Abstract

Nowadays, people’s daily lives are increasingly dependent on Internet applications provided by cloud service providers that replicate their content among geographically distributed datacenters using inter-datacenter wide area networks to meet performance and reliability requirements. This paper provides means for efficient design of inter-datacenter networks with static traffic scenarios, where unicast and multicast connection requests are known a priori along with their start and end times. Also, the optical channel setup/teardown time is given. Integer linear programming (ILP) formulations that consider light-tree and lightpath connections are developed to minimize the network resource consumption. Since solving ILP formulations is time consuming for large networks, we also propose efficient heuristic algorithms. We demonstrate by simulations an advantage in efficiency for a light-tree based heuristic algorithm over its lightpath counterpart. This is due to its ability to construct and extend light-trees to groom more connections. Both heuristic algorithms perform very close to the corresponding ILP optimal results in the case of a small network.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Cisco Inc., “Cisco global cloud index: Forecast and methodology, 2011–2016,” 2011.
  2. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.
  3. A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, “The cost of a cloud: Research problems in data center networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 68–73, Jan. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Arthur, “Technology firms to spend $150bn on building new data centres,” 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/aug/23/spending-on-data-centres-reaches-150-billion-dollars .
  5. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: An approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Tucker, “Green optical communications Part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.
  9. N. Laoutaris, M. Sirivianos, X. Yang, and P. Rodriguez, “Inter-datacenter bulk transfers with netstitcher,” in Proc. SIGCOMM, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 2011, pp. 74–85.
  10. Y. Feng, B. Li, and B. Li, “Postcard: Minimizing costs on inter-datacenter traffic with store-and-forward,” in Proc. ICDCSW, Macau, China, June 2012, pp. 43–50.
  11. H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Berry and E. Modiano, “Reducing electronic multiplexing costs in SONET/WDM rings with dynamically changing traffic,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  18, no. 10, pp. 1961–1971, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks - performance analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  22, no. 9, pp. 1658–1669, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Lin, W.-D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 151–164, 2010.
  16. L. Guo, X. Wang, J. Cao, W. Hou, and L. Pang, “Multicast grooming algorithm in waveband switching optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 19, pp. 2856–2864, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Lin, W.-D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Leaking strategy for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 23, pp. 3709–3719, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Dutta and G. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: Past and future,” IEEE Network, vol.  16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, 2002.
  19. X. Zhang and C. Qiao, “On scheduling all-to-all personalized connection and cost-effective designs in WDM rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  7, no. 3, pp. 435–445, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Chiu and E. Modiano, “Traffic grooming algorithms for reducing electronic multiplexing costs in WDM ring networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 2–12, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Lin, W.-D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Design of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 16, pp. 2337–2349, Aug. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Wang, W. Cho, V. Vemuri, and B. Mukherjee, “Improved approaches for cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM ring networks: ILP formulations and single-hop and multihop connections,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 1645–1653, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Ul-Mustafa and A. E. Kamal, “Design and provisioning of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 37–53, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Lin, W.-D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Multicast traffic grooming in tap-and-continue WDM mesh networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 918–935, Nov. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Lu, Q. Zeng, and J. Liu, “A novel distributed signaling scheme for lightpath setup time optimization in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  5626, pp. 35–44, 2005.
  27. C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.
  28. M. Wang, S. Li, E. W. M. Wong, and M. Zukerman, “Evaluating OBS by effective utilization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 3, pp. 576–579, Mar. 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Kumar and P. Kumar, “Lightpath setup time optimization in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  24, no. 10, pp. 984–995, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. Shen, A. Todimala, B. Ramamurthy, and X. Yang, “Dynamic lightpath scheduling in next-generation WDM optical networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM, 2006, pp. 1–5.
  32. N. Charbonneau and V. Vokkarane, “A survey of advance reservation routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1037–1064, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  33. N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  34. ILOG CPLEX, ILOG, Inc., Mountain View, CA [Online]. Available: http://www.ilog.com/products/cplex/ .
  35. H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

2013 (1)

M. Wang, S. Li, E. W. M. Wong, and M. Zukerman, “Evaluating OBS by effective utilization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 3, pp. 576–579, Mar. 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

R. Lin, W.-D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Design of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 16, pp. 2337–2349, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Tucker, “Green optical communications Part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R. Lin, W.-D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 151–164, 2010.

L. Guo, X. Wang, J. Cao, W. Hou, and L. Pang, “Multicast grooming algorithm in waveband switching optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 19, pp. 2856–2864, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, “The cost of a cloud: Research problems in data center networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 68–73, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Ul-Mustafa and A. E. Kamal, “Design and provisioning of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 37–53, 2006.
[CrossRef]

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Lu, Q. Zeng, and J. Liu, “A novel distributed signaling scheme for lightpath setup time optimization in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  5626, pp. 35–44, 2005.

