Abstract

The Internet core today is completely based on IP routers. Circuits are only used to provide static point-to-point optical links between routers. As others have recognized, current practice makes it hard to take advantage of very high-speed, low-power optical circuit switches in the core. Despite many proposals to mix packet switching with dynamic circuit switching, none have taken hold. In these times of rapidly increasing traffic, and rapidly decreasing profits for ISPs, it is time to rethink how backbones are built. In this paper, we propose to replace the largest backbone routers with much cheaper hybrid packet-optical switches in a fully meshed IP core. We take advantage of new control planes for software-defined networks to control the packet and circuit networks from a single vantage point. To demonstrate the enormous potential cost savings, we present a detailed analysis of the capital expenditure and show how our approach offers 60% cost savings for typical backbone operators.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Cisco CRS-1, 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/routers/ps5763/ps5862/product_data_sheet09186a008022d5f3.html .
  2. S. Elby, “Software defined networks: A carrier perspective,” in Open Networking Summit, Stanford, CA, Oct. 2011.
  3. J. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning, Springer. 2008.
  4. S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, and D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Li, D. Wang, J. Yates, R. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “IP over optical cross-connect architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 2, pp. 34–39, Feb. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Huelsermann, M. Gunkel, C. Muesburger, and D. Schupke, “Cost modeling and evaluation of capital expenditures in optical multilayer networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  7, no. 9, pp. 814–833, Sept. 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Shenker, M. Casado, T. Koponen, and N. McKeown, “The future of networking and the past of protocols,” in Open Networking Summit, Stanford, CA, Oct. 2011.
  8. N. Spring, R. Mahajan, and D. Wetherall, “Measuring ISP topologies with rocketfuel,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.
  9. A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: Existing techniques and new directions,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.
  10. S. Das, “Unified control architecture for packet and circuit network convergence,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, June 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.openflow.org/wk/index.php/PACC_Thesis .
  11. “Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN),” [Online]. Available: http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.709/
  12. OpenFlow Specification [Online]. Available: https://www.opennetworking.org/ .
  13. T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.
  14. G. Li, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, and R. Doverspike, “Efficient distributed path selection for shared restoration connections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 5, pp. 761–771, Oct. 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Osborne and A. Simha, Traffic Engineering With MPLS. Cisco, 2002.
  16. S. Das, G. Parulkar, and N. McKeown, “Why OpenFlow/SDN can succeed where GMPLS failed,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012.
  17. M. J. Morrow, M. Tatipamula, and A. Farrel, “GMPLS: The promise of the next-generation optical control plane. Guest editorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  43, no. 7, pp. 26–27, July 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Matsumoto, “Packet-optical stays out of control,” 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.lightreading.com/document.asp?doc_id=208072 .
  19. OpenFlow Extensions for Circuit Switches (draft) [Online]. Available: http://www.openflow.org/wk/index.php/PAC.C#Experimental_Extensions_to_OpenFlow .
  20. Ciena 5400 series [Online]. Available: http://www.ciena.com/products/category/packet-optical-switching/ .
  21. N. Gude, T. Koponen, J. Pettit, B. Pfaff, M. Casado, N. McKeown, and S. Shenker, “NOX: Towards an operating system for networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 105–110, July2008.
  22. S. Das, Y. Yiakoumis, G. Parulkar, P. Singh, D. Getachew, P. D. Desai, and N. McKeown, “Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.
  23. A. Gerber and R. Doverspike, “Traffic types and growth in backbone networks,” in OFC/NFOEC, Florham Park, NJ, 2011.

2008 (2)

R. Huelsermann, M. Gunkel, C. Muesburger, and D. Schupke, “Cost modeling and evaluation of capital expenditures in optical multilayer networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  7, no. 9, pp. 814–833, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

N. Gude, T. Koponen, J. Pettit, B. Pfaff, M. Casado, N. McKeown, and S. Shenker, “NOX: Towards an operating system for networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 105–110, July2008.

