Abstract

In this paper we explore how recent technologies can improve the security of optical networks. In particular, we study how to use quantum key distribution (QKD) in common optical network infrastructures and propose a method to overcome its distance limitations. QKD is the first technology offering information theoretic secret-key distribution that relies only on the fundamental principles of quantum physics. Point-to-point QKD devices have reached a mature industrial state; however, these devices are severely limited in distance, since signals at the quantum level (e.g., single photons) are highly affected by the losses in the communication channel and intermediate devices. To overcome this limitation, intermediate nodes (i.e., repeaters) are used. Both quantum-regime and trusted, classical repeaters have been proposed in the QKD literature, but only the latter can be implemented in practice. As a novelty, we propose here a new QKD network model based on the use of not fully trusted intermediate nodes, referred to as weakly trusted repeaters. This approach forces the attacker to simultaneously break several paths to get access to the exchanged key, thus improving significantly the security of the network. We formalize the model using network codes and provide real scenarios that allow users to exchange secure keys over metropolitan optical networks using only passive components. Moreover, the theoretical framework allows one to extend these scenarios not only to accommodate more complex trust constraints, but also to consider robustness and resiliency constraints on the network.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. M. Senior and Y. Jamro, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice. Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2008.
  2. K. Shaneman and S. Gray, “Optical network security: technical analysis of fiber tapping mechanisms and methods for detection prevention,” in IEEE Military Communications Conf. (MILCOM), 2004, vol. 2, pp. 711–716.
  3. M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 725–736, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Gutierrez, J. Cho, and L. G. Kazovsky, “TDM-PON security issues: upstream encryption is needed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2007, paper JWA83.
  5. L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yan, “Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 133–143, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Atkins, M. Graff, A. K. Lenstra, and P. C. Leyland, “The magic words are squeamish ossifrage,” in Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on the Theory and Applications of Cryptology: Advances in Cryptology, 1995, pp. 263–277.
  7. B. Kaliski, TWIRL and RSA Key Size, RSA Laboratories, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://www.rsa.com/rsalabs/node.asp?id=2004 .
  8. E. Barker, W. Barker, W. Burr, W. Polk, and M. Smid, “Recommendation for key management—part 1: General (revised),” in NIST Special Publication, 2006.
  9. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol.  74, no. 1, pp. 145–195, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature, vol.  299, no. 5886, pp. 802–803, 1982.
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 1875–1877, 1994.
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Lancho, J. Martínez, D. Elkouss, M. Soto, and V. Martín, “QKD in standard optical telecommunications networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Quantum Communication and Quantum Networking, 2010, vol. 36, pp. 142–149.
  16. W. Maeda, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, and A. Tomita, “Technologies for quantum key distribution networks integrated with optical communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  15, no. 6, pp. 1591–1601, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 10, 103042, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  19. K.-I. Kitayama, M. Sasaki, S. Araki, M. Tsubokawa, A. Tomita, K. Inoue, K. Harasawa, Y. Nagasako, and A. Takada, “Security in photonic networks: threats and security enhancement,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 21, pp. 3210–3222, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Wang, W. Chen, J. Guo, Z. Yin, H. Li, Z. Zhou, G. Guo, and Z. Han, “2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber,” Opt. Lett., vol.  37, no. 6, pp. 1008–1010, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Elliot, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys., vol.  4, no. 1, 46, 2002.
  22. M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  24. H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  81, no. 26, pp. 5932–5935, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Alléaume, F. Roueff, E. Diamanti, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075002, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  26. National Institute of Standards and Technology, “Security requirements for cryptographic modules,” FIPS PUB 140-2, 2001.
  27. Common Criteria [Online]. Available: http://www.commoncriteriaportal.org .
  28. R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, and R. Yeung, “Network information flow,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  46, no. 4, pp. 1204–1216, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. Cai and T. Chan, “Theory of secure network coding,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 3, pp. 421–437, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “Network coding for WDM all-optical multicast,” University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, Tech. Rep., 2008.
  31. A. E. Kamal, A. Ramamoorthy, L. Long, and L. Shizheng, “Overlay protection against link failures using network coding,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1071–1084, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “All-optical network coding,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 4, pp. 175–191, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Belzner, and H. Haunstein, “Network coding in passive optical networks,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, pp. 1–2.
  34. K. Miller, T. Biermann, H. Woesner, and H. Karl, “Network coding in passive optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Network Coding (NetCod), 2010, pp. 1–6.
  35. K. Fouli, M. Maier, and M. Medard, “Network coding in next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 9, pp. 38–46, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  36. T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1991.
  37. T. Chan and A. Grant, “Capacity bounds for secure network coding,” in Proc. Communications Theory Workshop, 2008, pp. 94–100.
  38. D. Dolev, C. Dwork, O. Waarts, and M. Yung, “Perfectly secure message transmission,” J. ACM, vol.  40, no. 1, pp. 17–47, 1993.
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Katabi, M. Medard, and M. Effros, “Resilient network coding in the presence of Byzantine adversaries,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  54, no. 6, pp. 2596–2603, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  40. L. Salvail, M. Peev, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Länger, “Security of trusted repeater quantum key distribution networks,” J. Comput. Secur., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 61–87, 2010.
  41. C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  84, no. 19, p. 3762, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  42. ID Quantique SA [Online]. Available: http://www.idquantique.com .
  43. X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, Y. Zhao, and B. Qi, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A, vol.  72, no. 1, 012326, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  44. P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of continuous-variable quantum key distribution over 80 km of standard telecom fiber,” presented at the 2nd Annu. Conf. on Quantum Cryptography (QCRYPT), 2012.
  45. A. Ruiz-Alba, J. Mora, W. Amava, A. Martínez, V. García-Muñoz, D. Calvo, and J. Capmany, “Microwave photonics parallel quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 931–942, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  46. L. Masanes, S. Pironio, and A. Acín, “Secure device-independent quantum key distribution with causally independent measurement devices,” Nat. Commun., vol.  2, 238, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  47. R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2009.
  48. I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution on a 10  Gb/s WDM-PON,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 9, pp. 9600–9612, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  49. P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 6, 063027, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  50. S.-J. Park, C.-H. Lee, K.-T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, J.-G. Ahn, and K.-H. Song, “Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  22, no. 11, pp. 2582–2591, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  51. D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  52. K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  89, no. 3, 037902, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  53. A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1  Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express, vol.  16, no. 23, pp. 18790–18979, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  54. N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, and S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2 GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10632–10639, 2011.
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