2004 (1)

C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks - performance analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  22, no. 9, pp. 1658–1669, 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2002.
[CrossRef]

R. Dutta and G. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: Past and future,” IEEE Network, vol.  16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, 2002.

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

A. Chiu and E. Modiano, “Traffic grooming algorithms for reducing electronic multiplexing costs in WDM ring networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 2–12, 2000.
[CrossRef]

R. Berry and E. Modiano, “Reducing electronic multiplexing costs in SONET/WDM rings with dynamically changing traffic,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  18, no. 10, pp. 1961–1971, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.

X. Zhang and C. Qiao, “On scheduling all-to-all personalized connection and cost-effective designs in WDM rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  7, no. 3, pp. 435–445, 1999.
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

1992 (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: An approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Berry, R.

R. Berry and E. Modiano, “Reducing electronic multiplexing costs in SONET/WDM rings with dynamically changing traffic,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  18, no. 10, pp. 1961–1971, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Bose, S. K.

Cao, J.

Charbonneau, N.

N. Charbonneau and V. Vokkarane, “A survey of advance reservation routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1037–1064, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Chiu, A.

A. Chiu and E. Modiano, “Traffic grooming algorithms for reducing electronic multiplexing costs in WDM ring networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 2–12, 2000.
[CrossRef]

A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.

Chlamtac, I.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: An approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Cho, W.

Dixit, S.

C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks - performance analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  22, no. 9, pp. 1658–1669, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Dotaro, E.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Douville, R.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Doverspike, R.

A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.

Dutta, R.

B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. Dutta and G. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: Past and future,” IEEE Network, vol.  16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, 2002.

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, B. Li, and B. Li, “Postcard: Minimizing costs on inter-datacenter traffic with store-and-forward,” in Proc. ICDCSW, Macau, China, June 2012, pp. 43–50.

Feuer, M. D.

A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.

Gagnaire, M.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ganz, A.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: An approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, A.

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, “The cost of a cloud: Research problems in data center networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 68–73, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

Hamilton, J.

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, “The cost of a cloud: Research problems in data center networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 68–73, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

Kamal, A. E.

R. Ul-Mustafa and A. E. Kamal, “Design and provisioning of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 37–53, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Karmi, G.

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: An approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

Kumar, M.

M. Kumar and P. Kumar, “Lightpath setup time optimization in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  24, no. 10, pp. 984–995, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

M. Kumar and P. Kumar, “Lightpath setup time optimization in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  24, no. 10, pp. 984–995, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Kuri, J.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Laoutaris, N.

N. Laoutaris, M. Sirivianos, X. Yang, and P. Rodriguez, “Inter-datacenter bulk transfers with netstitcher,” in Proc. SIGCOMM, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 2011, pp. 74–85.

Li, B.

Y. Feng, B. Li, and B. Li, “Postcard: Minimizing costs on inter-datacenter traffic with store-and-forward,” in Proc. ICDCSW, Macau, China, June 2012, pp. 43–50.

Y. Feng, B. Li, and B. Li, “Postcard: Minimizing costs on inter-datacenter traffic with store-and-forward,” in Proc. ICDCSW, Macau, China, June 2012, pp. 43–50.

Li, S.

M. Wang, S. Li, E. W. M. Wong, and M. Zukerman, “Evaluating OBS by effective utilization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 3, pp. 576–579, Mar. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Lin, R.

Liu, J.

L. Lu, Q. Zeng, and J. Liu, “A novel distributed signaling scheme for lightpath setup time optimization in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  5626, pp. 35–44, 2005.

Lu, L.

L. Lu, Q. Zeng, and J. Liu, “A novel distributed signaling scheme for lightpath setup time optimization in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  5626, pp. 35–44, 2005.

Magill, P.

A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.

Mahimkar, A.

A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.

Maltz, D. A.

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, “The cost of a cloud: Research problems in data center networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 68–73, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, A.

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Mavrogiorgis, E.

A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.

Modiano, E.

A. Chiu and E. Modiano, “Traffic grooming algorithms for reducing electronic multiplexing costs in WDM ring networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 2–12, 2000.
[CrossRef]

R. Berry and E. Modiano, “Reducing electronic multiplexing costs in SONET/WDM rings with dynamically changing traffic,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  18, no. 10, pp. 1961–1971, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Cho, V. Vemuri, and B. Mukherjee, “Improved approaches for cost-effective traffic grooming in WDM ring networks: ILP formulations and single-hop and multihop connections,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  19, no. 11, pp. 1645–1653, 2001.
[CrossRef]

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.

Pang, L.

Pastor, J.

A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.

Patel, P.

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, “The cost of a cloud: Research problems in data center networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 68–73, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Puech, N.

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Qiao, C.

