Abstract

In this paper, we propose an overall optimization of discrete multitone (DMT) transmissions over polymer optical fiber (POF). The optimization is carried out from both a theoretical and experimental approach. At first, the parameters of the POF channel characteristics, resonant cavity light emitting diode (RC-LED) dynamic nonlinearity performance and analog-to-digital converter effective number of bits (ENOB), in our digital storage oscilloscope are measured. From the measured results, we investigate the channel capacity of a 50 m step-index POF system. Then the optimal DMT bandwidth is theoretically derived. We also optimize the system with different experimental setups. The optimal cyclic prefix length and RC-LED optimal working current are given. The ENOB can be improved by oversampling and averaging. The optimal oversampling factor is discussed. Furthermore, a joint DMT clipping and subcarrier number optimization is synthetically investigated. Based on the proposed approaches, an optimized DMT gigabit transmission over a real 50 m POF channel employing low-cost components is presented. Finally, a methodology for the practical design of the DMT transmission over POF is concluded.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  2. ICT ALPHA Project, http://www.ict-alpha.eu/ .
  3. A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.
  4. O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF Handbook: Optical Short Range Transmission Systems, 2nd ed. Springer, 2008.
  5. D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.
  6. S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, and J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron, vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept.–Oct. 2010.
  7. R. V. Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications. Artech House, 2000.
  8. S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  9. “Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) transceivers,” , July 1999.
  10. S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, O. Ziemann, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Low-cost and robust 1-Gbit/s plastic optical fiber link based on light-emitting diode technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2008.
  11. B. Charbonnier, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, J. Le Masson, J. D. Lambkin, M. O’Gorman, and R. Gaudino, “EU project POF-PLUS: Gigabit transmission over 50  m of step-index plastic optical fibre for home networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.
  12. H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4.7  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m long 1  mm diameter multi-core plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.
  13. S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, O. Ziemann, J. Vinogradov, and C. A. Bunge, “10  Gbit/s over 25  m plastic optical fiber as a way for extremely low-cost optical interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.
  14. S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, C. A. Bunge, O. Ziemann, B. Schmauss, and J. Vinogradov, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 25-m bend-insensitive multicore polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1604–1606, Nov. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4  Gbit/s over 50-m large core diameter GI-POF using low-cost VCSEL,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009.
  16. D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.
  17. H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “40-Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on discrete multitone modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.
  18. H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. Inan, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, I. Neokosmidis, A. M. J. Koonen, and J. W. Walewski, “Impact of LED nonlinearity on discrete multitone modulation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  1, no. 5, pp. 439–451, Oct. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, J. W. Walewski, B. Inan, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Impact of nonlinear LED transfer function on discrete multitone modulation: Analytical approach,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 22, pp. 4970–4978, Nov. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Eigalat, R. Mesleht, and H. Haast, “A study of LED nonlinearity effects on optical wireless transmission using OFDM,” in Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, 2009.
