Abstract

This paper presents a monitoring system for tree-structured passive optical access networks. The emitted light of a superluminescent LED is utilized as the monitoring source. The light signal that propagates along the fiber to the customer site is then reflected by a uniform or phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (FBG), which is employed near the end of the customer site. The wavelength optimization concept was demonstrated, where one center wavelength or Bragg wavelength is shared by two types of monitoring FBGs. Each FBG represents the distinct location of the optical network unit (ONU) to be monitored. This technique improves the number of monitored ONUs twofold, since a single Bragg wavelength can be utilized to monitor two independent customers. The results were analyzed using a digital signal processing board that displays the reflection spectra of the FBGs. After identifying the faulty branch, an optical time domain reflectometer can be activated for fault localization. The system is capable of monitoring up to 128 customers while maintaining the bit error rate at 109. This real-time, centralized monitoring system demonstrates a low-power and cost efficient monitoring system with low bandwidth requirements.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. S. Kim, “On the evolution of PON-based FTTH solutions,” Inf. Sci., vol.  149, pp. 21–30, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Abrams, P. C. Becker, Y. Fujimoto, V. O’Byrne, and D. Piehler, “FTTP deployments in the United States and Japan—Equipment choices and service provider imperatives,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, pp. 236–246, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Hornung, R. Wood, and P. Keeble, “Single-mode optical fibre networks to the home,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1990, vol. 4, pp. 1563–1571.
  4. F. Caviglia and V. C. Di Biase, “Optical maintenance in PONs,” in 24th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 621–625.
  5. J. Gagnon, “The Fundamentals of an OTDR,” 2008 [Online]. Available: http://documents.exfo.com/appnotes/anote194-ang.pdf .
  6. K. Ozawa, M. Shigehara, J.-I. Hanai, A. Ban, T. Naitou, and K. Shimoura, “Field trial of in-service individual line monitoring of PONs using a tunable OTDR,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors, Venice, 2000.
  7. N. Honda, D. Iida, H. Izumita, and Y. Azuma, “In-service line monitoring system in PONs using 1650-nm Brillouin OTDR and fibers with individually assigned BFSs,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, pp. 4575–4582, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Yuksel, M. Wuilpart, V. Moeyaert, and P. Megret, “Novel monitoring technique for passive optical networks based on optical frequency domain reflectometry and fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 463–468, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Fathallah and L. A. Rusch, “Code-division multiplexing for in-service out-of-band monitoring of live FTTH-PONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  6, pp. 819–829, July 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  10. C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L.-K. Chen, J. Song, and D. Lam, “A practical passive surveillance scheme for optically amplified passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  9, pp. 526–528, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Laferriere, M. Saget, and A. Champavere, “Original method for analyzing multipaths networks by OTDR measurement,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1997, pp. 99–101.
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  13. B. Chomycz, Planning Fiber Optic Networks, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, 2009.
  14. M. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Physical layer monitoring techniques for TDM-passive optical networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, pp. 943–958, 2013.
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Simard, “OTDR PON testing: The challenges—The solution,” 2009 [Online]. Available: http://documents.exfo.com/appnotes/anote201-ang.pdf .
  16. M. S. Ab-Rahman, M. Tanra, and K. Jumari, “The proposal of multi access detection system (MADS) installation in area campus network (ACN),” Adv. Nat. Appl. Sci., vol.  5, pp. 524–529, 2011.
  17. J. H. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable PON architecture for efficient maintenance and protection,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2009.
  18. K. Yuksel, S. Letheux, A. Grillet, M. Wuilpart, D. Giannone, J. Hancq, G. Ravet, and P. Megret, “Centralised optical monitoring of tree-structured passive optical networks using a Raman-assisted OTDR,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, pp. 175–178.
  19. W. Chen, B. D. Mulder, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “Embedded OTDR monitoring of the fiber plant behind the PON power splitter,” in IEEE Proc. Symp./Leos Benelux Chapter, Nov.–Dec. 2006, pp. 13–16.
  20. H. Schmuck, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, and T. Pfeiffer, “Embedded OTDR techniques for cost-efficient fibre monitoring in optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006.
  21. M. Thollabandi, H. Swook, K.-W. Shim, and C.-S. Park, “A surveillance technique based on spectral analysis of SL-RSOA for PS-PON,” in PhotonicsGlobal@Singapore, 2008.
  22. E. Wong, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks,” Opt. Commun., vol.  281, pp. 2218–2226, 2008.
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

M. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Physical layer monitoring techniques for TDM-passive optical networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, pp. 943–958, 2013.
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. S. Ab-Rahman, M. Tanra, and K. Jumari, “The proposal of multi access detection system (MADS) installation in area campus network (ACN),” Adv. Nat. Appl. Sci., vol.  5, pp. 524–529, 2011.

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

E. Wong, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks,” Opt. Commun., vol.  281, pp. 2218–2226, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

K. S. Kim, “On the evolution of PON-based FTTH solutions,” Inf. Sci., vol.  149, pp. 21–30, 2003.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L.-K. Chen, J. Song, and D. Lam, “A practical passive surveillance scheme for optically amplified passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  9, pp. 526–528, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Ab-Rahman, M. S.

M. S. Ab-Rahman, M. Tanra, and K. Jumari, “The proposal of multi access detection system (MADS) installation in area campus network (ACN),” Adv. Nat. Appl. Sci., vol.  5, pp. 524–529, 2011.

Abrams, M.

Azuma, Y.

Ban, A.

K. Ozawa, M. Shigehara, J.-I. Hanai, A. Ban, T. Naitou, and K. Shimoura, “Field trial of in-service individual line monitoring of PONs using a tunable OTDR,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors, Venice, 2000.

Becker, P. C.

Caviglia, F.

F. Caviglia and V. C. Di Biase, “Optical maintenance in PONs,” in 24th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 621–625.

Champavere, A.

J. Laferriere, M. Saget, and A. Champavere, “Original method for analyzing multipaths networks by OTDR measurement,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1997, pp. 99–101.

Chan, C.-K.

C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L.-K. Chen, J. Song, and D. Lam, “A practical passive surveillance scheme for optically amplified passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  9, pp. 526–528, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

E. Wong, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks,” Opt. Commun., vol.  281, pp. 2218–2226, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-K.

C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L.-K. Chen, J. Song, and D. Lam, “A practical passive surveillance scheme for optically amplified passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  9, pp. 526–528, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, B. D. Mulder, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “Embedded OTDR monitoring of the fiber plant behind the PON power splitter,” in IEEE Proc. Symp./Leos Benelux Chapter, Nov.–Dec. 2006, pp. 13–16.

Choi, K.-M.

J. H. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable PON architecture for efficient maintenance and protection,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2009.

Chomycz, B.

B. Chomycz, Planning Fiber Optic Networks, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, 2009.

Di Biase, V. C.

F. Caviglia and V. C. Di Biase, “Optical maintenance in PONs,” in 24th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 621–625.

Esmail, M.

M. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Physical layer monitoring techniques for TDM-passive optical networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, pp. 943–958, 2013.
[CrossRef]

Fathallah, H.

M. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Physical layer monitoring techniques for TDM-passive optical networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, pp. 943–958, 2013.
[CrossRef]

H. Fathallah and L. A. Rusch, “Code-division multiplexing for in-service out-of-band monitoring of live FTTH-PONs,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  6, pp. 819–829, July 2007.
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, Y.

Giannone, D.

K. Yuksel, S. Letheux, A. Grillet, M. Wuilpart, D. Giannone, J. Hancq, G. Ravet, and P. Megret, “Centralised optical monitoring of tree-structured passive optical networks using a Raman-assisted OTDR,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, pp. 175–178.

Grillet, A.

K. Yuksel, S. Letheux, A. Grillet, M. Wuilpart, D. Giannone, J. Hancq, G. Ravet, and P. Megret, “Centralised optical monitoring of tree-structured passive optical networks using a Raman-assisted OTDR,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, pp. 175–178.

Hanai, J.-I.

K. Ozawa, M. Shigehara, J.-I. Hanai, A. Ban, T. Naitou, and K. Shimoura, “Field trial of in-service individual line monitoring of PONs using a tunable OTDR,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors, Venice, 2000.

