Abstract

We tackle the problem of reducing power consumption in IP-over-WDM networks, targeting the power-aware logical topology design (LTD). Unlike the previous work in the literature, our solution reduces the power consumption with consideration of the cost (in terms of reconfigured traffic) incurred when the network is reconfigured. We first formulate the LTD with reconfiguration costs as an optimization problem. Then, we present three heuristics to effectively solve it. We compare our algorithms over an extensive set of networks and scenarios. Results indicate that our algorithms are effective in reducing power consumption while limiting the amount of traffic that is reconfigured. Moreover, we show that the input parameters are intuitive and easy to set, which makes our algorithms more practical.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (6)

R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, N. Skorin-Kapov, and P. Pavon-Marino, “Heuristic approaches for periodic reconfiguration of lightpath-based networks under multi-hour traffic,” J. Netw., vol.  7, no. 5, pp. 800–811, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

R. Aparicio-Pardo, N. Skorin-Kapov, P. Pavon-Marino, and B. Garcia-Manrubia, “(Non)-reconfigurable virtual topology design under multi-hour traffic in optical networks,” Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 5, pp. 1567–1580, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J.-L. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Minimizing ISP network energy cost: formulation and solutions,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, pp. 463–476, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Sengezer and E. Karasan, “Multi-layer virtual topology design in optical networks under physical layer impairments and multi-hour traffic demand,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 78–91, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “A comparative performance study of load adaptive energy saving schemes for IP-over-WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 152–164, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Cianfrani, and M. Listanti, “Enabling backbone networks to sleep,” IEEE Netw., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 26–31, 2011.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011, Special Issue on Green Communications.

P. Pavon-Marino, B. Garcia-Manrubia, and R. Aparicio-Pardo, “Multi-hour network planning based on domination between sets of traffic matrices,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, no. 3, pp. 665–675, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP-over-WDM networks—Maximizing energy savings,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, July 2011, Special Issue on Green Communications.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.

2010 (2)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

P. Pavon-Marino, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, and N. Skorin-Kapov, “Virtual topology design and flow routing in optical networks under multi-hour traffic demand,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 42–54, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2003 (1)

A. Gençata and B. Mukherjee, “Virtual-topology adaptation for WDM mesh networks under dynamic traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 236–247, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 598–607, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Rouskas and M. Ammar, “Dynamic reconfiguration in multihop WDM networks,” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  4, pp. 221–238, 1995.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J.-F. Labourdette, G. Hart, and A. Acampora, “Branch-exchange sequences for reconfiguration of lightwave networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  42, no. 10, pp. 2822–2832, Oct. 1994.

Acampora, A.

J.-F. Labourdette, G. Hart, and A. Acampora, “Branch-exchange sequences for reconfiguration of lightwave networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  42, no. 10, pp. 2822–2832, Oct. 1994.

Ahmad, A.

A. Ahmad, A. Bianco, E. Bonetto, D. Cuda, G. G. Castillo, and F. Neri, “Power-aware logical topology design heuristics in wavelength-routing networks,” in Proc. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Bologna, Italy, 2011.

Ammar, M.

G. Rouskas and M. Ammar, “Dynamic reconfiguration in multihop WDM networks,” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  4, pp. 221–238, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Aparicio-Pardo, R.

R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, N. Skorin-Kapov, and P. Pavon-Marino, “Heuristic approaches for periodic reconfiguration of lightpath-based networks under multi-hour traffic,” J. Netw., vol.  7, no. 5, pp. 800–811, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

R. Aparicio-Pardo, N. Skorin-Kapov, P. Pavon-Marino, and B. Garcia-Manrubia, “(Non)-reconfigurable virtual topology design under multi-hour traffic in optical networks,” Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 5, pp. 1567–1580, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Pavon-Marino, B. Garcia-Manrubia, and R. Aparicio-Pardo, “Multi-hour network planning based on domination between sets of traffic matrices,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, no. 3, pp. 665–675, Feb. 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Pavon-Marino, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, and N. Skorin-Kapov, “Virtual topology design and flow routing in optical networks under multi-hour traffic demand,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 42–54, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Skorin-Kapov, P. Pavon-Marino, B. Garcia-Manrubia, and R. Aparicio-Pardo, “Scheduled virtual topology design under periodic traffic in transparent optical networks,” in Proc. BROADNETS, Madrid, Spain, 2009.

R. Aparicio-Pardo, P. Pavon-Marino, N. Skorin-Kapov, B. Garcia-Manrubia, and J. Garcia-Haro, “Algorithms for virtual topology reconfiguration under multi-hour traffic using Lagrangian relaxation and tabu search approaches,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks, Munich, Germany, 2010.

Audenaert, P.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Bombay, India, 2008.

Baldine, I.

Banerjee, D.

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 598–607, Oct. 2000.
[CrossRef]

Barford, P.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. INFOCOM, Phoenix, 2008.

Bianco, A.

