–441, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, G.

C. Cacciatore, D. Campi, C. Coriasso, G. Meneghini, and C. Rigo, “Low-power, refractive nonlinearity in InGaAs/InP multi-quantum well waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  28, pp. 1624–1625, 1992.

Miller, D. A. B.

J. S. Weiner, D. B. Pearson, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemler, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  49, pp. 531–533, 1986.
[CrossRef]

Mishra, L.

P. K. Datta, R. Pradhan, L. Mishra, and S. Saha, “Effect of saturable index change on all-optical logic operations in passive vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, pp. 77–82, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Missous, M.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, and M. Missous, “Highly resistive annealed low-temperature-grown InGaAs with sub-500 fs carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  85, pp. 4965–4967, 2004.
[CrossRef]

O’Hare, A.

O’Mahony, M. J.

M. J. Adams, H. J. Wetlake, H. J. Wetlake, M. J. O’Mahony, and I. D. Henning, “A comparison of active and passive optical bistability in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1498–1504, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

M. Guina, A. Vainionpää, A. Harkonen, L. Orsila, J. Lyytikäinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Vertical-cavity saturable-absorber intensity modulator,” Opt. Lett., vol.  28, pp. 43–45, 2003.
[CrossRef]

C. Porzi, A. Isomaki, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impedance-detuned high-contrast vertical cavity semiconductor switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, California, 2005, paper OThM.

Orsila, L.

C. Porzi, M. Guina, L. Orsila, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “Simultaneous dual-wavelength conversion with multiresonant saturable absorption vertical-cavity semiconductor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  20, pp. 499–501, 2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Guina, A. Vainionpää, A. Harkonen, L. Orsila, J. Lyytikäinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Vertical-cavity saturable-absorber intensity modulator,” Opt. Lett., vol.  28, pp. 43–45, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, K.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1314–1317, 1985.
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, “Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol.  19, pp. 262–263, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Oudar, J. L.

D. Massoubre, J. L. Oudar, A. O’Hare, M. Gay, L. Bramerie, J. C. Soimn, A. Shen, and J. J. Decobert, “Analysis of thermal limitations in high-speed microcavity saturable absorber all-optical switching gates,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, pp. 3400–3408, 2006.
[CrossRef]

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, F. Segnineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40  Gbit/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett., vol.  38, pp. 1113–1114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. L. Delpon, J. L. Oudar, N. Bouché, R. Raj, A. Shen, N. Stelmakh, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Ultrafast excitonic saturable absorption in ion-implanted InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 759–761, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Pakdeevanich, P.

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, “Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55 μm laser diode amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  35, pp. 1894–1903, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Paulter, N. G.

M. B. Johnson, T. C. McGill, and N. G. Paulter, “Carrier lifetimes in ion-damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  54, pp. 2424–2426, 1989.
[CrossRef]

Pearson, D. B.

J. S. Weiner, D. B. Pearson, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemler, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  49, pp. 531–533, 1986.
[CrossRef]

Pessa, M.

Y. Tang, A. Siahmakoun, G. Sergio, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Optical switching in a resonant Fabry–Pérot saturable absorber,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol.  8, pp. 991–995, 2006.

Pierre, L.

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, F. Segnineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40  Gbit/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett., vol.  38, pp. 1113–1114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Porzi, C.

G. de Valicourt, C. Porzi, M. Guina, and N. Balkan, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity gate for all-optical logic at 1.3 mm,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  4, pp. 201–209, 2010.
[CrossRef]

C. Porzi, M. Guina, L. Orsila, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “Simultaneous dual-wavelength conversion with multiresonant saturable absorption vertical-cavity semiconductor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  20, pp. 499–501, 2008.
[CrossRef]

C. Porzi, M. Guina, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “All-optical NAND/NOR logic gates based on semiconductor saturable absorber etalons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  14, pp. 927–937, 2008.

C. Porzi, A. Isomaki, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impedance-detuned high-contrast vertical cavity semiconductor switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, California, 2005, paper OThM.

Poti, L.

C. Porzi, M. Guina, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “All-optical NAND/NOR logic gates based on semiconductor saturable absorber etalons,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  14, pp. 927–937, 2008.

C. Porzi, M. Guina, L. Orsila, A. Bogoni, and L. Poti, “Simultaneous dual-wavelength conversion with multiresonant saturable absorption vertical-cavity semiconductor gate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  20, pp. 499–501, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Prabhu, S. S.

