Abstract

This paper investigates design methods of protection schemes in survivable WDM networks using the path protection p-trail in order to provide better capacity efficiency by eliminating the rigidness of the protection structure of the well-accepted protection scheme, the failure independent path protection (FIPP) pre-configured protection cycle (p-cycle). The flexibility in the protection structure yields lower cost in terms of spare capacity allocation while maintaining the high speed of protection switching. We develop two design approaches, the fully pre-cross-connected path protection trail (fpp-trail) and the partially pre-cross-connected path protection trail (ppp-trail), based on the degree of pre-cross-connectivity of the protection structure. In order to obtain optimally designed trails, we develop an optimization model based on a large-scale optimization technique, namely, column generation. Numerical results show that fpp-trails significantly improve the spare capacity efficiency compared to the FIPP p-cycle, and ppp-trails strike a balance between capacity redundancy and recovery delay. We observe that ppp-trails can achieve as low capacity redundancy as shared backup path protection (SBPP), while the recovery delay is kept lower than in SBPP and slightly higher than FIPP p-cycles by using selective signaling through a control plane that is aware of the location of the cross-connects that are not pre-configured in advance.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks. Prentice-Hall, 2004.
  2. R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd ed. Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.
  3. M. S. Kiaei, C. Assi, and B. Jaumard, “A survey on the p-cycle protection method,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  11, pp. 53–70, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed pre-configuration: Ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 1998, vol. 1, pp. 537–543.
  5. A. Kodian and W. Grover, “Failure-independent path-protecting p-cycles: Efficient and simple fully pre-connected optical-path protection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, no. 10, pp. 3241–3259, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Chow, F. Chudak, and A. Ffrench, “Fast optical layer mesh protection using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  12, no. 3, pp. 539–548, June 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for non-simple p-cycle and p-trail design in WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  54, no. 5, pp. 716–725, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET and ATM Networking. Prentice-Hall, 2004.
  9. W. D. Grover and J. Doucette, “Advances in optical network design with p-cycles: Joint optimization and pre-selection of candidate p-cycles,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, July 2002, pp. 49–50.
  10. D. A. Schupke, C. G. Gruber, and A. Autenrieth, “Optimal configuration of p-cycles in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2761–2765.
  11. J. Doucette, D. He, W. D. Grover, and O. Yang, “Algorithmic approaches for efficient enumeration of candidate p-cycles and capacitated p-cycle network design,” in Proc. Fourth Int. Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2003, pp. 212–220.
  12. B. Wu, K. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for p-cycle design without candidate cycle enumeration,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 284–295, Feb. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Rocha and B. Jaumard, “A column generation approach for shared protection schemes in WDM mesh networks,” Ph.D. thesis, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, 2009.
  14. A. Ranjbar and C. Assi, “Availability-aware design in FIPP p-cycles protected mesh networks,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Mar. 2008.
  15. B. Wu, P.-H. Ho, K. L. Yeung, J. Tapolcai, and H. T. Mouftah, “CFP: Cooperative fast protection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 1102–1113, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Kiaei, S. Sebbah, A. Cerny, H. Alazemi, and C. Assi, “Efficient network protection design models using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 11, pp. 3102–3110, Nov. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Sebbah and B. Jaumard, “Differentiated quality-of-recovery in survivable optical mesh networks using p-structures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 3, pp. 798–810, June 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. D. Doverspike, G. Sahin, J. L. Strand, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast restoration in a mesh network of optical cross-connects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), vol. 1, 1999.
  19. L. Li, S. Scott, and J. Deogun, “Cost effective approaches for circuit construction in WDM SONET rings,” in Proc. IASTED Int. Conf.—Wireless and Optical Communications, Banff, Canada, July 17–19, 2002, pp. 333–338.
  20. V. Sharma and F. Hellstrand, “Framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS)-based recovery,” , Feb. 2003.
  21. H. Mouftah and P.-H. Ho, Optical Networks: Architecture and Survivability. Springer, 2003.
  22. V. Chvatal, Linear Programming. W. H. Freeman, 1983.
  23. R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1993.
  24. Zuse-Institute Berlin (ZIB), SNDlib [Online]. Available: http://sndlib.zib.de/home.action .