Hancq, J.

K. Yuksel, S. Letheux, A. Grillet, M. Wuilpart, D. Giannone, J. Hancq, G. Ravet, and P. Megret, “Centralised optical monitoring of tree-structured passive optical networks using a Raman-assisted OTDR,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, pp. 175–178.

Hehmann, J.

H. Schmuck, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, and T. Pfeiffer, “Embedded OTDR techniques for cost-efficient fibre monitoring in optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006.

Honda, N.

Hornung, S.

S. Hornung, R. Wood, and P. Keeble, “Single-mode optical fibre networks to the home,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1990, vol. 4, pp. 1563–1571.

Iida, D.

Izumita, H.

Jumari, K.

M. S. Ab-Rahman, M. Tanra, and K. Jumari, “The proposal of multi access detection system (MADS) installation in area campus network (ACN),” Adv. Nat. Appl. Sci., vol.  5, pp. 524–529, 2011.

Keeble, P.

S. Hornung, R. Wood, and P. Keeble, “Single-mode optical fibre networks to the home,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1990, vol. 4, pp. 1563–1571.

Keiser, G.

G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill International Editions, 2000.

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, “On the evolution of PON-based FTTH solutions,” Inf. Sci., vol.  149, pp. 21–30, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Laferriere, J.

J. Laferriere, M. Saget, and A. Champavere, “Original method for analyzing multipaths networks by OTDR measurement,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1997, pp. 99–101.

Lam, D.

C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L.-K. Chen, J. Song, and D. Lam, “A practical passive surveillance scheme for optically amplified passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  9, pp. 526–528, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

J. H. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable PON architecture for efficient maintenance and protection,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2009.

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable PON architecture for efficient maintenance and protection,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2009.

Letheux, S.

K. Yuksel, S. Letheux, A. Grillet, M. Wuilpart, D. Giannone, J. Hancq, G. Ravet, and P. Megret, “Centralised optical monitoring of tree-structured passive optical networks using a Raman-assisted OTDR,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, pp. 175–178.

Megret, P.

K. Yuksel, M. Wuilpart, V. Moeyaert, and P. Megret, “Novel monitoring technique for passive optical networks based on optical frequency domain reflectometry and fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 463–468, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Yuksel, S. Letheux, A. Grillet, M. Wuilpart, D. Giannone, J. Hancq, G. Ravet, and P. Megret, “Centralised optical monitoring of tree-structured passive optical networks using a Raman-assisted OTDR,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, pp. 175–178.

Moeyaert, V.

Moon, J.-H.

J. H. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable PON architecture for efficient maintenance and protection,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2009.

Mulder, B. D.

W. Chen, B. D. Mulder, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “Embedded OTDR monitoring of the fiber plant behind the PON power splitter,” in IEEE Proc. Symp./Leos Benelux Chapter, Nov.–Dec. 2006, pp. 13–16.

Naitou, T.

K. Ozawa, M. Shigehara, J.-I. Hanai, A. Ban, T. Naitou, and K. Shimoura, “Field trial of in-service individual line monitoring of PONs using a tunable OTDR,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors, Venice, 2000.

O’Byrne, V.

Ozawa, K.

K. Ozawa, M. Shigehara, J.-I. Hanai, A. Ban, T. Naitou, and K. Shimoura, “Field trial of in-service individual line monitoring of PONs using a tunable OTDR,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors, Venice, 2000.

Park, C.-S.

M. Thollabandi, H. Swook, K.-W. Shim, and C.-S. Park, “A surveillance technique based on spectral analysis of SL-RSOA for PS-PON,” in PhotonicsGlobal@Singapore, 2008.

Pfeiffer, T.

H. Schmuck, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, and T. Pfeiffer, “Embedded OTDR techniques for cost-efficient fibre monitoring in optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006.

Piehler, D.

Qiu, X. Z.

W. Chen, B. D. Mulder, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “Embedded OTDR monitoring of the fiber plant behind the PON power splitter,” in IEEE Proc. Symp./Leos Benelux Chapter, Nov.–Dec. 2006, pp. 13–16.