Y. Chen, S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralf, and D. T. McInturff, “Trapping and recombination dynamics of low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 439–441, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, R.

R. Pradhan, S. Saha, and P. K. Datta, “Dispersive bi-stability in a vertical microcavity-based saturable absorber due to photo-thermal effect and initial phase-detuning,” Opt. Commun., vol.  287, pp. 203–209, 2013.
[CrossRef]

P. K. Datta, R. Pradhan, L. Mishra, and S. Saha, “Effect of saturable index change on all-optical logic operations in passive vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, pp. 77–82, 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Pradhan, K. Hussain, and P. K. Datta, “Reflective vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber for functional operations with thermal limitations and saturable index change,” Opt. Commun., vol.  284, pp. 3416–3421, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Raj, R.

E. L. Delpon, J. L. Oudar, N. Bouché, R. Raj, A. Shen, N. Stelmakh, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Ultrafast excitonic saturable absorption in ion-implanted InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 759–761, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Ralf, S. E.

Y. Chen, S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralf, and D. T. McInturff, “Trapping and recombination dynamics of low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 439–441, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Riffat, J. R.

A. M. Fox, A. C. Maciel, M. G. Shorthose, J. F. Ryan, M. D. Scott, J. I. Davies, and J. R. Riffat, “Nonlinear excitonic optical absorption in GaLnAs/InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  51, pp. 30–32, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Rigo, C.

C. Cacciatore, D. Campi, C. Coriasso, G. Meneghini, and C. Rigo, “Low-power, refractive nonlinearity in InGaAs/InP multi-quantum well waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  28, pp. 1624–1625, 1992.

Rosenzweig, J.

M. Lambsdorff, J. Kulh, J. Rosenzweig, A. Axmann, and J. Schneider, “Sub-picosecond lifetimes in radiation damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  58, pp. 1881–1883, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Rousset, A.

S. Waiyapot, S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Rousset, and O. Leclerc, “Optical 2R regeneration at 40  Gbit/s using saturable absorber in long-haul dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun., vol.  232, pp. 145–149, 2004.

Rouvillain, D.

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, F. Segnineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40  Gbit/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett., vol.  38, pp. 1113–1114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ryan, J. F.

A. M. Fox, A. C. Maciel, M. G. Shorthose, J. F. Ryan, M. D. Scott, J. I. Davies, and J. R. Riffat, “Nonlinear excitonic optical absorption in GaLnAs/InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  51, pp. 30–32, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Saha, S.

R. Pradhan, S. Saha, and P. K. Datta, “Dispersive bi-stability in a vertical microcavity-based saturable absorber due to photo-thermal effect and initial phase-detuning,” Opt. Commun., vol.  287, pp. 203–209, 2013.
[CrossRef]

P. K. Datta, R. Pradhan, L. Mishra, and S. Saha, “Effect of saturable index change on all-optical logic operations in passive vertical cavity semiconductor saturable absorber,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, pp. 77–82, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

M. Lambsdorff, J. Kulh, J. Rosenzweig, A. Axmann, and J. Schneider, “Sub-picosecond lifetimes in radiation damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  58, pp. 1881–1883, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Scott, M. D.

A. M. Fox, A. C. Maciel, M. G. Shorthose, J. F. Ryan, M. D. Scott, J. I. Davies, and J. R. Riffat, “Nonlinear excitonic optical absorption in GaLnAs/InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  51, pp. 30–32, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Segnineau, F.

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, F. Segnineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40  Gbit/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett., vol.  38, pp. 1113–1114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Sergio, G.

Y. Tang, A. Siahmakoun, G. Sergio, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Optical switching in a resonant Fabry–Pérot saturable absorber,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol.  8, pp. 991–995, 2006.

Shen, A.

D. Massoubre, J. L. Oudar, A. O’Hare, M. Gay, L. Bramerie, J. C. Soimn, A. Shen, and J. J. Decobert, “Analysis of thermal limitations in high-speed microcavity saturable absorber all-optical switching gates,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, pp. 3400–3408, 2006.
[CrossRef]

E. L. Delpon, J. L. Oudar, N. Bouché, R. Raj, A. Shen, N. Stelmakh, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Ultrafast excitonic saturable absorption in ion-implanted InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 759–761, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Shorthose, M. G.