L. Masanes, S. Pironio, and A. Acín, “Secure device-independent quantum key distribution with causally independent measurement devices,” Nat. Commun., vol.  2, 238, 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Cai and T. Chan, “Theory of secure network coding,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 3, pp. 421–437, 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kamal, A. Ramamoorthy, L. Long, and L. Shizheng, “Overlay protection against link failures using network coding,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1071–1084, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Fouli, M. Maier, and M. Medard, “Network coding in next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 9, pp. 38–46, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K.-I. Kitayama, M. Sasaki, S. Araki, M. Tsubokawa, A. Tomita, K. Inoue, K. Harasawa, Y. Nagasako, and A. Takada, “Security in photonic networks: threats and security enhancement,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 21, pp. 3210–3222, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 725–736, 2011.
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yan, “Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 133–143, 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, and S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2 GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10632–10639, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 10, 103042, 2010.
[CrossRef]

L. Salvail, M. Peev, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Länger, “Security of trusted repeater quantum key distribution networks,” J. Comput. Secur., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 61–87, 2010.

E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “All-optical network coding,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 4, pp. 175–191, 2010.
[CrossRef]

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution on a 10  Gb/s WDM-PON,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 9, pp. 9600–9612, 2010.
[CrossRef]

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 6, 063027, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Alléaume, F. Roueff, E. Diamanti, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075002, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

W. Maeda, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, and A. Tomita, “Technologies for quantum key distribution networks integrated with optical communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  15, no. 6, pp. 1591–1601, 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Katabi, M. Medard, and M. Effros, “Resilient network coding in the presence of Byzantine adversaries,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  54, no. 6, pp. 2596–2603, 2008.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1  Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express, vol.  16, no. 23, pp. 18790–18979, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2005

X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, Y. Zhao, and B. Qi, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A, vol.  72, no. 1, 012326, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Elliot, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys., vol.  4, no. 1, 46, 2002.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol.  74, no. 1, pp. 145–195, 2002.
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  89, no. 3, 037902, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, and R. Yeung, “Network information flow,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  46, no. 4, pp. 1204–1216, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1998

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  81, no. 26, pp. 5932–5935, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1994

P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 1875–1877, 1994.
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Dolev, C. Dwork, O. Waarts, and M. Yung, “Perfectly secure message transmission,” J. ACM, vol.  40, no. 1, pp. 17–47, 1993.
[CrossRef]

1982

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature, vol.  299, no. 5886, pp. 802–803, 1982.
[CrossRef]

Acín, A.

L. Masanes, S. Pironio, and A. Acín, “Secure device-independent quantum key distribution with causally independent measurement devices,” Nat. Commun., vol.  2, 238, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Afshar, P. T.

L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yan, “Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 133–143, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Ahlswede, R.

R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, and R. Yeung, “Network information flow,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  46, no. 4, pp. 1204–1216, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.-G.

Alexander, D. R.

E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “All-optical network coding,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 4, pp. 175–191, 2010.
[CrossRef]

E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “Network coding for WDM all-optical multicast,” University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, Tech. Rep., 2008.

Allacher, A.

Alléaume, R.

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
[CrossRef]

L. Salvail, M. Peev, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Länger, “Security of trusted repeater quantum key distribution networks,” J. Comput. Secur., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 61–87, 2010.

R. Alléaume, F. Roueff, E. Diamanti, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075002, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Amava, W.

A. Ruiz-Alba, J. Mora, W. Amava, A. Martínez, V. García-Muñoz, D. Calvo, and J. Capmany, “Microwave photonics parallel quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 931–942, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Araki, S.

