Abstract

We consider the energy minimization problem in optical networks from an algorithmic perspective. Our objective is to plan optical WDM networks so as to minimize the energy expended, by reducing the number of energy-consuming components, such as amplifiers, regenerators, add/drop terminals, optical fibers, etc. We initially present an algorithm for solving the energy-aware routing and wavelength assignment problem based on an integer linear programming formulation that incorporates energy consumption and physical impairments (through a maximum transmission reach parameter) into routing and wavelength assignment. We then present a second algorithm that decomposes the problem and uses a linear programming relaxation to address the problem in large scale networks. Simulations are performed to evaluate and compare the performance of the proposed algorithms. In previously published works, energy minimization derives mainly from the reduction of the electronic processing of the traffic and the bypass in the optical domain, while the energy consumed by the optical devices is usually neglected. We focus on the optical layer and show that energy reductions can be obtained in that layer also.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in SIGCOMM, 2003, pp. 19–26.
  2. J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in INFOCOM, 2008, pp. 457–465.
  3. R. S. Tucker, “The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  24, no. 12, pp. 4655–4673, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. S. Tucker, R. Parthiban, J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. W. A. Ayre, and W. V. Sorin, “Evolution of WDM optical IP networks: a cost and energy perspective,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 3, pp. 243–252, Feb. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, June 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010.
  7. X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, “Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, pp. 676–688, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2010.
  9. S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: a changing role in green optical networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 5655–5660.
  10. E. Yetginer and G. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 1838–1843.
  11. A. Muhammad, P. Monti, I. Cerutti, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient WDM network planning with dedicated protection resources in sleep mode,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, 2010.
  12. L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2009.
  13. L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: a case study,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2009.
  14. R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, K. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. Telecommunications, Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), 2010.
  16. K. Manousakis, P. Kokkinos, and E. Varvarigos, “Performance evaluation of node architectures with color and direction constraints in WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, 2010.
  17. K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, and E. Varvarigos, “Offline routing and wavelength assignment in transparent WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1557–1570, Oct. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Kokkinos, K. Manousakis, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Impairment aware RWA in optical networks: over-provisioning or cross optimization? (Invited)” J. Netw., vol.  5, no. 11, pp. 1271–1278, 2010, Special Issue on All-Optical Routing.
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Manousakis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Kamitsas, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Offline impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in translucent WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1866–1877, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  20. O. Rival, A. Morea, and J. Antona, “Optical network planning with rate-tunable NRZ transponders,,” in Proc. European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009.
  21. F. Idzikowski, “Power consumption of network elements in IP over WDM networks,” TKN Technical Report Series TKN-09-006, Telecommunication Networks Group, TU Berlin, 2009.

2011 (2)

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, “Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, pp. 676–688, 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, and E. Varvarigos, “Offline routing and wavelength assignment in transparent WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1557–1570, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Kokkinos, K. Manousakis, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Impairment aware RWA in optical networks: over-provisioning or cross optimization? (Invited)” J. Netw., vol.  5, no. 11, pp. 1271–1278, 2010, Special Issue on All-Optical Routing.
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2006 (1)

Antona, J.

O. Rival, A. Morea, and J. Antona, “Optical network planning with rate-tunable NRZ transponders,,” in Proc. European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009.

Ayre, R. W. A.

Baliga, J.

Barford, P.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in INFOCOM, 2008, pp. 457–465.

Bolla, R.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Bruschi, R.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, “Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, pp. 676–688, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Castoldi, P.

A. Muhammad, P. Monti, I. Cerutti, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient WDM network planning with dedicated protection resources in sleep mode,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, 2010.

Cerutti, I.

A. Muhammad, P. Monti, I. Cerutti, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient WDM network planning with dedicated protection resources in sleep mode,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, 2010.

Chabarek, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in INFOCOM, 2008, pp. 457–465.

Chiaraviglio, L.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: a case study,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2009.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, and E. Varvarigos, “Offline routing and wavelength assignment in transparent WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1557–1570, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Kokkinos, K. Manousakis, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Impairment aware RWA in optical networks: over-provisioning or cross optimization? (Invited)” J. Netw., vol.  5, no. 11, pp. 1271–1278, 2010, Special Issue on All-Optical Routing.
[CrossRef]

K. Manousakis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Kamitsas, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Offline impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in translucent WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1866–1877, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, K. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. Telecommunications, Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), 2010.

