Abstract

Translucent optical networks have emerged as potential yet feasible candidates to bridge the gap between the opaque and transparent network architectures. By allowing electrical 3R signal regeneration only at selected points in the network, translucent architectures represent a cost-effective, power-efficient solution. Concurrently, forecasts predicting highly dynamic traffic patterns make it crucial for next-generation transport networks to engage highly agile technologies that include sub-wavelength switching (SWS). In translucent SWS networks, contention resolution is achieved through the still technologically immature all-optical wavelength converters (WCs). Since WCs are expected to be expensive, power-consuming devices, there has been significant research effort on devising WC-sharing architectures, which aim at minimizing the number of these devices in the network. WC sharing, however, requires complex switching fabrics that involve a much higher number of optical gates and stronger degradation due to physical layer impairments (more electrical 3R regenerators). It is clear, then, that the technological interest in WC-sharing architectures mainly depends on the cost trade-offs existing between these three components. For this reason, in this work, we carry out a comprehensive cost feasibility analysis of translucent networks based on asynchronous WC-sharing packet switches. After modeling a set of translucent WC-sharing switching fabrics, we assess their performance in an isolated node scenario in terms of the number of WCs and optical gates required. Given the results obtained, we select the shared-per-node (SPN) architecture to compare its hardware requirements with those of a network based on dedicated WC nodes (i.e., one WC per wavelength and input port). To this end, an iterative simulation algorithm is used to dimension translucent SWS networks considering a broad range of continental-scale topologies. The results are first analyzed using relative cost values, and finally the viability/feasibility of WC-sharing schemes is discussed considering state-of-the-art technology. Our main conclusion is that, for SPN-based architectures to become cost effective, the cost of WCs has to be at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of the optical gate and similar to or lower than that of the electrical 3R regenerator.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (2)

J. Solé-Pareta, S. Subramaniam, D. Careglio, and S. Spadaro, “Cross-layer approaches for planning and operating impairment-aware optical networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1118–1129, May2012, Special Issue on the Evolution of Optical Networks.
[CrossRef]

J. Junio, D. C. Kilper, and V. W. S. Chan, “Channel power excursions from single-step channel provisioning,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 4, no. 9, pp. A1–A7, Sept.2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (5)

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, M. Klinkowski, D. Careglio, C. Gaumier, and J. Solé-Pareta, “JAVOBS: A flexible simulator for OBS network architectures,” J. Networks, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 256–264, Feb.2010.

N. Akar, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, and E. Karasan, “Shared-per-wavelength asynchronous optical packet switching: A comparative analysis,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 54, no. 13, pp. 2166–2181, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1223–1225, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Manousakis, P. Kokkinos, K. Christodoulopoulos, and E. Varvarigos, “Joint online routing, wavelength assignment and regenerator allocation in translucent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1152–1163, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Martínez, R. Casellas, R. Munoz, and T. Tsuritani, “Experimental translucent-oriented routing for dynamic lightpath provisioning in GMPLS-enabled wavelength switched optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1241–1255, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, and A. Stavdas, “Multistage shared-per-wavelength optical packet switch: Heuristic scheduling algorithm and performance,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 538–551, Mar.2009.
[CrossRef]

V. Eramo and M. Listanti, “Power consumption in bufferless optical packet switches in SOA technology,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. B15–B29, Aug.2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Muñoz, R. Martínez, and R. Casellas, “Challenges for GMPLS lightpath provisioning in transparent optical networks: Wavelength constraints in routing and signalling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 26–34, Aug.2009.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marín-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May2009.
[CrossRef]

C. V. Saradhi and S. Subramaniam, “Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: Issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 109–130, Dec.2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Apostolopoulos, D. Klonidis, P. Zakynthinos, K. Vyrsokinos, N. Pleros, I. Tomkos, and H. Avramopoulos, “Cascadability performance evaluation of a new NRZ SOA–MZI wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 18, pp. 1341–1343, Sept.2009.
[CrossRef]

V. Eramo, A. Germoni, C. Raffaelli, and M. Savi, “Packet loss analysis of shared-per-wavelength multi-fiber all-optical switch with parallel scheduling,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 202–216, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Translucent optical networks: The way forward [topics in optical communications],” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 48–54, Feb.2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, and M. Spaziani, “Resource sharing in optical packet switches with limited-range wavelength converters,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 671–687, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” J. Photonic Network Commun., vol. 10, pp. 39–53, 2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, J. Walker, E. Goldstein, K. Bala, S. Chaudhuri, and L. Lin, “Network control and management challenges in opaque networks utilizing transparent optical switches,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 16–24, Feb.2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Z. Rosberg, H. L. Vu, M. Zukerman, and J. White, “Performance analyses of optical burst-switching networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1187–1197, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, and P. Pacifici, “A comparison study on the number of wavelength converters needed in synchronous and asynchronous all-optical switching architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 340–355, Feb.2003.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, “All-optical wavelength conversion: Technologies and applications in DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 86–92, Dec.2000.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Akar, N.