A. M. Fox, A. C. Maciel, M. G. Shorthose, J. F. Ryan, M. D. Scott, J. I. Davies, and J. R. Riffat, “Nonlinear excitonic optical absorption in GaLnAs/InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  51, pp. 30–32, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Siahmakoun, A.

Y. Tang, A. Siahmakoun, G. Sergio, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Optical switching in a resonant Fabry–Pérot saturable absorber,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol.  8, pp. 991–995, 2006.

Simon, J. C.

Soimn, J. C.

Stelmakh, N.

E. L. Delpon, J. L. Oudar, N. Bouché, R. Raj, A. Shen, N. Stelmakh, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Ultrafast excitonic saturable absorption in ion-implanted InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 759–761, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, R.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm photoresponses in low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  65, pp. 1790–1792, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, A. Siahmakoun, G. Sergio, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Optical switching in a resonant Fabry–Pérot saturable absorber,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol.  8, pp. 991–995, 2006.

Teich, M. C.

Y. Jiang, M. C. Teich, and W. I. Wang, “Enhanced exciton absorption and saturation limit in strained InGaAs/InP quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys., vol.  71, pp. 769–772, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Tribe, W. R.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, and M. Missous, “Highly resistive annealed low-temperature-grown InGaAs with sub-500 fs carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  85, pp. 4965–4967, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. Waiyapot, S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Rousset, and O. Leclerc, “Optical 2R regeneration at 40  Gbit/s using saturable absorber in long-haul dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun., vol.  232, pp. 145–149, 2004.

Vainionpää, A.

Waiyapot, S.

S. Waiyapot, S. K. Turitsyn, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Rousset, and O. Leclerc, “Optical 2R regeneration at 40  Gbit/s using saturable absorber in long-haul dispersion-managed fiber links,” Opt. Commun., vol.  232, pp. 145–149, 2004.

Wang, W. I.

Y. Jiang, M. C. Teich, and W. I. Wang, “Enhanced exciton absorption and saturation limit in strained InGaAs/InP quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys., vol.  71, pp. 769–772, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

J. S. Weiner, D. B. Pearson, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemler, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  49, pp. 531–533, 1986.
[CrossRef]

Wetlake, H. J.

M. J. Adams, H. J. Wetlake, H. J. Wetlake, M. J. O’Mahony, and I. D. Henning, “A comparison of active and passive optical bistability in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1498–1504, 1985.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams, H. J. Wetlake, H. J. Wetlake, M. J. O’Mahony, and I. D. Henning, “A comparison of active and passive optical bistability in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1498–1504, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

M. J. Adams and R. Wyatt, “Optical bistability in distributed-feedback semiconductor laser amplifiers,” Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng., vol.  134, pp. 35–40, 1987.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. M. Fox, A. C. Maciel, M. G. Shorthose, J. F. Ryan, M. D. Scott, J. I. Davies, and J. R. Riffat, “Nonlinear excitonic optical absorption in GaLnAs/InP,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  51, pp. 30–32, 1987.
[CrossRef]

J. S. Weiner, D. B. Pearson, D. A. B. Miller, and D. S. Chemler, “Nonlinear spectroscopy of InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  49, pp. 531–533, 1986.
[CrossRef]

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, T. Kagawa, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm photoresponses in low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  65, pp. 1790–1792, 1994.
[CrossRef]

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, and M. Missous, “Highly resistive annealed low-temperature-grown InGaAs with sub-500 fs carrier lifetimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  85, pp. 4965–4967, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, S. S. Prabhu, S. E. Ralf, and D. T. McInturff, “Trapping and recombination dynamics of low-temperature-grown InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 439–441, 1998.
[CrossRef]

E. L. Delpon, J. L. Oudar, N. Bouché, R. Raj, A. Shen, N. Stelmakh, and J. M. Lourtioz, “Ultrafast excitonic saturable absorption in ion-implanted InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  72, pp. 759–761, 1998.
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnson, T. C. McGill, and N. G. Paulter, “Carrier lifetimes in ion-damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  54, pp. 2424–2426, 1989.
[CrossRef]

M. Lambsdorff, J. Kulh, J. Rosenzweig, A. Axmann, and J. Schneider, “Sub-picosecond lifetimes in radiation damaged GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  58, pp. 1881–1883, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

C. Cacciatore, D. Campi, C. Coriasso, G. Meneghini, and C. Rigo, “Low-power, refractive nonlinearity in InGaAs/InP multi-quantum well waveguide,” Electron. Lett., vol.  28, pp. 1624–1625, 1992.