A. Ahmad, A. Bianco, E. Bonetto, D. Cuda, G. G. Castillo, and F. Neri, “Power-aware logical topology design heuristics in wavelength-routing networks,” in Proc. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Bologna, Italy, 2011.

Bianzino, A. P.

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J.-L. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, F. Larroca, D. Rossi, and J.-L. Rougier, “Energy-aware routing: a reality check,” in Proc. GLOBECOM Workshop on Green Communications, Miami, 2010.

A. P. Bianzino, L. Chiaraviglio, and M. Mellia, “GRiDA: a green distributed algorithm for backbone networks,” in Proc. GreenCom Online Conf., 2011, pp. 113–119.

A. P. Bianzino, L. Chiaraviglio, and M. Mellia, “Distributed algorithms for green IP networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM Workshop on Communications and Control for Sustainable Energy Systems, Orlando, 2012, pp. 121–126.

Bolla, R.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Cianfrani, and M. Listanti, “Enabling backbone networks to sleep,” IEEE Netw., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 26–31, 2011.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.

Bonetto, E.

A. Ahmad, A. Bianco, E. Bonetto, D. Cuda, G. G. Castillo, and F. Neri, “Power-aware logical topology design heuristics in wavelength-routing networks,” in Proc. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Bologna, Italy, 2011.

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, and L. Chiaraviglio, “EWA—an adaptive algorithm using watermarks for energy saving in IP-over-WDM networks,” Telecommunication Networks Group, Technical University of Berlin, Tech. Rep. TKN-12-002, May 2012.

E. Bonetto, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Cuda, F. Idzikowski, and F. Neri, “Exploiting traffic dynamics in power-aware logical topology design,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.

Bruschi, R.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Cianfrani, and M. Listanti, “Enabling backbone networks to sleep,” IEEE Netw., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 26–31, 2011.

Bryskin, I.

A. Farrel and I. Bryskin, GMPLS Architecture and Applications. Morgan Kaufmann, 2006.

Caria, M.

Castillo, G. G.

A. Ahmad, A. Bianco, E. Bonetto, D. Cuda, G. G. Castillo, and F. Neri, “Power-aware logical topology design heuristics in wavelength-routing networks,” in Proc. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Bologna, Italy, 2011.

Chabarek, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. INFOCOM, Phoenix, 2008.

Chamania, M.

Chaudet, C.

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, D. Rossi, and J.-L. Rougier, “A survey of green networking research,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bianzino, C. Chaudet, F. Larroca, D. Rossi, and J.-L. Rougier, “Energy-aware routing: a reality check,” in Proc. GLOBECOM Workshop on Green Communications, Miami, 2010.

Chiaraviglio, L.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Minimizing ISP network energy cost: formulation and solutions,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, pp. 463–476, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Idzikowski, E. Bonetto, and L. Chiaraviglio, “EWA—an adaptive algorithm using watermarks for energy saving in IP-over-WDM networks,” Telecommunication Networks Group, Technical University of Berlin, Tech. Rep. TKN-12-002, May 2012.

A. P. Bianzino, L. Chiaraviglio, and M. Mellia, “Distributed algorithms for green IP networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM Workshop on Communications and Control for Sustainable Energy Systems, Orlando, 2012, pp. 121–126.

A. P. Bianzino, L. Chiaraviglio, and M. Mellia, “GRiDA: a green distributed algorithm for backbone networks,” in Proc. GreenCom Online Conf., 2011, pp. 113–119.

E. Bonetto, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Cuda, F. Idzikowski, and F. Neri, “Exploiting traffic dynamics in power-aware logical topology design,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.

Chowdhury, P.

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011, Special Issue on Green Communications.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Cianfrani, A.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Cianfrani, and M. Listanti, “Enabling backbone networks to sleep,” IEEE Netw., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 26–31, 2011.

Coiro, A.

A. Coiro, F. Iervini, and M. Listanti, “Distributed and adaptive interface switch off for Internet energy saving,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks, Maui, 2011.

Colle, D.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Bombay, India, 2008.

Cucchietti, F.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.

Cuda, D.

E. Bonetto, L. Chiaraviglio, D. Cuda, F. Idzikowski, and F. Neri, “Exploiting traffic dynamics in power-aware logical topology design,” in Proc. European Conf. on Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011.

A. Ahmad, A. Bianco, E. Bonetto, D. Cuda, G. G. Castillo, and F. Neri, “Power-aware logical topology design heuristics in wavelength-routing networks,” in Proc. Optical Network Design and Modeling, Bologna, Italy, 2011.

Davoli, F.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.

Demeester, P.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Bombay, India, 2008.

Demeyer, S.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Bombay, India, 2008.

Develder, C.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: the rise of power-aware networking,” in Proc. Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, Bombay, India, 2008.

Dhoedt, B.

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Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011, Special Issue on Green Communications.