2007 (1)

G. Li, D. Wang, J. Yates, R. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “IP over optical cross-connect architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 2, pp. 34–39, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. J. Morrow, M. Tatipamula, and A. Farrel, “GMPLS: The promise of the next-generation optical control plane. Guest editorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  43, no. 7, pp. 26–27, July 2005.
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, and D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, and R. Doverspike, “Efficient distributed path selection for shared restoration connections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 5, pp. 761–771, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, S.

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: Existing techniques and new directions,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.

Casado, M.

N. Gude, T. Koponen, J. Pettit, B. Pfaff, M. Casado, N. McKeown, and S. Shenker, “NOX: Towards an operating system for networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 105–110, July2008.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

S. Shenker, M. Casado, T. Koponen, and N. McKeown, “The future of networking and the past of protocols,” in Open Networking Summit, Stanford, CA, Oct. 2011.

Das, S.

S. Das, “Unified control architecture for packet and circuit network convergence,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, June 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.openflow.org/wk/index.php/PACC_Thesis .

S. Das, Y. Yiakoumis, G. Parulkar, P. Singh, D. Getachew, P. D. Desai, and N. McKeown, “Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

S. Das, G. Parulkar, and N. McKeown, “Why OpenFlow/SDN can succeed where GMPLS failed,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012.

Desai, P. D.

S. Das, Y. Yiakoumis, G. Parulkar, P. Singh, D. Getachew, P. D. Desai, and N. McKeown, “Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Diot, C.

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: Existing techniques and new directions,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.

Doverspike, R.

G. Li, D. Wang, J. Yates, R. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “IP over optical cross-connect architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 2, pp. 34–39, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, and R. Doverspike, “Efficient distributed path selection for shared restoration connections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 5, pp. 761–771, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

A. Gerber and R. Doverspike, “Traffic types and growth in backbone networks,” in OFC/NFOEC, Florham Park, NJ, 2011.

Elby, S.

S. Elby, “Software defined networks: A carrier perspective,” in Open Networking Summit, Stanford, CA, Oct. 2011.

Farrel, A.

M. J. Morrow, M. Tatipamula, and A. Farrel, “GMPLS: The promise of the next-generation optical control plane. Guest editorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  43, no. 7, pp. 26–27, July 2005.
[CrossRef]

Gerber, A.

A. Gerber and R. Doverspike, “Traffic types and growth in backbone networks,” in OFC/NFOEC, Florham Park, NJ, 2011.

Getachew, D.

S. Das, Y. Yiakoumis, G. Parulkar, P. Singh, D. Getachew, P. D. Desai, and N. McKeown, “Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Gude, N.

N. Gude, T. Koponen, J. Pettit, B. Pfaff, M. Casado, N. McKeown, and S. Shenker, “NOX: Towards an operating system for networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 105–110, July2008.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

Gunkel, M.

Hama, T.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

Huelsermann, R.

Inoue, H.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

Iwata, Y.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

Kalmanek, C.

G. Li, D. Wang, J. Yates, R. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “IP over optical cross-connect architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 2, pp. 34–39, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, and R. Doverspike, “Efficient distributed path selection for shared restoration connections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 5, pp. 761–771, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Koponen, T.

N. Gude, T. Koponen, J. Pettit, B. Pfaff, M. Casado, N. McKeown, and S. Shenker, “NOX: Towards an operating system for networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 105–110, July2008.

S. Shenker, M. Casado, T. Koponen, and N. McKeown, “The future of networking and the past of protocols,” in Open Networking Summit, Stanford, CA, Oct. 2011.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

Kumar, V.

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, and D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, D. Wang, J. Yates, R. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “IP over optical cross-connect architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 2, pp. 34–39, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, and R. Doverspike, “Efficient distributed path selection for shared restoration connections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 5, pp. 761–771, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, R.