N. Akar, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, and E. Karasan, “Shared-per-wavelength asynchronous optical packet switching: A comparative analysis,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 54, no. 13, pp. 2166–2181, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Akar, E. Karasan, and K. Dogan, “Wavelength converter sharing in asynchronous optical packet/burst switching: An exact blocking analysis for Markovian arrivals,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 69–80, Dec.2006.
[CrossRef]

Antona, J.

B. Lavigne, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, E. Balmefrezol, J. Antona, T. Zami, and D. Bayart, “Method for the determination of a quality-of-transmission estimator along the lightpaths of partially transparent networks,” in 33rd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, vol. 3, pp. 287–288.

Apostolopoulos, D.

M. Spyropoulou, N. Pleros, K. Vyrsokinos, D. Apostolopoulos, M. Bougioukos, D. Petrantonakis, A. Miliou, and H. Avramopoulos, “40 Gb/s NRZ wavelength conversion using a differentially-biased SOA–MZI: Theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1489–1499, May2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Apostolopoulos, D. Klonidis, P. Zakynthinos, K. Vyrsokinos, N. Pleros, I. Tomkos, and H. Avramopoulos, “Cascadability performance evaluation of a new NRZ SOA–MZI wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 18, pp. 1341–1343, Sept.2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Apostolopoulos, K. Vyrsokinos, P. Zakynthinos, N. Pleros, and H. Avramopoulos, “An SOA-MZI NRZ wavelength conversion scheme with enhanced 2R regeneration characteristics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 1363–1365, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, S.

Avramopoulos, H.

M. Spyropoulou, N. Pleros, K. Vyrsokinos, D. Apostolopoulos, M. Bougioukos, D. Petrantonakis, A. Miliou, and H. Avramopoulos, “40 Gb/s NRZ wavelength conversion using a differentially-biased SOA–MZI: Theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1489–1499, May2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Apostolopoulos, D. Klonidis, P. Zakynthinos, K. Vyrsokinos, N. Pleros, I. Tomkos, and H. Avramopoulos, “Cascadability performance evaluation of a new NRZ SOA–MZI wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 18, pp. 1341–1343, Sept.2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Apostolopoulos, K. Vyrsokinos, P. Zakynthinos, N. Pleros, and H. Avramopoulos, “An SOA-MZI NRZ wavelength conversion scheme with enhanced 2R regeneration characteristics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 1363–1365, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Azodolmolky, S.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marín-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May2009.
[CrossRef]

Baby, V.

Y. Huang, X. Lei, I. Glesk, V. Baby, L. Bin, and P. Prucnal, “Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration of multiple WDM channels,” in Lasers & Electro Optics Society 18th Annu. Meeting (IEEE LEOS), Oct. 2005, pp. 59–61.

Bala, K.

G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, J. Walker, E. Goldstein, K. Bala, S. Chaudhuri, and L. Lin, “Network control and management challenges in opaque networks utilizing transparent optical switches,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 16–24, Feb.2004.
[CrossRef]

Balmefrezol, E.

B. Lavigne, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, E. Balmefrezol, J. Antona, T. Zami, and D. Bayart, “Method for the determination of a quality-of-transmission estimator along the lightpaths of partially transparent networks,” in 33rd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, vol. 3, pp. 287–288.

Bayart, D.

B. Lavigne, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, E. Balmefrezol, J. Antona, T. Zami, and D. Bayart, “Method for the determination of a quality-of-transmission estimator along the lightpaths of partially transparent networks,” in 33rd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, vol. 3, pp. 287–288.

Ben Yoo, S. J.

S. J. Ben Yoo, “Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic Internet,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4468–4492, 2006.
[CrossRef]

S. J. Ben Yoo, “All-optical regeneration for ultra-long fiber links and its prospects for future applications with new modulation formats,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2009, OThS4.

Bergman, K.