Asai, T.

Atkins, D.

D. Atkins, M. Graff, A. K. Lenstra, and P. C. Leyland, “The magic words are squeamish ossifrage,” in Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on the Theory and Applications of Cryptology: Advances in Cryptology, 1995, pp. 263–277.

Banwell, T. C.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Barker, E.

E. Barker, W. Barker, W. Burr, W. Polk, and M. Smid, “Recommendation for key management—part 1: General (revised),” in NIST Special Publication, 2006.

Barker, W.

E. Barker, W. Barker, W. Burr, W. Polk, and M. Smid, “Recommendation for key management—part 1: General (revised),” in NIST Special Publication, 2006.

Barnett, S. M.

P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 1875–1877, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Barreiro, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Belzner, M.

M. Belzner, and H. Haunstein, “Network coding in passive optical networks,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, pp. 1–2.

Biermann, T.

K. Miller, T. Biermann, H. Woesner, and H. Karl, “Network coding in passive optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Network Coding (NetCod), 2010, pp. 1–6.

Blake, J.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 1875–1877, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Bouda, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Boxleitner, W.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Briegel, H.-J.

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  81, no. 26, pp. 5932–5935, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Buntschu, F.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Burr, W.

E. Barker, W. Barker, W. Burr, W. Polk, and M. Smid, “Recommendation for key management—part 1: General (revised),” in NIST Special Publication, 2006.

Cai, N.

N. Cai and T. Chan, “Theory of secure network coding,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 3, pp. 421–437, 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, and R. Yeung, “Network information flow,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  46, no. 4, pp. 1204–1216, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Calvo, D.

A. Ruiz-Alba, J. Mora, W. Amava, A. Martínez, V. García-Muñoz, D. Calvo, and J. Capmany, “Microwave photonics parallel quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 931–942, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

A. Ruiz-Alba, J. Mora, W. Amava, A. Martínez, V. García-Muñoz, D. Calvo, and J. Capmany, “Microwave photonics parallel quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 931–942, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Chan, T.

N. Cai and T. Chan, “Theory of secure network coding,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 3, pp. 421–437, 2011.
[CrossRef]

T. Chan and A. Grant, “Capacity bounds for secure network coding,” in Proc. Communications Theory Workshop, 2008, pp. 94–100.

Chapuran, T. E.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Cho, J.

D. Gutierrez, J. Cho, and L. G. Kazovsky, “TDM-PON security issues: upstream encryption is needed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2007, paper JWA83.

Choi, I.

Cirac, J. I.

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  81, no. 26, pp. 5932–5935, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Clausen, B.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Cover, T. M.

T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1991.

Dallmann, N.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Dardy, H.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Debuisschert, T.

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 725–736, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Deogun, J. S.

E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “All-optical network coding,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 4, pp. 175–191, 2010.
[CrossRef]

E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “Network coding for WDM all-optical multicast,” University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, Tech. Rep., 2008.

Derkacs, D.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
[CrossRef]

L. Salvail, M. Peev, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Länger, “Security of trusted repeater quantum key distribution networks,” J. Comput. Secur., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 61–87, 2010.

R. Alléaume, F. Roueff, E. Diamanti, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075002, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of continuous-variable quantum key distribution over 80 km of standard telecom fiber,” presented at the 2nd Annu. Conf. on Quantum Cryptography (QCRYPT), 2012.

Dianati, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A.

Dixon, A. R.

Dolev, D.

D. Dolev, C. Dwork, O. Waarts, and M. Yung, “Perfectly secure message transmission,” J. ACM, vol.  40, no. 1, pp. 17–47, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Domeki, T.

Dür, W.

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  81, no. 26, pp. 5932–5935, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Dwork, C.

D. Dolev, C. Dwork, O. Waarts, and M. Yung, “Perfectly secure message transmission,” J. ACM, vol.  40, no. 1, pp. 17–47, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J.

Dynes, J. F.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1  Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express, vol.  16, no. 23, pp. 18790–18979, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Effros, M.

S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Katabi, M. Medard, and M. Effros, “Resilient network coding in the presence of Byzantine adversaries,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  54, no. 6, pp. 2596–2603, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Elkouss, D.

D. Lancho, J. Martínez, D. Elkouss, M. Soto, and V. Martín, “QKD in standard optical telecommunications networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Quantum Communication and Quantum Networking, 2010, vol. 36, pp. 142–149.

Elliot, C.

C. Elliot, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys., vol.  4, no. 1, 46, 2002.

Eraerds, P.

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 6, 063027, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Fasel, S.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Felber, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Fok, M. P.

M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 725–736, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Fossier, S.

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Fouli, K.

K. Fouli, M. Maier, and M. Medard, “Network coding in next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 9, pp. 38–46, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Fürst, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

García-Muñoz, V.

A. Ruiz-Alba, J. Mora, W. Amava, A. Martínez, V. García-Muñoz, D. Calvo, and J. Capmany, “Microwave photonics parallel quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 931–942, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J.-D.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Gay, O.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 6, 063027, 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol.  74, no. 1, pp. 145–195, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Gobby, C.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  84, no. 19, p. 3762, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Goodman, M. S.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Graff, M.

