Abstract

Video on demand (VOD) is becoming one of the most important services for many network operators. VOD needs a huge bandwidth to deliver data in a real-time network. Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) provide a low-cost and high-speed solution for multimedia services such as VOD. In this paper, we propose a scalable architecture based on an EPON, using single copy broadcast in the downstream direction and a special caching mechanism responsible for VOD requests, to improve VOD services. Our architecture consists of an optical network unit (ONU) with an associated storage unit and optical line terminal (OLT) components. We set a “broadcast” logical link identifier in the video packets so that all of the ONUs can accept them. Therefore, when the movie is sent from the OLT to the ONUs after it is requested by the user, each ONU accepts the movie packet and saves it in its own storage. In this architecture, the OLT just needs to send each video to the ONUs once, and the attached storage is responsible for future requests. With this architecture, at least 60% of VOD traffic can be saved in the feeder fiber. Simulation results show that our architecture can improve the overall quality of service in terms of packet loss, mean packet delays, jitter, and system throughput.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2013

2012

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

K. M. Ho, W. F. Poon, and K. T. Lo, “An evolutionary video assignment optimization technique for VOD system in heterogeneous environment,” Int. J. Digital Multimedia Broadcast., vol.  2010, 645049, 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, M. Yoo, and B. Mukherjee, “Efficient video-on-demand streaming for broadband access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 1, pp. 38–50, 2010.
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Yang, F. Cores, P. Hernandez, A. Ripoll, and E. Luque, “Designing an effective P2P system for a VoD system to exploit the multicast communication,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput., vol.  70, no. 12, pp. 1175–1192, Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Maier and M. Herzog, “Online gaming and P2P file sharing in next-generation EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 48–55, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, C. Qiao, Y. Li, and K. Lu, “On guaranteed VoD services in next generation optical access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 875–888, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Farhad, M. M. Akbar, and M. H. Kabir, “Multicast video-on-demand service in an enterprise network with client-assisted patching,” Multimedia Tools Applicat., vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 63–90, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Huang, T. Z. J. Fu, D. M. Chiu, J. C. S. Lui, and C. Huang, “Challenges, design and analysis of a large-scale P2P-VoD system,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 4, pp. 375–388, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

H. D. Ma, G. G. Shin, and W. B. Wu, “Best-effort patching for multicast true VoD service,” Multimedia Tools Applicat., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 101–122, May 2005.
[CrossRef]

Y. Lou and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multiservice access on EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  43, no. 2, pp. S16–S21, Feb. 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and D. G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Ramesh, I. Rhee, and K. Guo, “Multicast with cache (Mcache): An adaptive zero-delay video-on-demand service,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 440–456, Mar. 2001.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): Design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, July 2001.
[CrossRef]

Akbar, M. M.

S. Farhad, M. M. Akbar, and M. H. Kabir, “Multicast video-on-demand service in an enterprise network with client-assisted patching,” Multimedia Tools Applicat., vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 63–90, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. A.

Ansari, N.

Y. Lou and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multiservice access on EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  43, no. 2, pp. S16–S21, Feb. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Assi, C.

Attygalle, M.

Balasubramaniam, S.

G. Kandavanam, D. Botvich, and S. Balasubramaniam, “PaCRA: A path-aware content replication approach to support QoS guaranteed video on demand service in metropolitan IPTV networks,” in Network Operations and Management Symp. (NOMS), 2010, pp. 591–598.

Botvich, D.

G. Kandavanam, D. Botvich, and S. Balasubramaniam, “PaCRA: A path-aware content replication approach to support QoS guaranteed video on demand service in metropolitan IPTV networks,” in Network Operations and Management Symp. (NOMS), 2010, pp. 591–598.

Carbunar, B.

B. Carbunar, M. Pearce, V. Vasudevan, and M. Needham, “Predictive caching for video on demand CDNs,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2011.

Chan, C. A.

Chiu, D. M.

Y. Huang, T. Z. J. Fu, D. M. Chiu, J. C. S. Lui, and C. Huang, “Challenges, design and analysis of a large-scale P2P-VoD system,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 4, pp. 375–388, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, M. Yoo, and B. Mukherjee, “Efficient video-on-demand streaming for broadband access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 1, pp. 38–50, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. K.