Ravet, G.

K. Yuksel, S. Letheux, A. Grillet, M. Wuilpart, D. Giannone, J. Hancq, G. Ravet, and P. Megret, “Centralised optical monitoring of tree-structured passive optical networks using a Raman-assisted OTDR,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, pp. 175–178.

Rusch, L. A.

Saget, M.

J. Laferriere, M. Saget, and A. Champavere, “Original method for analyzing multipaths networks by OTDR measurement,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1997, pp. 99–101.

Schmuck, H.

H. Schmuck, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, and T. Pfeiffer, “Embedded OTDR techniques for cost-efficient fibre monitoring in optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006.

Shigehara, M.

K. Ozawa, M. Shigehara, J.-I. Hanai, A. Ban, T. Naitou, and K. Shimoura, “Field trial of in-service individual line monitoring of PONs using a tunable OTDR,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors, Venice, 2000.

Shim, K.-W.

M. Thollabandi, H. Swook, K.-W. Shim, and C.-S. Park, “A surveillance technique based on spectral analysis of SL-RSOA for PS-PON,” in PhotonicsGlobal@Singapore, 2008.

Shimoura, K.

K. Ozawa, M. Shigehara, J.-I. Hanai, A. Ban, T. Naitou, and K. Shimoura, “Field trial of in-service individual line monitoring of PONs using a tunable OTDR,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors, Venice, 2000.

Song, J.

C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L.-K. Chen, J. Song, and D. Lam, “A practical passive surveillance scheme for optically amplified passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  9, pp. 526–528, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Straub, M.

H. Schmuck, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, and T. Pfeiffer, “Embedded OTDR techniques for cost-efficient fibre monitoring in optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006.

Swook, H.

M. Thollabandi, H. Swook, K.-W. Shim, and C.-S. Park, “A surveillance technique based on spectral analysis of SL-RSOA for PS-PON,” in PhotonicsGlobal@Singapore, 2008.

Tanra, M.

M. S. Ab-Rahman, M. Tanra, and K. Jumari, “The proposal of multi access detection system (MADS) installation in area campus network (ACN),” Adv. Nat. Appl. Sci., vol.  5, pp. 524–529, 2011.

Thollabandi, M.

M. Thollabandi, H. Swook, K.-W. Shim, and C.-S. Park, “A surveillance technique based on spectral analysis of SL-RSOA for PS-PON,” in PhotonicsGlobal@Singapore, 2008.

Tong, F.

C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L.-K. Chen, J. Song, and D. Lam, “A practical passive surveillance scheme for optically amplified passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  9, pp. 526–528, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Vandewege, J.

W. Chen, B. D. Mulder, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “Embedded OTDR monitoring of the fiber plant behind the PON power splitter,” in IEEE Proc. Symp./Leos Benelux Chapter, Nov.–Dec. 2006, pp. 13–16.

Wong, E.

E. Wong, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks,” Opt. Commun., vol.  281, pp. 2218–2226, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Wood, R.

S. Hornung, R. Wood, and P. Keeble, “Single-mode optical fibre networks to the home,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1990, vol. 4, pp. 1563–1571.

Wuilpart, M.

K. Yuksel, M. Wuilpart, V. Moeyaert, and P. Megret, “Novel monitoring technique for passive optical networks based on optical frequency domain reflectometry and fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 463–468, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Yuksel, S. Letheux, A. Grillet, M. Wuilpart, D. Giannone, J. Hancq, G. Ravet, and P. Megret, “Centralised optical monitoring of tree-structured passive optical networks using a Raman-assisted OTDR,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, pp. 175–178.

Yuksel, K.

K. Yuksel, M. Wuilpart, V. Moeyaert, and P. Megret, “Novel monitoring technique for passive optical networks based on optical frequency domain reflectometry and fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  2, pp. 463–468, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Yuksel, S. Letheux, A. Grillet, M. Wuilpart, D. Giannone, J. Hancq, G. Ravet, and P. Megret, “Centralised optical monitoring of tree-structured passive optical networks using a Raman-assisted OTDR,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, pp. 175–178.