C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks - performance analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  22, no. 9, pp. 1658–1669, 2004.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and C. Qiao, “On scheduling all-to-all personalized connection and cost-effective designs in WDM rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  7, no. 3, pp. 435–445, 1999.
[CrossRef]

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

Ramamurthy, B.

L. Shen, A. Todimala, B. Ramamurthy, and X. Yang, “Dynamic lightpath scheduling in next-generation WDM optical networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Rodriguez, P.

N. Laoutaris, M. Sirivianos, X. Yang, and P. Rodriguez, “Inter-datacenter bulk transfers with netstitcher,” in Proc. SIGCOMM, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 2011, pp. 74–85.

Rouskas, G.

B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. Dutta and G. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: Past and future,” IEEE Network, vol.  16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, 2002.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.

Sahasrabuddhe, L. H.

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Shen, G.

Shen, L.

L. Shen, A. Todimala, B. Ramamurthy, and X. Yang, “Dynamic lightpath scheduling in next-generation WDM optical networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Singhal, N. K.

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Sirivianos, M.

N. Laoutaris, M. Sirivianos, X. Yang, and P. Rodriguez, “Inter-datacenter bulk transfers with netstitcher,” in Proc. SIGCOMM, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 2011, pp. 74–85.

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Todimala, A.

L. Shen, A. Todimala, B. Ramamurthy, and X. Yang, “Dynamic lightpath scheduling in next-generation WDM optical networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Tucker, R.

R. Tucker, “Green optical communications Part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

Ul-Mustafa, R.

R. Ul-Mustafa and A. E. Kamal, “Design and provisioning of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 37–53, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Vemuri, V.

Vokkarane, V.

N. Charbonneau and V. Vokkarane, “A survey of advance reservation routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1037–1064, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, M.

M. Wang, S. Li, E. W. M. Wong, and M. Zukerman, “Evaluating OBS by effective utilization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 3, pp. 576–579, Mar. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wong, E. W. M.

M. Wang, S. Li, E. W. M. Wong, and M. Zukerman, “Evaluating OBS by effective utilization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 3, pp. 576–579, Mar. 2013.
[CrossRef]

Woodward, S. L.

A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.

Xin, C.

C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks - performance analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  22, no. 9, pp. 1658–1669, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

N. Laoutaris, M. Sirivianos, X. Yang, and P. Rodriguez, “Inter-datacenter bulk transfers with netstitcher,” in Proc. SIGCOMM, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 2011, pp. 74–85.

L. Shen, A. Todimala, B. Ramamurthy, and X. Yang, “Dynamic lightpath scheduling in next-generation WDM optical networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Yates, J.

A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.

Yoo, M.

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

Zang, H.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Q.

L. Lu, Q. Zeng, and J. Liu, “A novel distributed signaling scheme for lightpath setup time optimization in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  5626, pp. 35–44, 2005.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang and C. Qiao, “On scheduling all-to-all personalized connection and cost-effective designs in WDM rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  7, no. 3, pp. 435–445, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Zhong, W.-D.

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, K.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Zukerman, M.

ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, “The cost of a cloud: Research problems in data center networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  39, no. 1, pp. 68–73, Jan. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Commun. (1)

M. Kumar and P. Kumar, “Lightpath setup time optimization in wavelength routed all-optical networks,” Comput. Commun., vol.  24, no. 10, pp. 984–995, 2001.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

M. Wang, S. Li, E. W. M. Wong, and M. Zukerman, “Evaluating OBS by effective utilization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  17, no. 3, pp. 576–579, Mar. 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  37, no. 2, pp. 67–73, Feb. 1999.

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

N. Charbonneau and V. Vokkarane, “A survey of advance reservation routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1037–1064, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (5)

J. Kuri, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, E. Dotaro, and R. Douville, “Routing and wavelength assignment of scheduled lightpath demands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 8, pp. 1231–1240, 2003.
[CrossRef]

R. Ul-Mustafa and A. E. Kamal, “Design and provisioning of WDM networks with multicast traffic grooming,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 4, pp. 37–53, 2006.
[CrossRef]

C. Xin, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “Traffic grooming in mesh WDM optical networks - performance analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  22, no. 9, pp. 1658–1669, 2004.
[CrossRef]

R. Berry and E. Modiano, “Reducing electronic multiplexing costs in SONET/WDM rings with dynamically changing traffic,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  18, no. 10, pp. 1961–1971, 2000.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Tucker, “Green optical communications Part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

R. Dutta and G. Rouskas, “Traffic grooming in WDM networks: Past and future,” IEEE Network, vol.  16, no. 6, pp. 46–56, 2002.