Y. H. Kwon, H. J. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “An multicast LLID allocation mechanism using MPCP for multimedia service in E-PON,” in Joint Conf. on Optical Internet and the Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology, 2007.

Cores, F.

X. Y. Yang, F. Cores, P. Hernandez, A. Ripoll, and E. Luque, “Designing an effective P2P system for a VoD system to exploit the multicast communication,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput., vol.  70, no. 12, pp. 1175–1192, Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

da Silva, H. J. A.

Duelk, M.

J. E. Simsarian and M. Duelk, “IPTV bandwidth demands in metropolitan area networks,” in 15th IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, 2007, pp. 31–36.

Ellinas, G.

Endo, R.

T. Fujimoto, R. Endo, K. Matsumoto, and H. Shigeno, “Video-popularity-based caching scheme for P2P video-on-demand streaming,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications, 2011, pp. 748–755.

Erramilli, A.

A. Erramilli, P. Pruthi, and W. Willinger, “Fast and physically-based generation of self-similar network traffic with applications to ATM performance evaluation,” in 29th Conf. Winter Simulation, Atlanta, GA, 1997, pp. 997–1004.

Farhad, S.

S. Farhad, M. M. Akbar, and M. H. Kabir, “Multicast video-on-demand service in an enterprise network with client-assisted patching,” Multimedia Tools Applicat., vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 63–90, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Fu, T. Z. J.

Y. Huang, T. Z. J. Fu, D. M. Chiu, J. C. S. Lui, and C. Huang, “Challenges, design and analysis of a large-scale P2P-VoD system,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 4, pp. 375–388, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, T.

T. Fujimoto, R. Endo, K. Matsumoto, and H. Shigeno, “Video-popularity-based caching scheme for P2P video-on-demand streaming,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications, 2011, pp. 748–755.

Garcia, R.

M. Vilas, X. G. Paneda, R. Garcia, D. Melendi, and V. G. Garcia, “User behavior analysis of a video-on-demand service with a wide variety of subjects and lengths,” in 31st EUROMICRO Conf. Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2005, pp. 330–337.

Garcia, V. G.

M. Vilas, X. G. Paneda, R. Garcia, D. Melendi, and V. G. Garcia, “User behavior analysis of a video-on-demand service with a wide variety of subjects and lengths,” in 31st EUROMICRO Conf. Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2005, pp. 330–337.

Guo, K.

S. Ramesh, I. Rhee, and K. Guo, “Multicast with cache (Mcache): An adaptive zero-delay video-on-demand service,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 440–456, Mar. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

T. Guo and Y. Zhang, “Research of incentive mechanisms in P2P-based video on demand system,” in 2nd Int. Conf. Networking and Distributed Computing, 2011, pp. 340–343.

Hadjiantonis, A.

Hajduczenia, M.

Hernandez, P.

X. Y. Yang, F. Cores, P. Hernandez, A. Ripoll, and E. Luque, “Designing an effective P2P system for a VoD system to exploit the multicast communication,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput., vol.  70, no. 12, pp. 1175–1192, Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Herzog, M.

M. Maier and M. Herzog, “Online gaming and P2P file sharing in next-generation EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 48–55, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, W. F. Poon, and K. T. Lo, “An evolutionary video assignment optimization technique for VOD system in heterogeneous environment,” Int. J. Digital Multimedia Broadcast., vol.  2010, 645049, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho and K. T. Lo, “A simple model for peer-to-peer video-on-demand system in broadcast environment,” in Int. Conf. Information Networking, 2008.

Huang, C.

Y. Huang, T. Z. J. Fu, D. M. Chiu, J. C. S. Lui, and C. Huang, “Challenges, design and analysis of a large-scale P2P-VoD system,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 4, pp. 375–388, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, T. Z. J. Fu, D. M. Chiu, J. C. S. Lui, and C. Huang, “Challenges, design and analysis of a large-scale P2P-VoD system,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 4, pp. 375–388, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. S.

Ji, W.

W. Ji, “The VoD services carried by hybrid PON+EoC networking,” in 2nd IEEE Int. Conf. Broadband Network and Multimedia Technology, 2009, pp. 467–471.

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang and X. Zhang, “Research on EPON of broadband access technology and broadband network deployment,” in 3rd Int. Conf. Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering, 2010, vol. 3, pp. 148–152.

Kabir, M. H.