D. Atkins, M. Graff, A. K. Lenstra, and P. C. Leyland, “The magic words are squeamish ossifrage,” in Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on the Theory and Applications of Cryptology: Advances in Cryptology, 1995, pp. 263–277.

Grangier, P.

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of continuous-variable quantum key distribution over 80 km of standard telecom fiber,” presented at the 2nd Annu. Conf. on Quantum Cryptography (QCRYPT), 2012.

Grant, A.

T. Chan and A. Grant, “Capacity bounds for secure network coding,” in Proc. Communications Theory Workshop, 2008, pp. 94–100.

Gray, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

K. Shaneman and S. Gray, “Optical network security: technical analysis of fiber tapping mechanisms and methods for detection prevention,” in IEEE Military Communications Conf. (MILCOM), 2004, vol. 2, pp. 711–716.

Gudla, V.

L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yan, “Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 133–143, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Guo, G.

Guo, J.

Gutierrez, D.

D. Gutierrez, J. Cho, and L. G. Kazovsky, “TDM-PON security issues: upstream encryption is needed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2007, paper JWA83.

Han, Z.

Happe, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Harasawa, K.

Hasani, Y.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

Haunstein, H.

M. Belzner, and H. Haunstein, “Network coding in passive optical networks,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, pp. 1–2.

Hentschel, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Henzen, L.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Ho, T.

S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Katabi, M. Medard, and M. Effros, “Resilient network coding in the presence of Byzantine adversaries,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  54, no. 6, pp. 2596–2603, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

Hübel, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. J.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Humer, G.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

Inoue, S.

Ishizuka, H.

Jackel, J.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Jaggi, S.

S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Katabi, M. Medard, and M. Effros, “Resilient network coding in the presence of Byzantine adversaries,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  54, no. 6, pp. 2596–2603, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Jamro, Y.

J. M. Senior and Y. Jamro, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice. Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2008.

Jeong, K.-T.

Jouguet, P.

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of continuous-variable quantum key distribution over 80 km of standard telecom fiber,” presented at the 2nd Annu. Conf. on Quantum Cryptography (QCRYPT), 2012.

Junod, P.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kaliski, B.

B. Kaliski, TWIRL and RSA Key Size, RSA Laboratories, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://www.rsa.com/rsalabs/node.asp?id=2004 .

Kamal, A. E.

A. E. Kamal, A. Ramamoorthy, L. Long, and L. Shizheng, “Overlay protection against link failures using network coding,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1071–1084, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Karl, H.

K. Miller, T. Biermann, H. Woesner, and H. Karl, “Network coding in passive optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Network Coding (NetCod), 2010, pp. 1–6.

Katabi, D.

S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Katabi, M. Medard, and M. Effros, “Resilient network coding in the presence of Byzantine adversaries,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  54, no. 6, pp. 2596–2603, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Katti, S.

S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Katabi, M. Medard, and M. Effros, “Resilient network coding in the presence of Byzantine adversaries,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  54, no. 6, pp. 2596–2603, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yan, “Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 133–143, 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Gutierrez, J. Cho, and L. G. Kazovsky, “TDM-PON security issues: upstream encryption is needed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2007, paper JWA83.

Kitayama, K.-I.

Klaus, W.

Kobayashi, H.

Kunz-Jacques, S.

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of continuous-variable quantum key distribution over 80 km of standard telecom fiber,” presented at the 2nd Annu. Conf. on Quantum Cryptography (QCRYPT), 2012.

Lancho, D.

D. Lancho, J. Martínez, D. Elkouss, M. Soto, and V. Martín, “QKD in standard optical telecommunications networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Quantum Communication and Quantum Networking, 2010, vol. 36, pp. 142–149.

Langberg, M.

S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Katabi, M. Medard, and M. Effros, “Resilient network coding in the presence of Byzantine adversaries,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  54, no. 6, pp. 2596–2603, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Länger, T.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

L. Salvail, M. Peev, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Länger, “Security of trusted repeater quantum key distribution networks,” J. Comput. Secur., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 61–87, 2010.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

Legré, M.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 6, 063027, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, A. K.

D. Atkins, M. Graff, A. K. Lenstra, and P. C. Leyland, “The magic words are squeamish ossifrage,” in Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on the Theory and Applications of Cryptology: Advances in Cryptology, 1995, pp. 263–277.

Leverrier, A.

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of continuous-variable quantum key distribution over 80 km of standard telecom fiber,” presented at the 2nd Annu. Conf. on Quantum Cryptography (QCRYPT), 2012.

Leyland, P. C.

D. Atkins, M. Graff, A. K. Lenstra, and P. C. Leyland, “The magic words are squeamish ossifrage,” in Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on the Theory and Applications of Cryptology: Advances in Cryptology, 1995, pp. 263–277.

Li, H.

Li, S.-Y.