Colle, D.

M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, K. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. Telecommunications, Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), 2010.

Cucchietti, F.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Davoli, F.

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

De Groote, M.

M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, K. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. Telecommunications, Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), 2010.

Demeester, P.

M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, K. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. Telecommunications, Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), 2010.

Dutta, R.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: a changing role in green optical networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 5655–5660.

Estan, C.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in INFOCOM, 2008, pp. 457–465.

Farahmand, F.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2010.

Guo, L.

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, “Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, pp. 676–688, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in SIGCOMM, 2003, pp. 19–26.

Hasan, M. M.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2010.

Hinton, K.

Hou, W.

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, “Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, pp. 676–688, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: a changing role in green optical networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 5655–5660.

Idzikowski, F.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010.

F. Idzikowski, “Power consumption of network elements in IP over WDM networks,” TKN Technical Report Series TKN-09-006, Telecommunication Networks Group, TU Berlin, 2009.

Jiang, D.

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, “Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, pp. 676–688, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Jue, J. P.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2010.

Kamitsas, E.

Kokkinos, K.

M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, K. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. Telecommunications, Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), 2010.

Kokkinos, P.

K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Kokkinos, K. Manousakis, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Impairment aware RWA in optical networks: over-provisioning or cross optimization? (Invited)” J. Netw., vol.  5, no. 11, pp. 1271–1278, 2010, Special Issue on All-Optical Routing.
[CrossRef]

K. Manousakis, P. Kokkinos, and E. Varvarigos, “Performance evaluation of node architectures with color and direction constraints in WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, 2010.

Manousakis, K.

K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Kokkinos, K. Manousakis, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Impairment aware RWA in optical networks: over-provisioning or cross optimization? (Invited)” J. Netw., vol.  5, no. 11, pp. 1271–1278, 2010, Special Issue on All-Optical Routing.
[CrossRef]

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, and E. Varvarigos, “Offline routing and wavelength assignment in transparent WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1557–1570, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Manousakis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Kamitsas, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Offline impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in translucent WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1866–1877, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, K. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. Telecommunications, Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), 2010.

K. Manousakis, P. Kokkinos, and E. Varvarigos, “Performance evaluation of node architectures with color and direction constraints in WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, 2010.

Mellia, M.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: a case study,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2009.

Monti, P.

A. Muhammad, P. Monti, I. Cerutti, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient WDM network planning with dedicated protection resources in sleep mode,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, 2010.

Morea, A.

O. Rival, A. Morea, and J. Antona, “Optical network planning with rate-tunable NRZ transponders,,” in Proc. European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009.

Muhammad, A.

A. Muhammad, P. Monti, I. Cerutti, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient WDM network planning with dedicated protection resources in sleep mode,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, 2010.

Neri, F.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: a case study,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2009.

Orlowski, S.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010.

Parthiban, R.

Patel, A. N.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2010.

Pickavet, M.

M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, K. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. Telecommunications, Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), 2010.

Raack, C.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010.

Rival, O.

O. Rival, A. Morea, and J. Antona, “Optical network planning with rate-tunable NRZ transponders,,” in Proc. European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009.

Rouskas, G.

E. Yetginer and G. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 1838–1843.

Seshadri, D.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: a changing role in green optical networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 5655–5660.

Shen, G.

Singh, S.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in SIGCOMM, 2003, pp. 19–26.

Sommers, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in INFOCOM, 2008, pp. 457–465.

Sorin, W. V.

Tomkos, I.

Tsiang, D.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in INFOCOM, 2008, pp. 457–465.

Tucker, R. S.

Tzanakaki, A.

A. Muhammad, P. Monti, I. Cerutti, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient WDM network planning with dedicated protection resources in sleep mode,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, 2010.

Varvarigos, E.

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, and E. Varvarigos, “Offline routing and wavelength assignment in transparent WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1557–1570, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, K. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. Telecommunications, Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), 2010.

K. Manousakis, P. Kokkinos, and E. Varvarigos, “Performance evaluation of node architectures with color and direction constraints in WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, 2010.

Varvarigos, E. A.