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Y. Huang, X. Lei, I. Glesk, V. Baby, L. Bin, and P. Prucnal, “Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration of multiple WDM channels,” in Lasers & Electro Optics Society 18th Annu. Meeting (IEEE LEOS), Oct. 2005, pp. 59–61.

Blows, J. L.

Blumenthal, D. J.

T. Kise, K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, H. N. Poulsen, and D. J. Blumenthal, “Cascadability properties of MZI-SOA-based all-optical 3R regenerators for RZ-DPSK signals,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 9330–9335, Apr.2011.
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Bougioukos, M.

Buchta, H.

Careglio, D.

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O. Pedrola, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Solé-Pareta, “Regenerator placement strategies for translucent OBS networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 22, pp. 3408–3420, Nov.2011.
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O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, M. Klinkowski, D. Careglio, C. Gaumier, and J. Solé-Pareta, “JAVOBS: A flexible simulator for OBS network architectures,” J. Networks, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 256–264, Feb.2010.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marín-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May2009.
[CrossRef]

O. Pedrola, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Solé-Pareta, “Translucent OBS network architectures with dedicated and shared wavelength resources,” in 16th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), July 2011.

Casellas, R.

R. Martínez, R. Casellas, R. Munoz, and T. Tsuritani, “Experimental translucent-oriented routing for dynamic lightpath provisioning in GMPLS-enabled wavelength switched optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1241–1255, Apr.2010.
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R. Muñoz, R. Martínez, and R. Casellas, “Challenges for GMPLS lightpath provisioning in transparent optical networks: Wavelength constraints in routing and signalling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 26–34, Aug.2009.

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G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, J. Walker, E. Goldstein, K. Bala, S. Chaudhuri, and L. Lin, “Network control and management challenges in opaque networks utilizing transparent optical switches,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 16–24, Feb.2004.
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Cianfrani, A.

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S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” J. Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225.
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Datta, D.

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Demeester, P.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” J. Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225.
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Derkacz, J.

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Ellinas, G.

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Elmirghani, J. M. H.

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, “All-optical wavelength conversion: Technologies and applications in DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 86–92, Dec.2000.
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Eramo, V.

V. Eramo, A. Germoni, A. Cianfrani, M. Listanti, and C. Raffaelli, “Evaluation of power consumption in low spatial complexity optical switching fabrics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 396–405, Mar./Apr.2011.
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Foster, S.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, and S. Foster, “Merits of hybrid optical networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2002, TuG1.

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Funabashi, M.

M. Funabashi, Z. Zhu, Z. Pan, B. Xiang, S. J. B. Yoo, D. L. Harris, and L. Paraschis, “First field demonstrations of 1000-hop cascaded all-optical 3R regeneration in 10 Gb/s NRZ transmission,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2006.

Garcia, J. M.

Gaumier, C.

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, M. Klinkowski, D. Careglio, C. Gaumier, and J. Solé-Pareta, “JAVOBS: A flexible simulator for OBS network architectures,” J. Networks, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 256–264, Feb.2010.

Germoni, A.

V. Eramo, A. Germoni, A. Cianfrani, M. Listanti, and C. Raffaelli, “Evaluation of power consumption in low spatial complexity optical switching fabrics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 396–405, Mar./Apr.2011.
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V. Eramo, A. Germoni, C. Raffaelli, and M. Savi, “Packet loss analysis of shared-per-wavelength multi-fiber all-optical switch with parallel scheduling,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 202–216, Feb.2009.
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O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, and S. Foster, “Merits of hybrid optical networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2002, TuG1.

Glesk, I.

Y. Huang, X. Lei, I. Glesk, V. Baby, L. Bin, and P. Prucnal, “Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration of multiple WDM channels,” in Lasers & Electro Optics Society 18th Annu. Meeting (IEEE LEOS), Oct. 2005, pp. 59–61.

Goldstein, E.

G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, J. Walker, E. Goldstein, K. Bala, S. Chaudhuri, and L. Lin, “Network control and management challenges in opaque networks utilizing transparent optical switches,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 16–24, Feb.2004.
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Hansen, P.

Harai, H.

Harris, D. L.

M. Funabashi, Z. Zhu, Z. Pan, B. Xiang, S. J. B. Yoo, D. L. Harris, and L. Paraschis, “First field demonstrations of 1000-hop cascaded all-optical 3R regeneration in 10 Gb/s NRZ transmission,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2006.