R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, and R. Yeung, “Network information flow,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  46, no. 4, pp. 1204–1216, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Lieger, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Litzistorf, G.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Lo, H.-K.

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 10, 103042, 2010.
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, Y. Zhao, and B. Qi, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A, vol.  72, no. 1, 012326, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Lodewyck, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Long, L.

A. E. Kamal, A. Ramamoorthy, L. Long, and L. Shizheng, “Overlay protection against link failures using network coding,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1071–1084, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Lorünser, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Lütkenhaus, N.

L. Salvail, M. Peev, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Länger, “Security of trusted repeater quantum key distribution networks,” J. Comput. Secur., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 61–87, 2010.

R. Alléaume, F. Roueff, E. Diamanti, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075002, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, Y. Zhao, and B. Qi, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A, vol.  72, no. 1, 012326, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Maeda, W.

W. Maeda, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, and A. Tomita, “Technologies for quantum key distribution networks integrated with optical communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  15, no. 6, pp. 1591–1601, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

K. Fouli, M. Maier, and M. Medard, “Network coding in next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 9, pp. 38–46, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Manley, E. D.

E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “All-optical network coding,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 4, pp. 175–191, 2010.
[CrossRef]

E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “Network coding for WDM all-optical multicast,” University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, Tech. Rep., 2008.

Marhold, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Martín, V.

D. Lancho, J. Martínez, D. Elkouss, M. Soto, and V. Martín, “QKD in standard optical telecommunications networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Quantum Communication and Quantum Networking, 2010, vol. 36, pp. 142–149.

Martínez, A.

A. Ruiz-Alba, J. Mora, W. Amava, A. Martínez, V. García-Muñoz, D. Calvo, and J. Capmany, “Microwave photonics parallel quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 931–942, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Martínez, J.

D. Lancho, J. Martínez, D. Elkouss, M. Soto, and V. Martín, “QKD in standard optical telecommunications networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Quantum Communication and Quantum Networking, 2010, vol. 36, pp. 142–149.

Masanes, L.

L. Masanes, S. Pironio, and A. Acín, “Secure device-independent quantum key distribution with causally independent measurement devices,” Nat. Commun., vol.  2, 238, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Matsui, M.

Matyus, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Maurhart, O.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

McCabe, K. P.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

McNown, S.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

McNown, S. R.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Medard, M.

K. Fouli, M. Maier, and M. Medard, “Network coding in next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 9, pp. 38–46, 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Katabi, M. Medard, and M. Effros, “Resilient network coding in the presence of Byzantine adversaries,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  54, no. 6, pp. 2596–2603, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Mercer, L.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Miki, S.

Miller, K.

K. Miller, T. Biermann, H. Woesner, and H. Karl, “Network coding in passive optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Network Coding (NetCod), 2010, pp. 1–6.

Monat, L.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Monbaron, P.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Mora, J.

A. Ruiz-Alba, J. Mora, W. Amava, A. Martínez, V. García-Muñoz, D. Calvo, and J. Capmany, “Microwave photonics parallel quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 931–942, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Nagasako, Y.

Nambu, Y.

Namekata, N.

Nauerth, S.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Nordholt, J. E.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Pache, P.

Pacher, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Page, J.

Page, J.-B.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Painchault, P.

Park, H.-J.

Park, S.-J.

Peev, M.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

L. Salvail, M. Peev, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Länger, “Security of trusted repeater quantum key distribution networks,” J. Comput. Secur., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 61–87, 2010.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Perroud, D.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Peters, N. A.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Peterson, C. G.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Phoenix, S. J. D.

P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 1875–1877, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Pironio, S.

L. Masanes, S. Pironio, and A. Acín, “Secure device-independent quantum key distribution with causally independent measurement devices,” Nat. Commun., vol.  2, 238, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Polk, W.

E. Barker, W. Barker, W. Burr, W. Polk, and M. Smid, “Recommendation for key management—part 1: General (revised),” in NIST Special Publication, 2006.

Poppe, A.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, P. R.

M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 725–736, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 10, 103042, 2010.
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, Y. Zhao, and B. Qi, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A, vol.  72, no. 1, 012326, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Qian, L.

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 10, 103042, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Querasser, E.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ramamoorthy, A.

A. E. Kamal, A. Ramamoorthy, L. Long, and L. Shizheng, “Overlay protection against link failures using network coding,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1071–1084, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2009.

Ribordy, G.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol.  74, no. 1, pp. 145–195, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Robyr, S.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Roueff, F.

R. Alléaume, F. Roueff, E. Diamanti, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075002, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ruiz-Alba, A.

A. Ruiz-Alba, J. Mora, W. Amava, A. Martínez, V. García-Muñoz, D. Calvo, and J. Capmany, “Microwave photonics parallel quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 931–942, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Runser, R. J.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

Salvail, L.

L. Salvail, M. Peev, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Länger, “Security of trusted repeater quantum key distribution networks,” J. Comput. Secur., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 61–87, 2010.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, G.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2009.

Sasaki, M.

Senior, J. M.

J. M. Senior and Y. Jamro, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice. Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2008.