K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Kokkinos, K. Manousakis, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Impairment aware RWA in optical networks: over-provisioning or cross optimization? (Invited)” J. Netw., vol.  5, no. 11, pp. 1271–1278, 2010, Special Issue on All-Optical Routing.
[CrossRef]

K. Manousakis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Kamitsas, I. Tomkos, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Offline impairment-aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in translucent WDM optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1866–1877, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, “Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, pp. 676–688, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Woesner, H.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010.

Wolisz, A.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010.

Wosinska, L.

A. Muhammad, P. Monti, I. Cerutti, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient WDM network planning with dedicated protection resources in sleep mode,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, 2010.

Wright, S.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in INFOCOM, 2008, pp. 457–465.

Yetginer, E.

E. Yetginer and G. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 1838–1843.

Comput. Netw. (1)

X. Wang, W. Hou, L. Guo, J. Cao, and D. Jiang, “Energy saving and cost reduction in multi-granularity green optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  55, pp. 676–688, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, and F. Cucchietti, “Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  13, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, and E. Varvarigos, “Offline routing and wavelength assignment in transparent WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 5, pp. 1557–1570, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Netw. (1)

K. Christodoulopoulos, P. Kokkinos, K. Manousakis, and E. A. Varvarigos, “Impairment aware RWA in optical networks: over-provisioning or cross optimization? (Invited)” J. Netw., vol.  5, no. 11, pp. 1271–1278, 2010, Special Issue on All-Optical Routing.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Other (13)

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Saving energy in IP-over-WDM networks by switching off line cards in low-demand scenarios,” in 14th Conf. Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2010.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, A. N. Patel, and J. P. Jue, “Traffic grooming in green optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2010.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: a changing role in green optical networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 5655–5660.

E. Yetginer and G. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in GLOBECOM, 2009, pp. 1838–1843.

A. Muhammad, P. Monti, I. Cerutti, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient WDM network planning with dedicated protection resources in sleep mode,” in IEEE GLOBECOM, 2010.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: a case study,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), 2009.

O. Rival, A. Morea, and J. Antona, “Optical network planning with rate-tunable NRZ transponders,,” in Proc. European Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009.

F. Idzikowski, “Power consumption of network elements in IP over WDM networks,” TKN Technical Report Series TKN-09-006, Telecommunication Networks Group, TU Berlin, 2009.

M. De Groote, K. Manousakis, K. Kokkinos, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, and P. Demeester, “Cost comparison of different translucent optical network architectures,” in Conf. Telecommunications, Internet and Media Techno Economics (CTTE), 2010.

K. Manousakis, P. Kokkinos, and E. Varvarigos, “Performance evaluation of node architectures with color and direction constraints in WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, 2010.

M. Gupta and S. Singh, “Greening of the Internet,” in SIGCOMM, 2003, pp. 19–26.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in INFOCOM, 2008, pp. 457–465.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Link model.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Colorless, directionless, contentionless OXC.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Energy saving by powering off add/drop terminals.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Small-sized network topology used in the simulation experiments.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Total power consumption for small network.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Total power consumption per component type for the different algorithms considered and 34 requested connections.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Impact of number of fibers per link in power consumption.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Geant-2 network topology used in the simulation experiments.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Total power consumption for Geant-2 network.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Total power consumption per component for 500 requested connections.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of the EA-RWA and Node-Link-Switch-OFF algorithms.

Tables (2)

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TABLE I Energy Model Components

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TABLE II Saving of Power Consumption as Compared to MinW

Equations (11)

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PA/D·nyn+lm(PA·flm·al+PNI·flm)+PR·sdpzpsd
p|start fromszpsd=Λsd,for all(s,d)pairs.
p|end atdzpsd=Λsd,for all(s,d)pairs.
p|end atnzpsd=p|start atnzpsd,for all(s,d),alln.
wxpw=sdzpsd,for allp.
p|lpxpwmflmfor alllL,for allwC.
pP|n=sxpwynfor allwC,for allnV.
pP|n=dxpwynfor allwC,for allnV.
zpsd=0for allnon-transparent pathsp,for all(s,d)pairs.
pPsdwxpw=Λsdfor all(s,d)pairs,
PA/D·nyn+lm(PA·flm·al+PNI·flm).