K. Otsuka and S. Kobayashi, “Optical bistability and nonlinear resonance in a resonant-type semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett., vol.  19, pp. 262–263, 1983.
[CrossRef]

D. Rouvillain, P. Brindel, F. Segnineau, L. Pierre, O. Leclerc, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, and J. L. Oudar, “Optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for 40  Gbit/s WDM long-haul transmissions,” Electron. Lett., vol.  38, pp. 1113–1114, 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

E. Garmire, “Criteria for optical bistability in a lossy saturating Fabry–Pérot,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  25, pp. 289–295, 1989.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams, H. J. Wetlake, H. J. Wetlake, M. J. O’Mahony, and I. D. Henning, “A comparison of active and passive optical bistability in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  21, no. 9, pp. 1498–1504, 1985.
[CrossRef]

P. Pakdeevanich and M. J. Adams, “Measurements and modelling of reflective bistability in 1.55 μm laser diode amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.  35, pp. 1894–1903, 1999.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of a reflective VCSSA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Resonance wavelength shift (Δλres) as a function of input average absorption power (Pabs) of the reflective VCSSA microcavity at Rt of 0.80 for 1555 nm. The experimental data of [15] are shown by the squares for comparison.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Contrast as a function of normalized average pump intensity for FF=0.25 and 0.10. For comparison the experimental data of [15] are shown in the inset. (b) Ron and Roff with (Iavg/IS) for FF of 0.25 and 0.10 at Rt of 0.77 with working wavelength of 1555 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated contrast as a function of normalized average pump intensity for Rt values of 0.72, 0.77, and 0.82 at the low intensity resonance wavelength for FF of 0.10.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated C as a function of pump wavelength at Pavg of 7.78 dBm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Plot of optimum contrast and optimum average input power of pump signal as a function of pump operation wavelength.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I VCSSA Parameters

Equations (29)

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dNCdt=αIChνNCτ,
NC=αICτhν.
αα0=(N2NC)Norααnsα0=(N2NC)N,
α(IC)=αns+α0{1+(IC/IS)},
Δα(IC)=α(IC)α(0)=α0(IC/IS){1+(IC/IS)}.
Δn(IC)=Δns(IC/IS){1+(IC/IS)},
R=(RtRbeαd)2+4RtRbsin2(ϕ/2)eαd(1RtRbeαd)2+4RtRbsin2(ϕ/2)eαd,
αd=αnsd+α0d1+(IC/IS),
(ICIS)=(IinIS)(1Rt)(1eαd)(1+Rbeαd)αd{(1RtRbeαd)2+4RtRbeαdsin2(ϕ/2)},
ϕ=ϕ0+ϕ1,
ϕ1=4π(Δns)dλres(IC/IS){1+(IC/IS)},
(Δλres)blue-shift=λresΔns(IC/IS)n{1+(IC/IS)},
FF=ρ=IavgIpeak.
Eg(Tact)=Eg(300)+dEgdTact(Tact300).
λres(Tact)=λres(300)+dλresdTact(Tact300),
Tact=300+RthPabs,
Pabs_QWs=ρAIS(ICIS)αd,
Ib=Iin(1Rt)eαd{(1RtRbeαd)2+4RtRbeαdsin2(ϕ/2)}.
ICIin(1Rt)(1+Rbeαd){(1RtRbeαd)2+4RtRbeαdsin2(ϕ/2)}.
(1+Rbeαd)1+1αd=2αnsd2.
ICIin2(1Rt){(1RtRbeαd)2+4RtRbeαdsin2(ϕ/2)}
IbIin(1Rt){(1RtRbeαd)2+4RtRbeαdsin2(ϕ/2)}.
Ploss_b=12ρAIS(ICIS)(1Rb).
ΔT=RthρAIS(ICIS){αd+(1Rb)2}.
(Δλres)red-shift=(dλresdTact)RthρAIS(ICIS){αd+(1Rb)2}.
ϕ2=4πnd(1λW1λres+(Δλres)red-shift),
λeff_res=λres+(Δλres)blue-shift+(Δλres)red-shift.
R=(RtRbeαd)2+4RtRbsin2(ϕ1+ϕ22)eαd(1RtRbeαd)2+4RtRbsin2(ϕ1+ϕ22)eαd.
C=10log10(RonRoff).