Shaneman, K.

K. Shaneman and S. Gray, “Optical network security: technical analysis of fiber tapping mechanisms and methods for detection prevention,” in IEEE Military Communications Conf. (MILCOM), 2004, vol. 2, pp. 711–716.

Sharpe, A.

Sharpe, A. W.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1  Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express, vol.  16, no. 23, pp. 18790–18979, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Shields, A.

Shields, A. J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1  Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express, vol.  16, no. 23, pp. 18790–18979, 2008.
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  84, no. 19, p. 3762, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

Shizheng, L.

A. E. Kamal, A. Ramamoorthy, L. Long, and L. Shizheng, “Overlay protection against link failures using network coding,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1071–1084, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Sivarajan, K.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2009.

Smid, M.

E. Barker, W. Barker, W. Burr, W. Polk, and M. Smid, “Recommendation for key management—part 1: General (revised),” in NIST Special Publication, 2006.

Song, K.-H.

Soto, M.

D. Lancho, J. Martínez, D. Elkouss, M. Soto, and V. Martín, “QKD in standard optical telecommunications networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Quantum Communication and Quantum Networking, 2010, vol. 36, pp. 142–149.

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Suda, M.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Tajima, A.

Takada, A.

Takahashi, S.

Takeoka, M.

Takesue, H.

Tamaki, K.

Tamas, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

Tavares, J.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Ten, S.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Themel, T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Thew, R.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Thew, R. T.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Thoma, Y.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. A.

T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1991.

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol.  74, no. 1, pp. 145–195, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Tokura, T.

Tokura, Y.

Toliver, P.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

Towery, C. R.

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution on a 10  Gb/s WDM-PON,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 9, pp. 9600–9612, 2010.
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 1875–1877, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Treiber, A.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Trinkler, P.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Tsubokawa, M.

Tsurumaru, T.

Tualle-Brouri, R.

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, K. T.

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Uchikoga, S.

Vannel, F.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ventura, S.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Voirol, R.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Waarts, O.

D. Dolev, C. Dwork, O. Waarts, and M. Yung, “Perfectly secure message transmission,” J. ACM, vol.  40, no. 1, pp. 17–47, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  89, no. 3, 037902, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Wakui, K.

Walenta, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 6, 063027, 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Wang, Z.

Weier, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Wimberger, I.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Woesner, H.

K. Miller, T. Biermann, H. Woesner, and H. Karl, “Network coding in passive optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Network Coding (NetCod), 2010, pp. 1–6.

Wong, S.-W.

L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yan, “Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 133–143, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Wootters, W. K.

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature, vol.  299, no. 5886, pp. 802–803, 1982.
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “All-optical network coding,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 4, pp. 175–191, 2010.
[CrossRef]

E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “Network coding for WDM all-optical multicast,” University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, Tech. Rep., 2008.

Yamamoto, Y.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  89, no. 3, 037902, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yan, “Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 133–143, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

Yan, Y.

L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yan, “Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 133–143, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Yen, S.-H.

L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yan, “Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 133–143, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Yeung, R.

R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, and R. Yeung, “Network information flow,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  46, no. 4, pp. 1204–1216, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z.

Yoshino, K.

Young, R. J.

Yuan, Z.

Yuan, Z. L.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1  Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express, vol.  16, no. 23, pp. 18790–18979, 2008.
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  84, no. 19, p. 3762, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Yung, M.

D. Dolev, C. Dwork, O. Waarts, and M. Yung, “Perfectly secure message transmission,” J. ACM, vol.  40, no. 1, pp. 17–47, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 6, 063027, 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol.  74, no. 1, pp. 145–195, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, Y. Zhao, and B. Qi, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A, vol.  72, no. 1, 012326, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, W.

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 10, 103042, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Zoller, P.

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  81, no. 26, pp. 5932–5935, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Zurek, W. H.

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature, vol.  299, no. 5886, pp. 802–803, 1982.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol.  84, no. 19, p. 3762, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

P. D. Townsend, S. J. D. Phoenix, K. J. Blow, and S. M. Barnett, “Design of quantum cryptography systems for passive optical networks,” Electron. Lett., vol.  30, no. 22, pp. 1875–1877, 1994.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

K. Fouli, M. Maier, and M. Medard, “Network coding in next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 9, pp. 38–46, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

W. Maeda, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, and A. Tomita, “Technologies for quantum key distribution networks integrated with optical communication networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  15, no. 6, pp. 1591–1601, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

A. Ruiz-Alba, J. Mora, W. Amava, A. Martínez, V. García-Muñoz, D. Calvo, and J. Capmany, “Microwave photonics parallel quantum key distribution,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 931–942, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Toliver, R. J. Runser, T. E. Chapuran, J. L. Jackel, T. C. Banwell, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Hughes, C. G. Peterson, D. Derkacs, J. E. Nordholt, L. Mercer, S. McNown, A. Goldman, and J. Blake, “Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution through transparent optical switch elements,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  15, no. 11, pp. 1669–1671, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur.