S. Farhad, M. M. Akbar, and M. H. Kabir, “Multicast video-on-demand service in an enterprise network with client-assisted patching,” Multimedia Tools Applicat., vol.  43, no. 1, pp. 63–90, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kandavanam, G.

G. Kandavanam, D. Botvich, and S. Balasubramaniam, “PaCRA: A path-aware content replication approach to support QoS guaranteed video on demand service in metropolitan IPTV networks,” in Network Operations and Management Symp. (NOMS), 2010, pp. 591–598.

Kang, M.

Kim, N.

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and D. G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): Design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, July 2001.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and A. Maislos, “Ethernet passive optical networks,” in IP Over WDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internet, S. Dixit, Ed. Wiley, 2004, pp. 229–275.

Kwon, Y. H.

Y. H. Kwon, H. J. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “An multicast LLID allocation mechanism using MPCP for multimedia service in E-PON,” in Joint Conf. on Optical Internet and the Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology, 2007.

Lee, H. J.

Y. H. Kwon, H. J. Lee, and J. K. Choi, “An multicast LLID allocation mechanism using MPCP for multimedia service in E-PON,” in Joint Conf. on Optical Internet and the Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology, 2007.

Li, J.

J. Li, J. Yang, and H. S. Xi, “A scalable and cooperative caching scheme in a distributed VOD system,” in Int. Conf. Communication Software and Networks, 2009, pp. 247–250.

Li, Y.

J. Wang, C. Qiao, Y. Li, and K. Lu, “On guaranteed VoD services in next generation optical access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 875–888, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Liem, A. T.

Lo, K. T.

K. M. Ho, W. F. Poon, and K. T. Lo, “An evolutionary video assignment optimization technique for VOD system in heterogeneous environment,” Int. J. Digital Multimedia Broadcast., vol.  2010, 645049, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho and K. T. Lo, “A simple model for peer-to-peer video-on-demand system in broadcast environment,” in Int. Conf. Information Networking, 2008.

Lou, Y.

Y. Lou and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multiservice access on EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  43, no. 2, pp. S16–S21, Feb. 2005.
[CrossRef]

Lu, K.

J. Wang, C. Qiao, Y. Li, and K. Lu, “On guaranteed VoD services in next generation optical access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 875–888, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Lui, J. C. S.

Y. Huang, T. Z. J. Fu, D. M. Chiu, J. C. S. Lui, and C. Huang, “Challenges, design and analysis of a large-scale P2P-VoD system,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 4, pp. 375–388, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Luque, E.

X. Y. Yang, F. Cores, P. Hernandez, A. Ripoll, and E. Luque, “Designing an effective P2P system for a VoD system to exploit the multicast communication,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput., vol.  70, no. 12, pp. 1175–1192, Dec. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. D.

H. D. Ma, G. G. Shin, and W. B. Wu, “Best-effort patching for multicast true VoD service,” Multimedia Tools Applicat., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 101–122, May 2005.
[CrossRef]

Maier, M.

M. Maier and M. Herzog, “Online gaming and P2P file sharing in next-generation EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 48–55, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Maislos, A.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and A. Maislos, “Ethernet passive optical networks,” in IP Over WDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internet, S. Dixit, Ed. Wiley, 2004, pp. 229–275.

Matsumoto, K.

T. Fujimoto, R. Endo, K. Matsumoto, and H. Shigeno, “Video-popularity-based caching scheme for P2P video-on-demand streaming,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications, 2011, pp. 748–755.

Melendi, D.

M. Vilas, X. G. Paneda, R. Garcia, D. Melendi, and V. G. Garcia, “User behavior analysis of a video-on-demand service with a wide variety of subjects and lengths,” in 31st EUROMICRO Conf. Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2005, pp. 330–337.

Monteiro, P. P.

Mukherjee, B.

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, M. Yoo, and B. Mukherjee, “Efficient video-on-demand streaming for broadband access networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, no. 1, pp. 38–50, 2010.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and D. G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): Design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, July 2001.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and A. Maislos, “Ethernet passive optical networks,” in IP Over WDM: Building the Next Generation Optical Internet, S. Dixit, Ed. Wiley, 2004, pp. 229–275.

Needham, M.

B. Carbunar, M. Pearce, V. Vasudevan, and M. Needham, “Predictive caching for video on demand CDNs,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2011.

Nirmalathas, A.