N. Spring, R. Mahajan, and D. Wetherall, “Measuring ISP topologies with rocketfuel,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.

McKeown, N.

N. Gude, T. Koponen, J. Pettit, B. Pfaff, M. Casado, N. McKeown, and S. Shenker, “NOX: Towards an operating system for networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 105–110, July2008.

S. Das, Y. Yiakoumis, G. Parulkar, P. Singh, D. Getachew, P. D. Desai, and N. McKeown, “Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

S. Das, G. Parulkar, and N. McKeown, “Why OpenFlow/SDN can succeed where GMPLS failed,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012.

S. Shenker, M. Casado, T. Koponen, and N. McKeown, “The future of networking and the past of protocols,” in Open Networking Summit, Stanford, CA, Oct. 2011.

Medina, A.

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: Existing techniques and new directions,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.

Morrow, M. J.

M. J. Morrow, M. Tatipamula, and A. Farrel, “GMPLS: The promise of the next-generation optical control plane. Guest editorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  43, no. 7, pp. 26–27, July 2005.
[CrossRef]

Muesburger, C.

Osborne, E.

E. Osborne and A. Simha, Traffic Engineering With MPLS. Cisco, 2002.

Parulkar, G.

S. Das, G. Parulkar, and N. McKeown, “Why OpenFlow/SDN can succeed where GMPLS failed,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012.

S. Das, Y. Yiakoumis, G. Parulkar, P. Singh, D. Getachew, P. D. Desai, and N. McKeown, “Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Pettit, J.

N. Gude, T. Koponen, J. Pettit, B. Pfaff, M. Casado, N. McKeown, and S. Shenker, “NOX: Towards an operating system for networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 105–110, July2008.

Pfaff, B.

N. Gude, T. Koponen, J. Pettit, B. Pfaff, M. Casado, N. McKeown, and S. Shenker, “NOX: Towards an operating system for networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 105–110, July2008.

Poutievsky, L.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

Ramanathan, R.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

Saha, D.

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, and D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

Salamatian, K.

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: Existing techniques and new directions,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.

Schupke, D.

Sengupta, S.

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, and D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

Shenker, S.

N. Gude, T. Koponen, J. Pettit, B. Pfaff, M. Casado, N. McKeown, and S. Shenker, “NOX: Towards an operating system for networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 105–110, July2008.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

S. Shenker, M. Casado, T. Koponen, and N. McKeown, “The future of networking and the past of protocols,” in Open Networking Summit, Stanford, CA, Oct. 2011.

Simha, A.

E. Osborne and A. Simha, Traffic Engineering With MPLS. Cisco, 2002.

Simmons, J.

J. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning, Springer. 2008.

Singh, P.

S. Das, Y. Yiakoumis, G. Parulkar, P. Singh, D. Getachew, P. D. Desai, and N. McKeown, “Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Spring, N.

N. Spring, R. Mahajan, and D. Wetherall, “Measuring ISP topologies with rocketfuel,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.

Stribling, J.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

Taft, N.

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: Existing techniques and new directions,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.

Tatipamula, M.

M. J. Morrow, M. Tatipamula, and A. Farrel, “GMPLS: The promise of the next-generation optical control plane. Guest editorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  43, no. 7, pp. 26–27, July 2005.
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

G. Li, D. Wang, J. Yates, R. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “IP over optical cross-connect architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 2, pp. 34–39, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, and R. Doverspike, “Efficient distributed path selection for shared restoration connections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 5, pp. 761–771, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

Wetherall, D.

N. Spring, R. Mahajan, and D. Wetherall, “Measuring ISP topologies with rocketfuel,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.

Yates, J.

G. Li, D. Wang, J. Yates, R. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “IP over optical cross-connect architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 2, pp. 34–39, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Yiakoumis, Y.

S. Das, Y. Yiakoumis, G. Parulkar, P. Singh, D. Getachew, P. D. Desai, and N. McKeown, “Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

Zhu, M.