  22. J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, “Maximizing the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode-fiber links by optimizing analog-to-digital converters,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 787–798, Mar. 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Mao, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, M. Chen, L. N. Binh, and N. Yang, “Impacts of ENOB on the performance of 112  Gbps PDMQPSK digital coherent receiver,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.
  24. T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An overview: Peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers, vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 257–268, June 2008.
  25. J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 3, pp. 189–204, Feb. 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, and P. A. Milder, “Theoretical and experimental evaluation of clipping and quantization noise for optical OFDM,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 18, pp. 17713–17728, Aug. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Ochiai and H. Imai, “Performance analysis of deliberately clipped OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 89–101, Jan. 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. J. G. Mestdagh, P. Spruyt, and B. Biran, “Analysis of clipping effect in DMT-based ADSL systems,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1994.
  29. B. Cardiff, M. F. Flanagan, F. Smyth, L. P. Barry, and A. D. Fagan, “On bit and power loading for OFDM over SI-POF,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 10, pp. 1547–1554, May 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “LED nonlinearity mitigation techniques in optical wireless OFDM communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 865–875, Nov. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Hass, “Predistortion in optical wireless transmission using OFDM,” in Int. Conf. on Hybrid Intelligent Systems, 2009.
  32. C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, and R. I. Killey, “Optimum clipping for optical OFDM with limited resolution DAC/ADC,” in Signal Processing in Photonics Communications (SPPCom), 2011.
  33. D. Dardari, “Joint clip and quantization effects characterization in OFDM receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  53, no. 8, pp. 1741–1748, Aug. 2006.
  34. W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Academic, 2009.
  35. FC1000D-120, Firecomms datasheet [Online]. Available: www.firecomms.com .
  36. J. Campello, “Practical bit loading for DMT,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1999.
  37. H. E. Levin, “A complete and optimal data allocation method for practical discrete multitone systems,” in Global Communications Conf., 2001.
  38. P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  43, no. 2/3/4, pp. 773–775, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1995.
    [CrossRef]
  39. T. P. Lee, “The nonlinearity of double-hetero structure LED’s for optical communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  65, no. 9, pp. 1408–1410, 1977.
    [CrossRef]
  40. Y. Wang, A. Hohn, K. Schwemmer, and J. Speidel, “Investigation and simulation of high speed gigabit transmission for POF based MOST networks,” Elektronik Automotive, Apr. 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.mostforum.com/static/2011/webinar/papers/MOST-Forum-2011-conference-5-Alpine-Uni-Stuttgart.pdf .
  41. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. New York: Dover, 1965, ch. 7, p. 297.
  42. B. P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 3rd ed. Oxford University, 1998.
  43. A. Leke and J. M. Cioffi, “Maximum rate loading algorithm for discrete multitone modulation,” in Global Communications Conf., 1997.
  44. W. Yu and J. M. Cioffi, “On constant power water-filling,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001.
  45. Spectrum, “Measuring of dynamic figures: SNR, THD, SFDR,” [Online]. Available: www.spec.de .
  46. E. H. Chen and C. K. K. Yang, “ADC-based serial I/O receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  57, no. 9, pp. 2248–2258, Sept. 2010.
  47. Silicon Labs, “Improving ADC resolution by oversampling and averaging,” [Online]. Available: www.silabs.com .
  48. L. Peng, M. Hélard, and S. Haese, “Optimization of multi-band DFT-spread DMT system for polymer optical fiber communications,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 2013.
  49. J. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 2007.
  50. L. Peng, S. Haese, and M. Hélard, “Optimum configuration for discrete multi-tone transmission over polymer optical fiber,” in Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, 2012.