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath communications: An approach to high bandwidth optical WAN’s,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  40, no. 7, pp. 1171–1182, July 1992.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (4)

N. K. Singhal, L. H. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and C. Qiao, “On scheduling all-to-all personalized connection and cost-effective designs in WDM rings,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  7, no. 3, pp. 435–445, 1999.
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, G. Rouskas, and R. Dutta, “On hierarchical traffic grooming in WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1226–1238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 2, pp. 285–299, 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. High Speed Netw. (1)

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical burst switching (OBS)—a new paradigm for an optical Internet,” J. High Speed Netw., vol.  8, no. 1, pp. 69–84, 1999.

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Math. Japonica (1)

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, “An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs,” Math. Japonica, vol.  24, no. 6, pp. 573–577, 1980.

Photonic Network Commun. (1)

R. Lin, W.-D. Zhong, S. K. Bose, and M. Zukerman, “Light-tree configuration for multicast traffic grooming in WDM mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  20, no. 2, pp. 151–164, 2010.

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Lu, Q. Zeng, and J. Liu, “A novel distributed signaling scheme for lightpath setup time optimization in dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks,” Proc. SPIE, vol.  5626, pp. 35–44, 2005.

Other (7)

C. Arthur, “Technology firms to spend $150bn on building new data centres,” 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/aug/23/spending-on-data-centres-reaches-150-billion-dollars .

Cisco Inc., “Cisco global cloud index: Forecast and methodology, 2011–2016,” 2011.

A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bandwidth on demand for inter-data center communication,” in Proc. 10th ACM HotNets, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 2011, paper 24.

N. Laoutaris, M. Sirivianos, X. Yang, and P. Rodriguez, “Inter-datacenter bulk transfers with netstitcher,” in Proc. SIGCOMM, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 2011, pp. 74–85.

Y. Feng, B. Li, and B. Li, “Postcard: Minimizing costs on inter-datacenter traffic with store-and-forward,” in Proc. ICDCSW, Macau, China, June 2012, pp. 43–50.

ILOG CPLEX, ILOG, Inc., Mountain View, CA [Online]. Available: http://www.ilog.com/products/cplex/ .

L. Shen, A. Todimala, B. Ramamurthy, and X. Yang, “Dynamic lightpath scheduling in next-generation WDM optical networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM, 2006, pp. 1–5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Resource sharing of a light-tree.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Resource sharing of a light-tree in the bandwidth and time domain.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time relationship for six traffic grooming scenarios where the lower part of each graph shows the start and end times of the light-tree, and the upper part shows the start and end times of the connection.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

14-node 21-link NSFNET topology.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of resource consumption when maximal duration time is one slot.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of resource consumption when maximal duration time is two slots.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of resource consumption when maximal duration time is three slots.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of resource consumption when maximal duration time is four slots.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of resource consumption when multicast ratio is 0 (unicast case).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Comparison of resource consumptions for three different multicast ratios (NSFNET).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Light-Tree Based Traffic Routing

Tables Icon

TABLE II Lightpath Based Traffic Routing

Tables Icon

Algorithm 1 Light-tree based heuristic algorithm

Tables Icon

TABLE III Resource Consumption (Wavelink Slots)

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Minimizem,n,i,w,k,p,q(qp+1)·Miwk,p,qmn.
n adj ( i ) F i w k , p , q in = x T i w k , p , q x i , w , k , p T e , q p + e ,
m adj ( x ) F i w k , p , q m x n adj ( x ) F i w k , p , q x n = T i w k , p , q x i , w , k , x i , p T e , q p + e ,
F i w k , p , q m n M i w k , p , q m n i , w , k , p T e , q p + e , m n E ,
F i w k , p , q m n | V | · M i w k , p , q m n i , w , k , p T e , q p + e , m n E ,
i , k , p t q M i w k , p , q m n P m n w , t T , m n E .
λ s r w k , p , q r + T s r w k , p , q x 2 Q s r w k , p , q r , x w , k , r , x s r , p T e , q p + e ,
λ s r w k , p , q r + T s r w k , p , q x Q s r w k , p , q r , x + 1 w , k , r , x s r , p T e , q p + e .
w,k,arp+e&brqλsrwk,p,qr=1r,
w,k,p,qQsrwk,p,qr,x=1r,xDr.
r(artbr)fr·λsrwk,p,qrCw,k,t[p,q],pTe,qp+e.
n adj ( i ) M i w k , p , q in = x T i w k , p , q x i , w , k , p T e , q p + e ,
m adj ( x ) M i w k , p , q m x n adj ( x ) M i w k , p , q x n = T i w k , p , q x i , w , k , x i , p T e , q p + e ,
x T i w k , p , q x 1 i , w , k , p T e , q p + e ,
i , k , p t q M i w k , p , q m n P m n w , t T , m n E .
w , k , a r p + e & b r q λ s r w k , p , q r = | D r | r .
extension resource=no. of light-tree wavelinks×no. of slots extended.