2012

S. Sebbah and B. Jaumard, “Differentiated quality-of-recovery in survivable optical mesh networks using p-structures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 3, pp. 798–810, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Kiaei, S. Sebbah, A. Cerny, H. Alazemi, and C. Assi, “Efficient network protection design models using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 11, pp. 3102–3110, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for non-simple p-cycle and p-trail design in WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  54, no. 5, pp. 716–725, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, K. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for p-cycle design without candidate cycle enumeration,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 284–295, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, P.-H. Ho, K. L. Yeung, J. Tapolcai, and H. T. Mouftah, “CFP: Cooperative fast protection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 1102–1113, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

M. S. Kiaei, C. Assi, and B. Jaumard, “A survey on the p-cycle protection method,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  11, pp. 53–70, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

T. Chow, F. Chudak, and A. Ffrench, “Fast optical layer mesh protection using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  12, no. 3, pp. 539–548, June 2004.
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, R.

R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Alazemi, H.

M. Kiaei, S. Sebbah, A. Cerny, H. Alazemi, and C. Assi, “Efficient network protection design models using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 11, pp. 3102–3110, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Assi, C.

M. Kiaei, S. Sebbah, A. Cerny, H. Alazemi, and C. Assi, “Efficient network protection design models using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 11, pp. 3102–3110, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kiaei, C. Assi, and B. Jaumard, “A survey on the p-cycle protection method,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  11, pp. 53–70, 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. Ranjbar and C. Assi, “Availability-aware design in FIPP p-cycles protected mesh networks,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Mar. 2008.

Autenrieth, A.

D. A. Schupke, C. G. Gruber, and A. Autenrieth, “Optimal configuration of p-cycles in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2761–2765.

Cerny, A.

M. Kiaei, S. Sebbah, A. Cerny, H. Alazemi, and C. Assi, “Efficient network protection design models using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 11, pp. 3102–3110, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Chow, T.

T. Chow, F. Chudak, and A. Ffrench, “Fast optical layer mesh protection using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  12, no. 3, pp. 539–548, June 2004.
[CrossRef]

Chudak, F.

T. Chow, F. Chudak, and A. Ffrench, “Fast optical layer mesh protection using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  12, no. 3, pp. 539–548, June 2004.
[CrossRef]

Chvatal, V.

V. Chvatal, Linear Programming. W. H. Freeman, 1983.

Deogun, J.

L. Li, S. Scott, and J. Deogun, “Cost effective approaches for circuit construction in WDM SONET rings,” in Proc. IASTED Int. Conf.—Wireless and Optical Communications, Banff, Canada, July 17–19, 2002, pp. 333–338.

Doucette, J.

W. D. Grover and J. Doucette, “Advances in optical network design with p-cycles: Joint optimization and pre-selection of candidate p-cycles,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, July 2002, pp. 49–50.

J. Doucette, D. He, W. D. Grover, and O. Yang, “Algorithmic approaches for efficient enumeration of candidate p-cycles and capacitated p-cycle network design,” in Proc. Fourth Int. Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2003, pp. 212–220.

Doverspike, R. D.

R. D. Doverspike, G. Sahin, J. L. Strand, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast restoration in a mesh network of optical cross-connects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), vol. 1, 1999.

Ffrench, A.

T. Chow, F. Chudak, and A. Ffrench, “Fast optical layer mesh protection using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  12, no. 3, pp. 539–548, June 2004.
[CrossRef]

Grover, W.

A. Kodian and W. Grover, “Failure-independent path-protecting p-cycles: Efficient and simple fully pre-connected optical-path protection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, no. 10, pp. 3241–3259, 2005.
[CrossRef]

W. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed pre-configuration: Ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 1998, vol. 1, pp. 537–543.

Grover, W. D.

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET and ATM Networking. Prentice-Hall, 2004.

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks. Prentice-Hall, 2004.

J. Doucette, D. He, W. D. Grover, and O. Yang, “Algorithmic approaches for efficient enumeration of candidate p-cycles and capacitated p-cycle network design,” in Proc. Fourth Int. Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2003, pp. 212–220.

W. D. Grover and J. Doucette, “Advances in optical network design with p-cycles: Joint optimization and pre-selection of candidate p-cycles,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, July 2002, pp. 49–50.

Gruber, C. G.

D. A. Schupke, C. G. Gruber, and A. Autenrieth, “Optimal configuration of p-cycles in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2761–2765.

He, D.

J. Doucette, D. He, W. D. Grover, and O. Yang, “Algorithmic approaches for efficient enumeration of candidate p-cycles and capacitated p-cycle network design,” in Proc. Fourth Int. Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2003, pp. 212–220.

Hellstrand, F.

V. Sharma and F. Hellstrand, “Framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS)-based recovery,” , Feb. 2003.

Ho, P.-H.