2012

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “LED nonlinearity mitigation techniques in optical wireless OFDM communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 865–875, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011

C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, and P. A. Milder, “Theoretical and experimental evaluation of clipping and quantization noise for optical OFDM,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 18, pp. 17713–17728, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

B. Cardiff, M. F. Flanagan, F. Smyth, L. P. Barry, and A. D. Fagan, “On bit and power loading for OFDM over SI-POF,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 10, pp. 1547–1554, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

E. H. Chen and C. K. K. Yang, “ADC-based serial I/O receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  57, no. 9, pp. 2248–2258, Sept. 2010.

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, and J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron, vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept.–Oct. 2010.

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, C. A. Bunge, O. Ziemann, B. Schmauss, and J. Vinogradov, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 25-m bend-insensitive multicore polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1604–1606, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

B. Inan, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, I. Neokosmidis, A. M. J. Koonen, and J. W. Walewski, “Impact of LED nonlinearity on discrete multitone modulation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  1, no. 5, pp. 439–451, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, J. W. Walewski, B. Inan, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Impact of nonlinear LED transfer function on discrete multitone modulation: Analytical approach,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 22, pp. 4970–4978, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 3, pp. 189–204, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An overview: Peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers, vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 257–268, June 2008.

2007

J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, “Maximizing the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode-fiber links by optimizing analog-to-digital converters,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 787–798, Mar. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Dardari, “Joint clip and quantization effects characterization in OFDM receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  53, no. 8, pp. 1741–1748, Aug. 2006.

2002

H. Ochiai and H. Imai, “Performance analysis of deliberately clipped OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 89–101, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

1995

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  43, no. 2/3/4, pp. 773–775, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1995.
[CrossRef]

1977

T. P. Lee, “The nonlinearity of double-hetero structure LED’s for optical communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  65, no. 9, pp. 1408–1410, 1977.
[CrossRef]

Abramowitz, M.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. New York: Dover, 1965, ch. 7, p. 297.

Armstrong, J.

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 3, pp. 189–204, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

B. Cardiff, M. F. Flanagan, F. Smyth, L. P. Barry, and A. D. Fagan, “On bit and power loading for OFDM over SI-POF,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 10, pp. 1547–1554, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Benlachtar, Y.

C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, and P. A. Milder, “Theoretical and experimental evaluation of clipping and quantization noise for optical OFDM,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 18, pp. 17713–17728, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, and R. I. Killey, “Optimum clipping for optical OFDM with limited resolution DAC/ADC,” in Signal Processing in Photonics Communications (SPPCom), 2011.

Berger, C. R.

C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, and P. A. Milder, “Theoretical and experimental evaluation of clipping and quantization noise for optical OFDM,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 18, pp. 17713–17728, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, and R. I. Killey, “Optimum clipping for optical OFDM with limited resolution DAC/ADC,” in Signal Processing in Photonics Communications (SPPCom), 2011.

Bingham, J. A. C.

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  43, no. 2/3/4, pp. 773–775, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Binh, L. N.

B. Mao, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, M. Chen, L. N. Binh, and N. Yang, “Impacts of ENOB on the performance of 112  Gbps PDMQPSK digital coherent receiver,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

Biran, B.

D. J. G. Mestdagh, P. Spruyt, and B. Biran, “Analysis of clipping effect in DMT-based ADSL systems,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1994.

Bluschke, A.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Bosco, G.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Breyer, F.

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, and J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron, vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept.–Oct. 2010.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, O. Ziemann, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Low-cost and robust 1-Gbit/s plastic optical fiber link based on light-emitting diode technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2008.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “40-Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on discrete multitone modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

Bunge, C. A.

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, C. A. Bunge, O. Ziemann, B. Schmauss, and J. Vinogradov, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 25-m bend-insensitive multicore polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1604–1606, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, O. Ziemann, J. Vinogradov, and C. A. Bunge, “10  Gbit/s over 25  m plastic optical fiber as a way for extremely low-cost optical interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Campello, J.

J. Campello, “Practical bit loading for DMT,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1999.

Cardiff, B.

B. Cardiff, M. F. Flanagan, F. Smyth, L. P. Barry, and A. D. Fagan, “On bit and power loading for OFDM over SI-POF,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 10, pp. 1547–1554, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Charbonnier, B.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Charbonnier, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, J. Le Masson, J. D. Lambkin, M. O’Gorman, and R. Gaudino, “EU project POF-PLUS: Gigabit transmission over 50  m of step-index plastic optical fibre for home networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

Chen, E. H.

E. H. Chen and C. K. K. Yang, “ADC-based serial I/O receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  57, no. 9, pp. 2248–2258, Sept. 2010.

Chen, M.

B. Mao, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, M. Chen, L. N. Binh, and N. Yang, “Impacts of ENOB on the performance of 112  Gbps PDMQPSK digital coherent receiver,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

Chow, P. S.

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  43, no. 2/3/4, pp. 773–775, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1995.
[CrossRef]

Cioffi, J. M.

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  43, no. 2/3/4, pp. 773–775, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1995.
[CrossRef]

A. Leke and J. M. Cioffi, “Maximum rate loading algorithm for discrete multitone modulation,” in Global Communications Conf., 1997.