Paneda, X. G.

M. Vilas, X. G. Paneda, R. Garcia, D. Melendi, and V. G. Garcia, “User behavior analysis of a video-on-demand service with a wide variety of subjects and lengths,” in 31st EUROMICRO Conf. Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2005, pp. 330–337.

Pearce, M.

B. Carbunar, M. Pearce, V. Vasudevan, and M. Needham, “Predictive caching for video on demand CDNs,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2011.

Pesavento, D. G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and D. G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
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G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet PON (ePON): Design and analysis of an optical access network,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  3, no. 3, pp. 307–319, July 2001.
[CrossRef]

Poon, W. F.

K. M. Ho, W. F. Poon, and K. T. Lo, “An evolutionary video assignment optimization technique for VOD system in heterogeneous environment,” Int. J. Digital Multimedia Broadcast., vol.  2010, 645049, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Pruthi, P.

A. Erramilli, P. Pruthi, and W. Willinger, “Fast and physically-based generation of self-similar network traffic with applications to ATM performance evaluation,” in 29th Conf. Winter Simulation, Atlanta, GA, 1997, pp. 997–1004.

Qiao, C.

J. Wang, C. Qiao, Y. Li, and K. Lu, “On guaranteed VoD services in next generation optical access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 875–888, 2010.
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S. Ramesh, I. Rhee, and K. Guo, “Multicast with cache (Mcache): An adaptive zero-delay video-on-demand service,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 440–456, Mar. 2001.
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J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, 2012.
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S. Ramesh, I. Rhee, and K. Guo, “Multicast with cache (Mcache): An adaptive zero-delay video-on-demand service,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 440–456, Mar. 2001.
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X. Y. Yang, F. Cores, P. Hernandez, A. Ripoll, and E. Luque, “Designing an effective P2P system for a VoD system to exploit the multicast communication,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput., vol.  70, no. 12, pp. 1175–1192, Dec. 2010.
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Sherif, S. R.

Shigeno, H.

T. Fujimoto, R. Endo, K. Matsumoto, and H. Shigeno, “Video-popularity-based caching scheme for P2P video-on-demand streaming,” in IEEE Int. Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications, 2011, pp. 748–755.

Shin, G. G.

H. D. Ma, G. G. Shin, and W. B. Wu, “Best-effort patching for multicast true VoD service,” Multimedia Tools Applicat., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 101–122, May 2005.
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J. E. Simsarian and M. Duelk, “IPTV bandwidth demands in metropolitan area networks,” in 15th IEEE Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, 2007, pp. 31–36.

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B. Carbunar, M. Pearce, V. Vasudevan, and M. Needham, “Predictive caching for video on demand CDNs,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2011.

Vilas, M.

M. Vilas, X. G. Paneda, R. Garcia, D. Melendi, and V. G. Garcia, “User behavior analysis of a video-on-demand service with a wide variety of subjects and lengths,” in 31st EUROMICRO Conf. Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2005, pp. 330–337.

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J. Wang, C. Qiao, Y. Li, and K. Lu, “On guaranteed VoD services in next generation optical access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 875–888, 2010.
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H. D. Ma, G. G. Shin, and W. B. Wu, “Best-effort patching for multicast true VoD service,” Multimedia Tools Applicat., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 101–122, May 2005.
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J. Li, J. Yang, and H. S. Xi, “A scalable and cooperative caching scheme in a distributed VOD system,” in Int. Conf. Communication Software and Networks, 2009, pp. 247–250.

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J. Li, J. Yang, and H. S. Xi, “A scalable and cooperative caching scheme in a distributed VOD system,” in Int. Conf. Communication Software and Networks, 2009, pp. 247–250.

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X. Y. Yang, F. Cores, P. Hernandez, A. Ripoll, and E. Luque, “Designing an effective P2P system for a VoD system to exploit the multicast communication,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput., vol.  70, no. 12, pp. 1175–1192, Dec. 2010.
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N. Zhang and H. Yoshiuchi, “Enhanced Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) system with storage optical network unit (ONU),” in Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. and the Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology, 2008.

Zhang, N.

N. Zhang and H. Yoshiuchi, “Enhanced Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) system with storage optical network unit (ONU),” in Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf. and the Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Technology, 2008.

Zhang, X.