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for non-simple p-cycle and p-trail design in WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  54, no. 5, pp. 716–725, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, P.-H. Ho, K. L. Yeung, J. Tapolcai, and H. T. Mouftah, “CFP: Cooperative fast protection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 1102–1113, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, K. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for p-cycle design without candidate cycle enumeration,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 284–295, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Mouftah and P.-H. Ho, Optical Networks: Architecture and Survivability. Springer, 2003.

Jaumard, B.

S. Sebbah and B. Jaumard, “Differentiated quality-of-recovery in survivable optical mesh networks using p-structures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 3, pp. 798–810, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kiaei, C. Assi, and B. Jaumard, “A survey on the p-cycle protection method,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  11, pp. 53–70, 2009.
[CrossRef]

C. Rocha and B. Jaumard, “A column generation approach for shared protection schemes in WDM mesh networks,” Ph.D. thesis, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, 2009.

Kiaei, M.

M. Kiaei, S. Sebbah, A. Cerny, H. Alazemi, and C. Assi, “Efficient network protection design models using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 11, pp. 3102–3110, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kiaei, M. S.

M. S. Kiaei, C. Assi, and B. Jaumard, “A survey on the p-cycle protection method,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  11, pp. 53–70, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kodian, A.

Li, L.

L. Li, S. Scott, and J. Deogun, “Cost effective approaches for circuit construction in WDM SONET rings,” in Proc. IASTED Int. Conf.—Wireless and Optical Communications, Banff, Canada, July 17–19, 2002, pp. 333–338.

Magnanti, T.

R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Mouftah, H.

H. Mouftah and P.-H. Ho, Optical Networks: Architecture and Survivability. Springer, 2003.

Mouftah, H. T.

Orlin, J.

R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd ed. Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.

Ranjbar, A.

A. Ranjbar and C. Assi, “Availability-aware design in FIPP p-cycles protected mesh networks,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Mar. 2008.

Rocha, C.

C. Rocha and B. Jaumard, “A column generation approach for shared protection schemes in WDM mesh networks,” Ph.D. thesis, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, 2009.

Sahin, G.

R. D. Doverspike, G. Sahin, J. L. Strand, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast restoration in a mesh network of optical cross-connects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), vol. 1, 1999.

Sasaki, G. H.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd ed. Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.

Schupke, D. A.

D. A. Schupke, C. G. Gruber, and A. Autenrieth, “Optimal configuration of p-cycles in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2761–2765.

Scott, S.

L. Li, S. Scott, and J. Deogun, “Cost effective approaches for circuit construction in WDM SONET rings,” in Proc. IASTED Int. Conf.—Wireless and Optical Communications, Banff, Canada, July 17–19, 2002, pp. 333–338.

Sebbah, S.

S. Sebbah and B. Jaumard, “Differentiated quality-of-recovery in survivable optical mesh networks using p-structures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 3, pp. 798–810, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Kiaei, S. Sebbah, A. Cerny, H. Alazemi, and C. Assi, “Efficient network protection design models using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 11, pp. 3102–3110, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Sharma, V.

V. Sharma and F. Hellstrand, “Framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS)-based recovery,” , Feb. 2003.

Sivarajan, K.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd ed. Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.

Stamatelakis, D.

W. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed pre-configuration: Ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 1998, vol. 1, pp. 537–543.

Strand, J. L.

R. D. Doverspike, G. Sahin, J. L. Strand, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast restoration in a mesh network of optical cross-connects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), vol. 1, 1999.

Tapolcai, J.

Tkach, R. W.

R. D. Doverspike, G. Sahin, J. L. Strand, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast restoration in a mesh network of optical cross-connects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), vol. 1, 1999.

Wu, B.

B. Wu, K. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for p-cycle design without candidate cycle enumeration,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 284–295, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, P.-H. Ho, K. L. Yeung, J. Tapolcai, and H. T. Mouftah, “CFP: Cooperative fast protection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 1102–1113, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for non-simple p-cycle and p-trail design in WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  54, no. 5, pp. 716–725, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Yang, O.

J. Doucette, D. He, W. D. Grover, and O. Yang, “Algorithmic approaches for efficient enumeration of candidate p-cycles and capacitated p-cycle network design,” in Proc. Fourth Int. Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2003, pp. 212–220.

Yeung, K.

B. Wu, K. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for p-cycle design without candidate cycle enumeration,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 284–295, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Yeung, K. L.

B. Wu, P.-H. Ho, K. L. Yeung, J. Tapolcai, and H. T. Mouftah, “CFP: Cooperative fast protection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, pp. 1102–1113, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for non-simple p-cycle and p-trail design in WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  54, no. 5, pp. 716–725, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Netw.