Heritage, J.

B. Ramamurthy, H. Feng, D. Datta, J. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/IOOC), 1999, vol. 1, pp. 59–61.

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, X. Lei, I. Glesk, V. Baby, L. Bin, and P. Prucnal, “Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration of multiple WDM channels,” in Lasers & Electro Optics Society 18th Annu. Meeting (IEEE LEOS), Oct. 2005, pp. 59–61.

Inkret, R.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” J. Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225.
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Jaeger, M.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” J. Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225.
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Junio, J.

Karasan, E.

N. Akar, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, and E. Karasan, “Shared-per-wavelength asynchronous optical packet switching: A comparative analysis,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 54, no. 13, pp. 2166–2181, Sept.2010.
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N. Akar, E. Karasan, and K. Dogan, “Wavelength converter sharing in asynchronous optical packet/burst switching: An exact blocking analysis for Markovian arrivals,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 69–80, Dec.2006.
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D. C.

Kise, T.

Klinkowski, M.

O. Pedrola, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Solé-Pareta, “Offline routing and regenerator placement and dimensioning for translucent OBS networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 651–666, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

O. Pedrola, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Solé-Pareta, “Regenerator placement strategies for translucent OBS networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 22, pp. 3408–3420, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, M. Klinkowski, D. Careglio, C. Gaumier, and J. Solé-Pareta, “JAVOBS: A flexible simulator for OBS network architectures,” J. Networks, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 256–264, Feb.2010.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marín-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May2009.
[CrossRef]

O. Pedrola, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Solé-Pareta, “Translucent OBS network architectures with dedicated and shared wavelength resources,” in 16th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), July 2011.

Klonidis, D.

D. Apostolopoulos, D. Klonidis, P. Zakynthinos, K. Vyrsokinos, N. Pleros, I. Tomkos, and H. Avramopoulos, “Cascadability performance evaluation of a new NRZ SOA–MZI wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 18, pp. 1341–1343, Sept.2009.
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Kokkinos, P.

Labourdette, J.-F.

G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, J. Walker, E. Goldstein, K. Bala, S. Chaudhuri, and L. Lin, “Network control and management challenges in opaque networks utilizing transparent optical switches,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 16–24, Feb.2004.
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Lai, C. P.

C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1223–1225, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

Lal, V.

J. A. Summers, M. L. Masanovic, V. Lal, and D. J. Blumenthal, “Monolithically integrated multi-stage all-optical 10 Gbps push–pull wavelength converter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, OthT2.

Lavigne, B.

B. Lavigne, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, E. Balmefrezol, J. Antona, T. Zami, and D. Bayart, “Method for the determination of a quality-of-transmission estimator along the lightpaths of partially transparent networks,” in 33rd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, vol. 3, pp. 287–288.

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, D. Li, and G. Martinelli, “A framework for the control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSON) with impairments,” IETF draft, 2010 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-impairments-08.

Lei, X.

Y. Huang, X. Lei, I. Glesk, V. Baby, L. Bin, and P. Prucnal, “Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration of multiple WDM channels,” in Lasers & Electro Optics Society 18th Annu. Meeting (IEEE LEOS), Oct. 2005, pp. 59–61.

Leplingard, F.

B. Lavigne, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, E. Balmefrezol, J. Antona, T. Zami, and D. Bayart, “Method for the determination of a quality-of-transmission estimator along the lightpaths of partially transparent networks,” in 33rd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, vol. 3, pp. 287–288.

Leuthold, J.

Li, D.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, D. Li, and G. Martinelli, “A framework for the control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSON) with impairments,” IETF draft, 2010 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-impairments-08.

Lievens, I.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” J. Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225.
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

G. Ellinas, J.-F. Labourdette, S. Chaudhuri, J. Walker, E. Goldstein, K. Bala, S. Chaudhuri, and L. Lin, “Network control and management challenges in opaque networks utilizing transparent optical switches,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 16–24, Feb.2004.
[CrossRef]

Listanti, M.

Lorcy, L.

B. Lavigne, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, E. Balmefrezol, J. Antona, T. Zami, and D. Bayart, “Method for the determination of a quality-of-transmission estimator along the lightpaths of partially transparent networks,” in 33rd European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2007, vol. 3, pp. 287–288.

Maesschalck, S.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” J. Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225.
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Manousakis, K.

Marín-Tordera, E.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marín-Tordera, D. Careglio, J. Solé-Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, May2009.
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, G.