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P. Pavon-Marino, B. Garcia-Manrubia, and R. Aparicio-Pardo, “Multi-hour network planning based on domination between sets of traffic matrices,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, no. 3, pp. 665–675, Feb. 2011.
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IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (3)

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IEEE Netw. (1)

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L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Minimizing ISP network energy cost: formulation and solutions,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, pp. 463–476, July 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Gençata and B. Mukherjee, “Virtual-topology adaptation for WDM mesh networks under dynamic traffic,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 236–247, 2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-routed optical networks: linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs, and a reconfiguration study,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  8, no. 5, pp. 598–607, Oct. 2000.
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Netw. (1)

R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, N. Skorin-Kapov, and P. Pavon-Marino, “Heuristic approaches for periodic reconfiguration of lightpath-based networks under multi-hour traffic,” J. Netw., vol.  7, no. 5, pp. 800–811, May 2012.
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J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Switch. Netw. (2)

Y. Zhang, M. Tornatore, P. Chowdhury, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy optimization in IP-over-WDM networks,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 171–180, July 2011, Special Issue on Green Communications.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP-over-WDM networks—Maximizing energy savings,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, July 2011, Special Issue on Green Communications.

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P. Pavon-Marino, R. Aparicio-Pardo, B. Garcia-Manrubia, and N. Skorin-Kapov, “Virtual topology design and flow routing in optical networks under multi-hour traffic demand,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  19, no. 1, pp. 42–54, Feb. 2010.
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Trans. Netw. (1)

R. Aparicio-Pardo, N. Skorin-Kapov, P. Pavon-Marino, and B. Garcia-Manrubia, “(Non)-reconfigurable virtual topology design under multi-hour traffic in optical networks,” Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 5, pp. 1567–1580, Oct. 2012.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Main idea of MP-PA-LTD (note different scales of x axes).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Network model of exemplary logical and physical topologies.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

IP router model: configuration with two LCSs and an FCS.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Power consumption of active LCs, total demand, and (b) total reconfigured traffic in the Abilene network.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Power consumption of active LCs, total demand, and (b) total reconfigured traffic in the Géant network.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SBN Variation: (a)–(c) energy consumption and (d)–(f) reconfiguration ratio in the Abilene and Géant networks.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Load variation: (a) energy consumption and (b) reconfiguration ratio in the Abilene network.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Load variation: (a) energy consumption and (b) reconfiguration ratio in the Géant network.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

LFA sensitivity analysis for the Abilene and Géant networks.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

EWA sensitivity analysis for the Abilene network.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

EWA sensitivity analysis for the Géant network.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

GA sensitivity analysis for the (a) Abilene and (b) Géant networks.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Power breakdown for the (a)–(c) Abilene and (d)–(f) Géant networks.

Tables (10)

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Algorithm 1 Pseudo-Code of LFA

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Algorithm 2 Pseudo-Code of GA

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Algorithm 3 Pseudo-Code of EWA

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TABLE I Considered Networks and Traffic Data [43]

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TABLE II LC Daily Energy Consumption E LC [kWh]

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TABLE III Total Daily Energy Consumption E TOT [kWh]

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TABLE IV Reconfiguration Ratio ξ

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TABLE V Overload Ratio ϕ

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TABLE VI Computation Times [s]

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TABLE VII Yearly Monetary Cost [k €]

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

min ( P LC i V x i LC ( t ) + R i V j V a V b V r i j a b ( t ) ) .
j V { i } ( f i j a b ( t ) f j i a b ( t ) ) = { 0 i a , i b 1 i = a 1 i = b , i , a , b V ,
d a b ( t ) · f i j a b ( t ) d a b ( t 1 ) · f i j a b ( t 1 ) r i j a b ( t ) , i , j , a , b V ,
a V b V d a b ( t ) · f i j a b ( t ) δ l L ( i , j ) C · y l ( t ) , i , j V ,
j V l L ( i , j ) y l ( t ) x i LC ( t ) , i V ,
i V l L ( i , j ) y l ( t ) x j LC ( t ) , j V ,
x i LC ( t ) X i LC , i V .
d SBN a b = max t T past d a b ( t ) , a , b V .
P LC ( t ) = P LC i V x i LC ( t ) .
E LC = t T fut P LC ( t ) Δ t .
x i LCS ( t ) = x i LC ( t ) / W LCS .
x i FCS ( t ) = { 0 if x i LCS ( t ) 1 x i LCS ( t ) / W FCS otherwise .
P LCS ( t ) = P LCS i V x i LCS ( t ) .
P FCS ( t ) = P FCS i V x i FCS ( t ) .
E TOT = t T fut [ P LC ( t ) + P LCS ( t ) + P FCS ( t ) ] Δ t .
ξ = t T fut i V j V a V b V r i j a b ( t ) t T fut a V b V d a b ( t ) .
ϕ = t T fut i V j V χ i j ( t ) t T fut a V b V d a b ( t ) ,
χ i j ( t ) = max ( a V , b V d a b ( t ) · f i j a b ( t ) l L ( i , j ) C y l ( t ) , 0 ) .