B. Wu, K. L. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for non-simple p-cycle and p-trail design in WDM mesh networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  54, no. 5, pp. 716–725, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials

M. S. Kiaei, C. Assi, and B. Jaumard, “A survey on the p-cycle protection method,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  11, pp. 53–70, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun.

M. Kiaei, S. Sebbah, A. Cerny, H. Alazemi, and C. Assi, “Efficient network protection design models using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.  59, no. 11, pp. 3102–3110, Nov. 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

S. Sebbah and B. Jaumard, “Differentiated quality-of-recovery in survivable optical mesh networks using p-structures,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  20, no. 3, pp. 798–810, June 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, K. Yeung, and P.-H. Ho, “ILP formulations for p-cycle design without candidate cycle enumeration,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  18, no. 1, pp. 284–295, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Chow, F. Chudak, and A. Ffrench, “Fast optical layer mesh protection using pre-cross-connected trails,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  12, no. 3, pp. 539–548, June 2004.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

C. Rocha and B. Jaumard, “A column generation approach for shared protection schemes in WDM mesh networks,” Ph.D. thesis, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, 2009.

A. Ranjbar and C. Assi, “Availability-aware design in FIPP p-cycles protected mesh networks,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling, Mar. 2008.

W. Grover and D. Stamatelakis, “Cycle-oriented distributed pre-configuration: Ring-like speed with mesh-like capacity for self-planning network restoration,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 1998, vol. 1, pp. 537–543.

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET and ATM Networking. Prentice-Hall, 2004.

W. D. Grover and J. Doucette, “Advances in optical network design with p-cycles: Joint optimization and pre-selection of candidate p-cycles,” in Proc. IEEE LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, July 2002, pp. 49–50.

D. A. Schupke, C. G. Gruber, and A. Autenrieth, “Optimal configuration of p-cycles in WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), 2002, vol. 5, pp. 2761–2765.

J. Doucette, D. He, W. D. Grover, and O. Yang, “Algorithmic approaches for efficient enumeration of candidate p-cycles and capacitated p-cycle network design,” in Proc. Fourth Int. Workshop on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2003, pp. 212–220.

R. D. Doverspike, G. Sahin, J. L. Strand, and R. W. Tkach, “Fast restoration in a mesh network of optical cross-connects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), vol. 1, 1999.

L. Li, S. Scott, and J. Deogun, “Cost effective approaches for circuit construction in WDM SONET rings,” in Proc. IASTED Int. Conf.—Wireless and Optical Communications, Banff, Canada, July 17–19, 2002, pp. 333–338.

V. Sharma and F. Hellstrand, “Framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS)-based recovery,” , Feb. 2003.

H. Mouftah and P.-H. Ho, Optical Networks: Architecture and Survivability. Springer, 2003.

V. Chvatal, Linear Programming. W. H. Freeman, 1983.

R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. Orlin, Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Zuse-Institute Berlin (ZIB), SNDlib [Online]. Available: http://sndlib.zib.de/home.action .

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks. Prentice-Hall, 2004.

R. Ramaswami, K. Sivarajan, and G. H. Sasaki, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 3rd ed. Morgan Kaufmann, 2009.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of WDM protection schemes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of WDM protection schemes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of path protection schemes.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Recovery cycle taken from [20].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Recovery signaling.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of spare capacity.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of spare capacity between fpp- and ppp-trails.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Comparison of Protection Schemes in WDM Networks

Tables Icon

TABLE II Comparison of Recovery Delay

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

minpPCostpup,
mintTLCbpup,
pPacpupwccC,
upZ+cC.
minL(Cbacθc),
x={1ifis used for protection0otherwiseL,
yc=number of disjoint protection paths for connectionc,
pc={1ifprotectsc0otherwiseL,
pc1,2={1if1,2protectc0otherwise1,2L,
minL(Cxbycacθc).
xpccC,L,
ω(v)pc=yccC,v{Sc,Dc},
ω(N)pcyccC,Ncut{Sc,Dc}.
γnc={1ifbifurcating at nodenis accepted byc0otherwise,
pc1,2pc1+pc21cC,1,2ω(v),vS(c),D(c),
pc1,2+pc22,32max(0,1γnc1γnc2),
pc1,2+pc22,32max(0,1γnc1γnc2)c1,c2C,1,2,3ω(v),vS(c1,c2),D(c1,c2),
ycZ+cC.