Y. Lee, G. Bernstein, D. Li, and G. Martinelli, “A framework for the control of wavelength switched optical networks (WSON) with impairments,” IETF draft, 2010 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-ccamp-wson-impairments-08.

Martínez, R.

R. Martínez, R. Casellas, R. Munoz, and T. Tsuritani, “Experimental translucent-oriented routing for dynamic lightpath provisioning in GMPLS-enabled wavelength switched optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1241–1255, Apr.2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Muñoz, R. Martínez, and R. Casellas, “Challenges for GMPLS lightpath provisioning in transparent optical networks: Wavelength constraints in routing and signalling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 26–34, Aug.2009.

Masanovic, M. L.

J. A. Summers, M. L. Masanovic, V. Lal, and D. J. Blumenthal, “Monolithically integrated multi-stage all-optical 10 Gbps push–pull wavelength converter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, OthT2.

Mauz, C.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” J. Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225.
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Mikac, B.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” J. Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225.
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Miliou, A.

Mouftah, H. T.

J. M. H. Elmirghani and H. T. Mouftah, “All-optical wavelength conversion: Technologies and applications in DWDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 86–92, Dec.2000.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

B. Ramamurthy, H. Feng, D. Datta, J. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/IOOC), 1999, vol. 1, pp. 59–61.

Munoz, R.

Muñoz, R.

R. Muñoz, R. Martínez, and R. Casellas, “Challenges for GMPLS lightpath provisioning in transparent optical networks: Wavelength constraints in routing and signalling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 26–34, Aug.2009.

Murata, M.

Nguyen, K. N.

Nygard, K.

W. Zhang, J. Tang, K. Nygard, and C. Wang, “REPARE: Regenerator placement and routing establishment in translucent networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Global Communication (GLOBECOM), Dec. 2009.

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S. Orlowski, M. Pióro, A. Tomaszewski, and R. Wessäly, “SNDlib 1.0—Survivable network design library,” in Proc. INOC, 2007.

Pacifici, P.

Pan, Z.

M. Funabashi, Z. Zhu, Z. Pan, B. Xiang, S. J. B. Yoo, D. L. Harris, and L. Paraschis, “First field demonstrations of 1000-hop cascaded all-optical 3R regeneration in 10 Gb/s NRZ transmission,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2006.

Paraschis, L.

M. Funabashi, Z. Zhu, Z. Pan, B. Xiang, S. J. B. Yoo, D. L. Harris, and L. Paraschis, “First field demonstrations of 1000-hop cascaded all-optical 3R regeneration in 10 Gb/s NRZ transmission,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2006.

Patzak, E.

Pedrola, O.

O. Pedrola, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Solé-Pareta, “Offline routing and regenerator placement and dimensioning for translucent OBS networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 651–666, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef]

O. Pedrola, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Solé-Pareta, “Regenerator placement strategies for translucent OBS networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 22, pp. 3408–3420, Nov.2011.
[CrossRef]

O. Pedrola, S. Rumley, M. Klinkowski, D. Careglio, C. Gaumier, and J. Solé-Pareta, “JAVOBS: A flexible simulator for OBS network architectures,” J. Networks, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 256–264, Feb.2010.

O. Pedrola, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Solé-Pareta, “Translucent OBS network architectures with dedicated and shared wavelength resources,” in 16th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), July 2011.

Petrantonakis, D.

Pickavet, M.

S. Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” J. Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225.
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Pióro, M.

S. Orlowski, M. Pióro, A. Tomaszewski, and R. Wessäly, “SNDlib 1.0—Survivable network design library,” in Proc. INOC, 2007.

Pleros, N.

M. Spyropoulou, N. Pleros, K. Vyrsokinos, D. Apostolopoulos, M. Bougioukos, D. Petrantonakis, A. Miliou, and H. Avramopoulos, “40 Gb/s NRZ wavelength conversion using a differentially-biased SOA–MZI: Theory and experiment,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1489–1499, May2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Apostolopoulos, D. Klonidis, P. Zakynthinos, K. Vyrsokinos, N. Pleros, I. Tomkos, and H. Avramopoulos, “Cascadability performance evaluation of a new NRZ SOA–MZI wavelength converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 18, pp. 1341–1343, Sept.2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Apostolopoulos, K. Vyrsokinos, P. Zakynthinos, N. Pleros, and H. Avramopoulos, “An SOA-MZI NRZ wavelength conversion scheme with enhanced 2R regeneration characteristics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 1363–1365, Oct. 2009.
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Poulsen, H. N.