W. Yu and J. M. Cioffi, “On constant power water-filling,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001.

Dardari, D.

D. Dardari, “Joint clip and quantization effects characterization in OFDM receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  53, no. 8, pp. 1741–1748, Aug. 2006.

Daum, W.

O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF Handbook: Optical Short Range Transmission Systems, 2nd ed. Springer, 2008.

Ditewig, A. M. H.

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Ditewig, T.

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

Djordjevic, I.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Academic, 2009.

Eigalat, H.

H. Eigalat, R. Mesleht, and H. Haast, “A study of LED nonlinearity effects on optical wireless transmission using OFDM,” in Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, 2009.

Elgala, H.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “LED nonlinearity mitigation techniques in optical wireless OFDM communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 865–875, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Hass, “Predistortion in optical wireless transmission using OFDM,” in Int. Conf. on Hybrid Intelligent Systems, 2009.

Fagan, A. D.

B. Cardiff, M. F. Flanagan, F. Smyth, L. P. Barry, and A. D. Fagan, “On bit and power loading for OFDM over SI-POF,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 10, pp. 1547–1554, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Flanagan, M. F.

B. Cardiff, M. F. Flanagan, F. Smyth, L. P. Barry, and A. D. Fagan, “On bit and power loading for OFDM over SI-POF,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 10, pp. 1547–1554, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Gaudino, R.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. Charbonnier, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, J. Le Masson, J. D. Lambkin, M. O’Gorman, and R. Gaudino, “EU project POF-PLUS: Gigabit transmission over 50  m of step-index plastic optical fibre for home networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

Greiss, I.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Guignard, P.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

Haas, H.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “LED nonlinearity mitigation techniques in optical wireless OFDM communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 865–875, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Haast, H.

H. Eigalat, R. Mesleht, and H. Haast, “A study of LED nonlinearity effects on optical wireless transmission using OFDM,” in Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, 2009.

Haese, S.

L. Peng, M. Hélard, and S. Haese, “Optimization of multi-band DFT-spread DMT system for polymer optical fiber communications,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 2013.

L. Peng, S. Haese, and M. Hélard, “Optimum configuration for discrete multi-tone transmission over polymer optical fiber,” in Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, 2012.

Hass, H.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Hass, “Predistortion in optical wireless transmission using OFDM,” in Int. Conf. on Hybrid Intelligent Systems, 2009.

Hélard, M.

L. Peng, S. Haese, and M. Hélard, “Optimum configuration for discrete multi-tone transmission over polymer optical fiber,” in Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, 2012.

L. Peng, M. Hélard, and S. Haese, “Optimization of multi-band DFT-spread DMT system for polymer optical fiber communications,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 2013.

Imai, H.

H. Ochiai and H. Imai, “Performance analysis of deliberately clipped OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 89–101, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Inan, B.

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, J. W. Walewski, B. Inan, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Impact of nonlinear LED transfer function on discrete multitone modulation: Analytical approach,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 22, pp. 4970–4978, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. Inan, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, I. Neokosmidis, A. M. J. Koonen, and J. W. Walewski, “Impact of LED nonlinearity on discrete multitone modulation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  1, no. 5, pp. 439–451, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An overview: Peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers, vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 257–268, June 2008.

Kamalakis, T.

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, J. W. Walewski, B. Inan, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Impact of nonlinear LED transfer function on discrete multitone modulation: Analytical approach,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 22, pp. 4970–4978, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Killey, R. I.

C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, and P. A. Milder, “Theoretical and experimental evaluation of clipping and quantization noise for optical OFDM,” Opt. Express, vol.  19, no. 18, pp. 17713–17728, Aug. 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, and R. I. Killey, “Optimum clipping for optical OFDM with limited resolution DAC/ADC,” in Signal Processing in Photonics Communications (SPPCom), 2011.

