Abstract

Optical networks that support mixed line rates can accommodate diverse connection requests without the need for traffic grooming by assigning the appropriate line rates to match the bandwidth requirements of requests. Higher line rates offer the advantage of a lower per-unit cost of transmission but may suffer from more impairments compared to lower line rates. These impairments result in shorter optical reach for high line rate signals, necessitating the use of electronic regenerators to restore the signal quality. We formulate the regenerator site selection problem as an integer linear program and propose heuristics to solve the design problem in the context of waveband optical networks. We propose four heuristics and study the effect of regenerator site selection on the number of optical switch ports in waveband networks and the electronic cost.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Nag and M. Tornatore, “Transparent vs. translucent optical network design with mixed line rates,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OWI7.
  4. A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPD2.
  5. A. Nag and M. Tornatore, “Transparent optical network design with mixed line rates,” in Proc. IEEE ANTS, 2008.
  6. M. Liu, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “New strategies for connection protection in mixed-line-rate optical WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 9, pp. 641–650, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Batayneh, D. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstadter, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design for a multiline-rate carrier-grade Ethernet under transmission-range constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 121–130, Jan. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  11. P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Youssef, S. A. Zahr, and M. Gagnaire, “Traffic-driven vs. topology-driven strategies for regeneration sites placement,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2010.
  14. P. Chowdhury, A. Nag, M. Tornatore, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical network design considering heterogeneous fiber dispersion maps,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011.
  15. S. Varma and J. P. Jue, “Regenerator placement and waveband routing in optical networks with impairment constraints,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2011.
  16. S. Ferdousi, A. Nag, A. Reaz, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate optical network design with wavebanding,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, pp. 286–296, Nov. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. DARPA CORONET Program on Dynamic Multi-Terabit Core Optical Networks, “Sample optical network topology files” [Online]. Available: http://www.monarchna.com/topology.html .
  20. S. Varma and J. P. Jue, “Regenerator site selection in waveband optical networks supporting mixed line rates,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

2012

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Ferdousi, A. Nag, A. Reaz, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate optical network design with wavebanding,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, pp. 286–296, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2008

2005

2003

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

1999

Anand, V.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Batayneh, M.

Cao, X.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, P.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Chowdhury, A. Nag, M. Tornatore, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical network design considering heterogeneous fiber dispersion maps,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011.

Christodoulopoulos, K.

Datta, D.

Doumith, E. A.

M. Youssef, E. A. Doumith, and M. Gagnaire, “Power-aware multirate WDM network design under static/dynamic traffic,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

Feng, H.

Ferdousi, S.

S. Ferdousi, A. Nag, A. Reaz, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate optical network design with wavebanding,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, pp. 286–296, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Gagnaire, M.

M. Youssef, S. A. Zahr, and M. Gagnaire, “Traffic-driven vs. topology-driven strategies for regeneration sites placement,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2010.

M. Youssef, E. A. Doumith, and M. Gagnaire, “Power-aware multirate WDM network design under static/dynamic traffic,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

Heritage, J.

Hoffmann, M.

Ip, E.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Chowdhury, A. Nag, M. Tornatore, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical network design considering heterogeneous fiber dispersion maps,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011.

Jue, J. P.

S. Varma and J. P. Jue, “Regenerator placement and waveband routing in optical networks with impairment constraints,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2011.

S. Varma and J. P. Jue, “Regenerator site selection in waveband optical networks supporting mixed line rates,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

Kirstadter, A.

Liu, M.

Manousakis, K.

Mukherjee, B.

S. Ferdousi, A. Nag, A. Reaz, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate optical network design with wavebanding,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, pp. 286–296, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “New strategies for connection protection in mixed-line-rate optical WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 9, pp. 641–650, 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Batayneh, D. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstadter, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design for a multiline-rate carrier-grade Ethernet under transmission-range constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  26, no. 1, pp. 121–130, Jan. 2008.
[CrossRef]

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  17, no. 10, pp. 1713–1723, Oct. 1999.
[CrossRef]

P. Chowdhury, A. Nag, M. Tornatore, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical network design considering heterogeneous fiber dispersion maps,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011.

A. Nag, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On spectrum-efficient green optical backbone networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPD2.

Nag, A.

S. Ferdousi, A. Nag, A. Reaz, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate optical network design with wavebanding,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, pp. 286–296, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Nag and M. Tornatore, “Transparent vs. translucent optical network design with mixed line rates,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OWI7.

A. Nag and M. Tornatore, “Transparent optical network design with mixed line rates,” in Proc. IEEE ANTS, 2008.

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPD2.

A. Nag, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On spectrum-efficient green optical backbone networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

P. Chowdhury, A. Nag, M. Tornatore, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical network design considering heterogeneous fiber dispersion maps,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011.

Qiao, C.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, B.

Reaz, A.

S. Ferdousi, A. Nag, A. Reaz, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate optical network design with wavebanding,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, pp. 286–296, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Schupke, D.

Simmons, J.

Simmons, J. M.

J. M. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning, 1st ed.Springer, 2008.

Tornatore, M.