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

N. Gude, T. Koponen, J. Pettit, B. Pfaff, M. Casado, N. McKeown, and S. Shenker, “NOX: Towards an operating system for networks,” Comput. Commun. Rev., vol.  38, no. 3, pp. 105–110, July2008.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, and D. Saha, “Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  41, no. 6, pp. 60–70, June 2003.
[CrossRef]

G. Li, D. Wang, J. Yates, R. Doverspike, and C. Kalmanek, “IP over optical cross-connect architectures,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  45, no. 2, pp. 34–39, Feb. 2007.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Morrow, M. Tatipamula, and A. Farrel, “GMPLS: The promise of the next-generation optical control plane. Guest editorial,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  43, no. 7, pp. 26–27, July 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

G. Li, D. Wang, C. Kalmanek, and R. Doverspike, “Efficient distributed path selection for shared restoration connections,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  11, no. 5, pp. 761–771, Oct. 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Other (17)

S. Shenker, M. Casado, T. Koponen, and N. McKeown, “The future of networking and the past of protocols,” in Open Networking Summit, Stanford, CA, Oct. 2011.

N. Spring, R. Mahajan, and D. Wetherall, “Measuring ISP topologies with rocketfuel,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.

A. Medina, N. Taft, K. Salamatian, S. Bhattacharya, and C. Diot, “Traffic matrix estimation: Existing techniques and new directions,” in SIGCOMM, Aug.2002.

S. Das, “Unified control architecture for packet and circuit network convergence,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, June 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.openflow.org/wk/index.php/PACC_Thesis .

“Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN),” [Online]. Available: http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.709/

OpenFlow Specification [Online]. Available: https://www.opennetworking.org/ .

T. Koponen, M. Casado, N. Gude, J. Stribling, L. Poutievsky, M. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, Y. Iwata, H. Inoue, T. Hama, and S. Shenker, “Onix: A distributed control platform for large-scale production networks,” in OSDI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

E. Osborne and A. Simha, Traffic Engineering With MPLS. Cisco, 2002.

S. Das, G. Parulkar, and N. McKeown, “Why OpenFlow/SDN can succeed where GMPLS failed,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012.

Cisco CRS-1, 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/routers/ps5763/ps5862/product_data_sheet09186a008022d5f3.html .

S. Elby, “Software defined networks: A carrier perspective,” in Open Networking Summit, Stanford, CA, Oct. 2011.

J. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning, Springer. 2008.

C. Matsumoto, “Packet-optical stays out of control,” 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.lightreading.com/document.asp?doc_id=208072 .

OpenFlow Extensions for Circuit Switches (draft) [Online]. Available: http://www.openflow.org/wk/index.php/PAC.C#Experimental_Extensions_to_OpenFlow .

Ciena 5400 series [Online]. Available: http://www.ciena.com/products/category/packet-optical-switching/ .

S. Das, Y. Yiakoumis, G. Parulkar, P. Singh, D. Getachew, P. D. Desai, and N. McKeown, “Application-aware aggregation and traffic engineering in a converged packet-circuit network,” in OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, CA, 2011.

A. Gerber and R. Doverspike, “Traffic types and growth in backbone networks,” in OFC/NFOEC, Florham Park, NJ, 2011.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) IP topology. (b) Fiber/WDM topology.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Capex results.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transit traffic.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effect of adding bypass links in IP topology.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Replacing BRs in core PoPs with hybrid MPLS-OTN (packet-optical) switches.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Packet-optical switch internals.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SDN-based unified control architecture [10].

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Fixed IP topology. (b) Bandwidth-on-demand.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Removing redundant recovery mechanisms.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Prototype. (b) Emulated WAN. (c) Controller software architecture.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Capex results.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(a) Three different TMs. (b) Effect of varying TMs.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Effect of scaling TM.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I IP Network Dimensioning Results

Tables Icon

TABLE II Comparison of Packet and Circuit Switches [10]a