Zhao, X.

E. Wong, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks,” Opt. Commun., vol.  281, pp. 2218–2226, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Adv. Nat. Appl. Sci. (1)

M. S. Ab-Rahman, M. Tanra, and K. Jumari, “The proposal of multi access detection system (MADS) installation in area campus network (ACN),” Adv. Nat. Appl. Sci., vol.  5, pp. 524–529, 2011.

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

M. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Physical layer monitoring techniques for TDM-passive optical networks: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, pp. 943–958, 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C.-K. Chan, F. Tong, L.-K. Chen, J. Song, and D. Lam, “A practical passive surveillance scheme for optically amplified passive branched optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  9, pp. 526–528, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Inf. Sci. (1)

K. S. Kim, “On the evolution of PON-based FTTH solutions,” Inf. Sci., vol.  149, pp. 21–30, 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Wong, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks,” Opt. Commun., vol.  281, pp. 2218–2226, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

M. Simard, “OTDR PON testing: The challenges—The solution,” 2009 [Online]. Available: http://documents.exfo.com/appnotes/anote201-ang.pdf .

J. H. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “A remotely reconfigurable PON architecture for efficient maintenance and protection,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 2009.

K. Yuksel, S. Letheux, A. Grillet, M. Wuilpart, D. Giannone, J. Hancq, G. Ravet, and P. Megret, “Centralised optical monitoring of tree-structured passive optical networks using a Raman-assisted OTDR,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2007, pp. 175–178.

W. Chen, B. D. Mulder, J. Vandewege, and X. Z. Qiu, “Embedded OTDR monitoring of the fiber plant behind the PON power splitter,” in IEEE Proc. Symp./Leos Benelux Chapter, Nov.–Dec. 2006, pp. 13–16.

H. Schmuck, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, and T. Pfeiffer, “Embedded OTDR techniques for cost-efficient fibre monitoring in optical access networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications, 2006.

M. Thollabandi, H. Swook, K.-W. Shim, and C.-S. Park, “A surveillance technique based on spectral analysis of SL-RSOA for PS-PON,” in PhotonicsGlobal@Singapore, 2008.

S. Hornung, R. Wood, and P. Keeble, “Single-mode optical fibre networks to the home,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1990, vol. 4, pp. 1563–1571.

F. Caviglia and V. C. Di Biase, “Optical maintenance in PONs,” in 24th European Conf. on Optical Communication, 1998, vol. 1, pp. 621–625.

J. Gagnon, “The Fundamentals of an OTDR,” 2008 [Online]. Available: http://documents.exfo.com/appnotes/anote194-ang.pdf .

K. Ozawa, M. Shigehara, J.-I. Hanai, A. Ban, T. Naitou, and K. Shimoura, “Field trial of in-service individual line monitoring of PONs using a tunable OTDR,” presented at the 14th Int. Conf. on Optical Fibre Sensors, Venice, 2000.

J. Laferriere, M. Saget, and A. Champavere, “Original method for analyzing multipaths networks by OTDR measurement,” in Conf. on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1997, pp. 99–101.

G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill International Editions, 2000.

B. Chomycz, Planning Fiber Optic Networks, 1st ed. McGraw-Hill, 2009.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Design of the optical network monitoring and fault localization system. SLED, superluminescent diode; BPF, bandpass filter; OSW, optical switch; C, optical coupler; SMF, single-mode fiber; RN, remote node or splitter; L, distribution fiber length; ONU, optical network unit; OC, optical circulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Blue lines show the reflection spectra of eight FBGs with four peaks, which represent eight ONUs. The missing reflection spectra (red lines) are the condition when there are fiber breakdowns at branches nos. 1 and 4.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Line a), monitoring power received versus network size, N and line b), amplitude power of the first peak reflection spectrum versus network size.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

BER performance with and without the monitoring system of the downstream signal at ONU 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Summary of TDM-PON Monitoring Techniques and Their Advantages and Disadvantagesa

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pref=Po(n1n2n1+n2)2.
L=ct2n1,
Δx=c2nΔts,
IL=10×log(PiPT)+Γe,