S. Ferdousi, A. Nag, A. Reaz, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate optical network design with wavebanding,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, pp. 286–296, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “New strategies for connection protection in mixed-line-rate optical WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 9, pp. 641–650, 2011.
[CrossRef]

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Nag and M. Tornatore, “Transparent vs. translucent optical network design with mixed line rates,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OWI7.

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPD2.

A. Nag and M. Tornatore, “Transparent optical network design with mixed line rates,” in Proc. IEEE ANTS, 2008.

P. Chowdhury, A. Nag, M. Tornatore, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical network design considering heterogeneous fiber dispersion maps,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011.

Varma, S.

S. Varma and J. P. Jue, “Regenerator placement and waveband routing in optical networks with impairment constraints,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2011.

S. Varma and J. P. Jue, “Regenerator site selection in waveband optical networks supporting mixed line rates,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

Varvarigos, E.

Wang, T.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Nag, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On spectrum-efficient green optical backbone networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

P. Chowdhury, A. Nag, M. Tornatore, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical network design considering heterogeneous fiber dispersion maps,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011.

Xiong, Y.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Youssef, M.

M. Youssef, E. A. Doumith, and M. Gagnaire, “Power-aware multirate WDM network design under static/dynamic traffic,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

M. Youssef, S. A. Zahr, and M. Gagnaire, “Traffic-driven vs. topology-driven strategies for regeneration sites placement,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2010.

Zahr, S. A.

M. Youssef, S. A. Zahr, and M. Gagnaire, “Traffic-driven vs. topology-driven strategies for regeneration sites placement,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2010.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1081–1095, Sept. 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

Opt. Switching Networking

S. Ferdousi, A. Nag, A. Reaz, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate optical network design with wavebanding,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, pp. 286–296, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Other

J. M. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning, 1st ed.Springer, 2008.

DARPA CORONET Program on Dynamic Multi-Terabit Core Optical Networks, “Sample optical network topology files” [Online]. Available: http://www.monarchna.com/topology.html .

S. Varma and J. P. Jue, “Regenerator site selection in waveband optical networks supporting mixed line rates,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

M. Youssef, S. A. Zahr, and M. Gagnaire, “Traffic-driven vs. topology-driven strategies for regeneration sites placement,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2010.

P. Chowdhury, A. Nag, M. Tornatore, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “Mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical network design considering heterogeneous fiber dispersion maps,” in Proc. ECOC, 2011.

S. Varma and J. P. Jue, “Regenerator placement and waveband routing in optical networks with impairment constraints,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 2011.

M. Youssef, E. A. Doumith, and M. Gagnaire, “Power-aware multirate WDM network design under static/dynamic traffic,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

A. Nag, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On spectrum-efficient green optical backbone networks,” in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, 2011.

A. Nag and M. Tornatore, “Transparent vs. translucent optical network design with mixed line rates,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper OWI7.

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009, paper PDPD2.

A. Nag and M. Tornatore, “Transparent optical network design with mixed line rates,” in Proc. IEEE ANTS, 2008.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Regenerator site selection example.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Waveband cross connect with regenerators.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Network topologies.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

RAND9 network.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

NSF network.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

CONUS network.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Number of lightpaths.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

RAND9: optical switch port cost versus RS.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Number of Lighpaths Versus Load—MINDROP

Tables Icon

TABLE II Number of Lighpaths Versus Load—MINRS

Tables Icon

TABLE III RAND9 Network—Electronic and Optical Costs

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α·β·nNrsn+α·s,dNnNwWkLRAk·rnwksd+α·s,dNiNwkLRDk·tsjwksd+nn(bpn+lpn).
jwkk·Rsjksd·tsjwksd=Tsds,dN.
iwRinksd·tinwksd=iwRniksd·tniwksds,d,kLR,nPsdns,d.
s,di,jkEijpqsd·tijwksd1(p,q)L,wW.
rdwksd=0s,dwkLR,
rswksd=0s,dwkLR,
N·rnwksdjRnjksd·tnjwksd,rnwksdjRnjksd·tnjwksd,s,dw,nPsdns,dkLR.
(N2·|W|·|LR|)·rsnsdwkrnwksdnN,rsnsdwkrnwksdnN.
tddwsd=ikRidksd·tidwksds,d,nw,
tbnwsd=ijkRijksd·Vijnsd·tijwksds,d,nw.
wbijwn=s,dPSinjsd·tbnwsdn,i,j,(i,n)(n,j)L,w.
wbwbijwnBS·bbijbnn,i,jb,
wbwbijwnBS<BS·bbijbnn,i,jb,
bpn=ijbbbijbnnN.
lpn=ijwwbijwnBS·ijbbbijbn+s,dwkrnwksd+s,dwtdnwsdnN.
Λsd={Λisd:Tsd=kLRk·liksd,liksdΛisd}.
Eisd=kLR(Dk·liksd+Ak·nksd·liksd).
Bn={(s,d):nPsd,ns,d,s,dN},yn=(s,d)BnTsd.
V=VΔijsd.
wisd=kLRminjnΨkjsd(ynonk·liksdyn).
on=on+kLR,nΨkjsdk·liksd.
wijsd=γ·f+(1γ)·g.
f=1rijsd+1,rijsd0,rijsd=|VΔijsd|.
g=1|LR|·kLR(nΨkjsdΨkjsdΔijsd)(ynonk·liksdyn).
nrsnRSnN,