M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, “Optical layer security in fiber-optic networks,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 725–736, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

R. Ahlswede, N. Cai, S.-Y. Li, and R. Yeung, “Network information flow,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  46, no. 4, pp. 1204–1216, 2000.
[CrossRef]

S. Jaggi, M. Langberg, S. Katti, T. Ho, D. Katabi, M. Medard, and M. Effros, “Resilient network coding in the presence of Byzantine adversaries,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.  54, no. 6, pp. 2596–2603, 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

A. E. Kamal, A. Ramamoorthy, L. Long, and L. Shizheng, “Overlay protection against link failures using network coding,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 4, pp. 1071–1084, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IET Optoelectron.

L. G. Kazovsky, S.-W. Wong, V. Gudla, P. T. Afshar, S.-H. Yen, S. Yamashita, and Y. Yan, “Challenges in next-generation optical access networks: addressing reach extension and security weaknesses,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 4, pp. 133–143, 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. ACM

D. Dolev, C. Dwork, O. Waarts, and M. Yung, “Perfectly secure message transmission,” J. ACM, vol.  40, no. 1, pp. 17–47, 1993.
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Secur.

L. Salvail, M. Peev, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, N. Lütkenhaus, and T. Länger, “Security of trusted repeater quantum key distribution networks,” J. Comput. Secur., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 61–87, 2010.

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Nat. Commun.

L. Masanes, S. Pironio, and A. Acín, “Secure device-independent quantum key distribution with causally independent measurement devices,” Nat. Commun., vol.  2, 238, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature, vol.  299, no. 5886, pp. 802–803, 1982.
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

D. Stucki, M. Legré, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys., vol.  13, no. 12, 123001, 2011.
[CrossRef]

T. E. Chapuran, P. Toliver, N. A. Peters, J. Jackel, M. S. Goodman, R. J. Runser, S. R. McNown, N. Dallmann, R. J. Hughes, K. P. McCabe, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, K. T. Tyagi, L. Mercer, and H. Dardy, “Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 10, 105001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 10, 103042, 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Alléaume, F. Roueff, E. Diamanti, and N. Lütkenhaus, “Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075002, 2009.
[CrossRef]

C. Elliot, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys., vol.  4, no. 1, 46, 2002.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alléaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fürst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Länger, M. Legré, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Lorünser, N. Lütkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075001, 2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, N. Walenta, F. Vannel, R. T. Thew, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, S. Gray, C. R. Towery, and S. Ten, “High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres,” New J. Phys., vol.  11, no. 7, 075003, 2009.
[CrossRef]

P. Eraerds, N. Walenta, M. Legré, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution and 1 Gbps data encryption over a single fibre,” New J. Phys., vol.  12, no. 6, 063027, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1  Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express, vol.  16, no. 23, pp. 18790–18979, 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, and S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2 GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10632–10639, 2011.
[CrossRef]

I. Choi, R. J. Young, and P. D. Townsend, “Quantum key distribution on a 10  Gb/s WDM-PON,” Opt. Express, vol.  18, no. 9, pp. 9600–9612, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. Dynes, A. Dixon, A. Sharpe, Z. Yuan, A. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 10387–10409, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, T. Debuisschert, S. Fossier, E. Diamanti, R. Alléaume, R. Tualle-Brouri, P. Grangier, A. Leverrier, P. Pache, and P. Painchault, “Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 13, pp. 14030–14041, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

X. Ma, H.-K. Lo, Y. Zhao, and B. Qi, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A, vol.  72, no. 1, 012326, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  89, no. 3, 037902, 2002.
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol.  81, no. 26, pp. 5932–5935, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

N. Cai and T. Chan, “Theory of secure network coding,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  99, no. 3, pp. 421–437, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol.  74, no. 1, pp. 145–195, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Lancho, J. Martínez, D. Elkouss, M. Soto, and V. Martín, “QKD in standard optical telecommunications networks,” in 1st Int. Conf. on Quantum Communication and Quantum Networking, 2010, vol. 36, pp. 142–149.

D. Atkins, M. Graff, A. K. Lenstra, and P. C. Leyland, “The magic words are squeamish ossifrage,” in Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on the Theory and Applications of Cryptology: Advances in Cryptology, 1995, pp. 263–277.

B. Kaliski, TWIRL and RSA Key Size, RSA Laboratories, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://www.rsa.com/rsalabs/node.asp?id=2004 .

E. Barker, W. Barker, W. Burr, W. Polk, and M. Smid, “Recommendation for key management—part 1: General (revised),” in NIST Special Publication, 2006.

D. Gutierrez, J. Cho, and L. G. Kazovsky, “TDM-PON security issues: upstream encryption is needed,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2007, paper JWA83.

J. M. Senior and Y. Jamro, Optical Fiber Communications: Principles and Practice. Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2008.

K. Shaneman and S. Gray, “Optical network security: technical analysis of fiber tapping mechanisms and methods for detection prevention,” in IEEE Military Communications Conf. (MILCOM), 2004, vol. 2, pp. 711–716.