Prucnal, P.

Y. Huang, X. Lei, I. Glesk, V. Baby, L. Bin, and P. Prucnal, “Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration of multiple WDM channels,” in Lasers & Electro Optics Society 18th Annu. Meeting (IEEE LEOS), Oct. 2005, pp. 59–61.

Raffaelli, C.

V. Eramo, A. Germoni, A. Cianfrani, M. Listanti, and C. Raffaelli, “Evaluation of power consumption in low spatial complexity optical switching fabrics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 396–405, Mar./Apr.2011.
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N. Akar, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, and E. Karasan, “Shared-per-wavelength asynchronous optical packet switching: A comparative analysis,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 54, no. 13, pp. 2166–2181, Sept.2010.
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Ramamurthy, B.

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B. Ramamurthy, H. Feng, D. Datta, J. Heritage, and B. Mukherjee, “Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Int. Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/IOOC), 1999, vol. 1, pp. 59–61.

Ramaswami, R.

O. Gerstel, R. Ramaswami, and S. Foster, “Merits of hybrid optical networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2002, TuG1.

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Z. Rosberg, H. L. Vu, M. Zukerman, and J. White, “Performance analyses of optical burst-switching networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1187–1197, Sept.2003.
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N. Akar, C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, and E. Karasan, “Shared-per-wavelength asynchronous optical packet switching: A comparative analysis,” J. Comput. Netw., vol. 54, no. 13, pp. 2166–2181, Sept.2010.
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C. Raffaelli, M. Savi, G. Tartarini, and D. Visani, “Physical path analysis in photonic switches with shared wavelength converters,” in 12th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2010, vol. 1, Mo.C1.5.

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C. P. Lai, A. Shacham, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of asynchronous operation of a multiwavelength optical packet-switched fabric,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 16, pp. 1223–1225, Aug.2010.
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Spadaro, S.

J. Solé-Pareta, S. Subramaniam, D. Careglio, and S. Spadaro, “Cross-layer approaches for planning and operating impairment-aware optical networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1118–1129, May2012, Special Issue on the Evolution of Optical Networks.
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M. Funabashi, Z. Zhu, Z. Pan, B. Xiang, S. J. B. Yoo, D. L. Harris, and L. Paraschis, “First field demonstrations of 1000-hop cascaded all-optical 3R regeneration in 10 Gb/s NRZ transmission,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 2006.

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N. Akar, E. Karasan, and K. Dogan, “Wavelength converter sharing in asynchronous optical packet/burst switching: An exact blocking analysis for Markovian arrivals,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 69–80, Dec.2006.
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Translucent SWS node with dedicated WCs (DWCs) [23]. FITO-WCs are used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Translucent shared-per-node (SPN) architecture. TITO-WCs are used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Translucent shared-per-input-wavelength (SPIW) architecture. FITO-WCs are used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Translucent shared-per-output-wavelength (SPOW) architecture. TIFO-WCs are used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Performance evaluation of the different WC-sharing architectures proposed in an isolated node. Packet loss probability as a function of the wavelength conversion ratio with (a) N = 2 , (b) N = 5 . M = 32 wavelengths per link each at 10 Gbps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Characteristic signal path between two translucent SWS nodes configured either as DWC or SPN.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Percentage of end-to-end optical paths that do not meet the OSNR requirements for both the DWC and SPN architectures.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Hardware requirement difference between the SPN and DWC network architectures in terms of (a) WCs and regenerators and (b) SOA gates. Note that negative values mean SPN requires fewer units than DWC.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Cost difference between the SPN and DWC translucent networks as a function of α and β. Parameter γ is fixed to 1 except for one curve, where it is set to 1.1. Note that negative values mean that SPN results in a less expensive network.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Core (2.875), (b) Basic (2.92), (c) Large (3.08), (d) Usa–Can (3.128).

Tables (5)

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Table I Number of WCs and SOA Gates Required in the Translucent DWC, SPN, SPIW and SPOW Architectures

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Table II Number of WCs and SOA Gates Required in an Isolated Node Configured as DWC, SPN and SPOW Switch

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Table III Component Specifications Considered

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Algorithm 1 Translucent SPN network dimensioning

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Table IV Network Simulation Setup

Equations (3)

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γ = C TITO WC C FITO WC .
α = C WC C Gate ,
β = C 3 R C WC .