J. Jiang and X. Zhang, “Research on EPON of broadband access technology and broadband network deployment,” in 3rd Int. Conf. Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering, 2010, vol. 3, pp. 148–152.

Zhang, Y.

T. Guo and Y. Zhang, “Research of incentive mechanisms in P2P-based video on demand system,” in 2nd Int. Conf. Networking and Distributed Computing, 2011, pp. 340–343.

Comput. Commun. Rev.

Y. Huang, T. Z. J. Fu, D. M. Chiu, J. C. S. Lui, and C. Huang, “Challenges, design and analysis of a large-scale P2P-VoD system,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 4, pp. 375–388, Oct. 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

M. Maier and M. Herzog, “Online gaming and P2P file sharing in next-generation EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 2, pp. 48–55, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer and G. Pesavento, “Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next-generation optical access network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 66–73, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and D. G. Pesavento, “IPACT a dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Y. Lou and N. Ansari, “Bandwidth allocation for multiservice access on EPONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  43, no. 2, pp. S16–S21, Feb. 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials

J. Choi, A. S. Reaz, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey of user behavior in VoD service and bandwidth-saving multicast streaming schemes,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 1, pp. 156–169, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

J. Wang, C. Qiao, Y. Li, and K. Lu, “On guaranteed VoD services in next generation optical access networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  28, no. 6, pp. 875–888, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol.

S. Ramesh, I. Rhee, and K. Guo, “Multicast with cache (Mcache): An adaptive zero-delay video-on-demand service,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol.  11, no. 3, pp. 440–456, Mar. 2001.
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Digital Multimedia Broadcast.

K. M. Ho, W. F. Poon, and K. T. Lo, “An evolutionary video assignment optimization technique for VOD system in heterogeneous environment,” Int. J. Digital Multimedia Broadcast., vol.  2010, 645049, 2010.
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T. Guo and Y. Zhang, “Research of incentive mechanisms in P2P-based video on demand system,” in 2nd Int. Conf. Networking and Distributed Computing, 2011, pp. 340–343.

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A. Erramilli, P. Pruthi, and W. Willinger, “Fast and physically-based generation of self-similar network traffic with applications to ATM performance evaluation,” in 29th Conf. Winter Simulation, Atlanta, GA, 1997, pp. 997–1004.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Detailed operations in the upstream direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Detailed operations in the downstream direction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Packet redirecting with different traffic loads. (a) LDBA_VOD for different traffic proportions in 16 ONUs. (b) LDBA_VOD for different traffic proportions in 32 ONUs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mean packet delays of LDBA and LDBA_VOD with different traffic loads for 32 ONUs. (a) Comparison of AF delay for different traffic proportions. (b) Comparison of BE delay for different traffic proportions. (c) Comparison of total mean packet delay for different traffic proportions.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mean packet delays of DBAM and DBAM_VOD with different traffic loads for 32 ONUs. (a) Comparison of AF delay for different traffic proportions. (b) Comparison of BE delay for different traffic proportions. (c) Comparison of total mean packet delay for different traffic proportions.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

EF jitter with different traffic loads for 32 ONUs. (a) Comparison of EF jitter of LDBA and LDBA_VOD for different traffic proportions. (b) Comparison of EF jitter of DBAM and DBAM_VOD for different traffic proportions.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

System throughput with different traffic loads for 16 ONUs and a 128Kb/s video transmission rate. (a) Comparison of LDBA and LDBA_VOD for different traffic proportions. (b) Comparison of DBAM and DBAM_VOD for different traffic proportions.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

System throughput with different traffic loads for 32 ONUs and a 128Kb/s video transmission rate. (a) Comparison of LDBA and LDBA_VOD for different traffic proportions. (b) Comparison of DBAM and DBAM_VOD for different traffic proportions.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of DBAM and DBAM_VOD system throughput with different video transmission rates and different traffic loads for 32 ONUs.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Fairness with different traffic loads for 32 ONUs. (a) Comparison of fairness of LDBA and LDBA_VOD for different traffic proportions. (b) Comparison of fairness of DBAM and DBAM_VOD for different traffic proportions.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Packet loss with different traffic loads for 32 ONUs. (a) Comparison of LDBA and LDBA_VOD for different traffic proportions. (b) Comparison of DBAM and DBAM_VOD for different traffic proportions.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Defined Functions in the Storage Device

Tables Icon

TABLE II Simulation Scenario