E. D. Manley, J. S. Deogun, L. Xu, and D. R. Alexander, “Network coding for WDM all-optical multicast,” University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, Tech. Rep., 2008.

T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1991.

T. Chan and A. Grant, “Capacity bounds for secure network coding,” in Proc. Communications Theory Workshop, 2008, pp. 94–100.

M. Belzner, and H. Haunstein, “Network coding in passive optical networks,” in 35th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2009, pp. 1–2.

K. Miller, T. Biermann, H. Woesner, and H. Karl, “Network coding in passive optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Symp. on Network Coding (NetCod), 2010, pp. 1–6.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, “Security requirements for cryptographic modules,” FIPS PUB 140-2, 2001.

Common Criteria [Online]. Available: http://www.commoncriteriaportal.org .

P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, P. Grangier, and E. Diamanti, “Experimental demonstration of continuous-variable quantum key distribution over 80 km of standard telecom fiber,” presented at the 2nd Annu. Conf. on Quantum Cryptography (QCRYPT), 2012.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., 2009.

ID Quantique SA [Online]. Available: http://www.idquantique.com .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of the forwarding paradigm with the network codes paradigm. The router on the left side of the figure only forwards the incoming packets, while the router on the right processes the inputs and transmits a linear combination of the inputs through every outgoing link.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A QKD link can be considered as composed by a private channel used for exchanging random secret keys rq and a public channel in which the key can help the source send a secret message rq+m to the user. It is equivalent to considering both as a single private link connecting the source and the user.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

In this network, the source s wishes to send a message m to the user u (possibly a secret key) in the presence of t1 and t2, two intermediate nodes that eavesdrop their incoming and outgoing links. If t1 and t2 limit their eavesdropping activities to noncooperative eavesdropping, they have no information about the source message mM, where k is a random message from the random alphabet K.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

In this figure the source s distributes the same secret key to two different users u1 and u2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

This figure shows a network with two sources s1 and s2 and two users u1 and u2. The sources, s1 and s2, transmit m1 and m2 to the users, u2 and u1, respectively, while no information is leaked to the intermediate nodes or the remaining users.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Secret-key rate, in bits per qubit sent, of two different QKD systems, GYS and Clavis, using the BB84 protocol with decoy states as a function of the absorptions in the network. The ratio of the secret key is calculated using the asymptotic approximation proposed in [43]. The parameters considered for the GYS system can be found in [41]. In the Clavis system [42], we use an absorption value of 0.25dB/km for the fiber (both devices are transmitting at the 1550 nm window). Losses owing to network devices are depicted using a shadowed region. Note that the different regions are plotted in the order in which a hypothetical photon qubit would find them if it is connected through an access network homed into a passive metropolitan ring and crosses two core nodes before being dropped to its final destination.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The reach can be extended by allowing trusted intermediate nodes to forward the key. The gray area marks the distance limitation of the QKD system with the emitter source at s. (a) Detail of the messages exchanged with a trusted repeater. (b) Logical schema of a link extended with a trusted repeater.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The scenario corresponds to an optical network with two disjoint paths that are used to overcome the QKD distance limitation. As in Fig. 7, the gray sector marks the distance limitation of the QKD system with the emitter source at s.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Example of a typical metropolitan optical network. The core ring is depicted on top, while the lower part represents the point-to-multipoint access network.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Scheme of a QKD-PON under the network coding paradigm. Coarse WDM (CWDM) add-drop modules are used to provide a channel in the third transmission window, around 1550 nm, corresponding to the lowest absorption band. Dense WDM (DWDM) add-drop modules are used to route signals to the corresponding receiver. Finally, a bandpass filter Fa is used to connect the access network with the backbone and route signals into the correct direction within the backbone.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Diagrams for network coding purposes corresponding to key exchanges between nodes (a) Tx1 and Tx2 and between (b) Tx1 and Tx3 using the optical network depicted in Fig. 10.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Alternative scheme of a QKD-PON with circulators instead of bandpass filters. This reduces the number of components, but signals can travel only in the forward direction. This means that, to recover the connectivity with the previous node, accessible in the scheme of Fig. 10, either the quantum signal has to travel the full ring in the forward direction till reaching the node before or a second ring running in parallel but in the backward direction must be used.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Third prototype of a QKD-PON with splitters instead of circulators to solve the problem of only forward communications. Moreover, the number of OADMs is reduced. These changes permit one to use an AWG instead of a splitter and thus increase the number of users at the access network. The disadvantage is that this scheme does not allow key exchanges beyond the nearest backbone node (e.g., Tx1 is not able to directly connect beyond Rx2). This is not an option with current commercial QKD systems, since their loss budget is as much 20 dB, but with the expected new generation able to withstand 30 dB, this advantage—except for the increase in throughput between nearest neighbor nodes—would be lost. In this case, other schemes like the first two prototypes can be used.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Insertion Losses

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H(Mw|Yu)=0
H(Mw|YBw)=H(Mw),
H(M|Yt1)=H(M|Yt2)=0,
H(M1|Yu1)=H(M2|Yu2)=0.