Koonen, A. M. J.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Inan, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, I. Neokosmidis, A. M. J. Koonen, and J. W. Walewski, “Impact of LED nonlinearity on discrete multitone modulation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  1, no. 5, pp. 439–451, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4.7  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m long 1  mm diameter multi-core plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, O. Ziemann, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Low-cost and robust 1-Gbit/s plastic optical fiber link based on light-emitting diode technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2008.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “40-Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on discrete multitone modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4  Gbit/s over 50-m large core diameter GI-POF using low-cost VCSEL,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009.

Krauser, J.

O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF Handbook: Optical Short Range Transmission Systems, 2nd ed. Springer, 2008.

Kruglov, R.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, C. A. Bunge, O. Ziemann, B. Schmauss, and J. Vinogradov, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 25-m bend-insensitive multicore polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1604–1606, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, O. Ziemann, J. Vinogradov, and C. A. Bunge, “10  Gbit/s over 25  m plastic optical fiber as a way for extremely low-cost optical interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Lambkin, J. D.

B. Charbonnier, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, J. Le Masson, J. D. Lambkin, M. O’Gorman, and R. Gaudino, “EU project POF-PLUS: Gigabit transmission over 50  m of step-index plastic optical fibre for home networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

Lathi, B. P.

B. P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 3rd ed. Oxford University, 1998.

Le Masson, J.

B. Charbonnier, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, J. Le Masson, J. D. Lambkin, M. O’Gorman, and R. Gaudino, “EU project POF-PLUS: Gigabit transmission over 50  m of step-index plastic optical fibre for home networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

Lee, S. C. J.

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, and J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron, vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept.–Oct. 2010.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Inan, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, I. Neokosmidis, A. M. J. Koonen, and J. W. Walewski, “Impact of LED nonlinearity on discrete multitone modulation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  1, no. 5, pp. 439–451, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, O. Ziemann, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Low-cost and robust 1-Gbit/s plastic optical fiber link based on light-emitting diode technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2008.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4.7  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m long 1  mm diameter multi-core plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4  Gbit/s over 50-m large core diameter GI-POF using low-cost VCSEL,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “40-Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on discrete multitone modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

Lee, T. P.

T. P. Lee, “The nonlinearity of double-hetero structure LED’s for optical communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  65, no. 9, pp. 1408–1410, 1977.
[CrossRef]

Leke, A.

A. Leke and J. M. Cioffi, “Maximum rate loading algorithm for discrete multitone modulation,” in Global Communications Conf., 1997.

Levin, H. E.

H. E. Levin, “A complete and optimal data allocation method for practical discrete multitone systems,” in Global Communications Conf., 2001.

Loquai, S.

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, C. A. Bunge, O. Ziemann, B. Schmauss, and J. Vinogradov, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 25-m bend-insensitive multicore polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1604–1606, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, O. Ziemann, J. Vinogradov, and C. A. Bunge, “10  Gbit/s over 25  m plastic optical fiber as a way for extremely low-cost optical interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Mao, B.

B. Mao, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, M. Chen, L. N. Binh, and N. Yang, “Impacts of ENOB on the performance of 112  Gbps PDMQPSK digital coherent receiver,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

Martinez, E. O.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

Matthews, M.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Mesleh, R.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “LED nonlinearity mitigation techniques in optical wireless OFDM communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 865–875, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Hass, “Predistortion in optical wireless transmission using OFDM,” in Int. Conf. on Hybrid Intelligent Systems, 2009.

Mesleht, R.

H. Eigalat, R. Mesleht, and H. Haast, “A study of LED nonlinearity effects on optical wireless transmission using OFDM,” in Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, 2009.

Mestdagh, D. J. G.

D. J. G. Mestdagh, P. Spruyt, and B. Biran, “Analysis of clipping effect in DMT-based ADSL systems,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1994.

Milder, P. A.

Nee, R. V.

R. V. Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications. Artech House, 2000.

Neokosmidis, I.

B. Inan, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, I. Neokosmidis, A. M. J. Koonen, and J. W. Walewski, “Impact of LED nonlinearity on discrete multitone modulation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  1, no. 5, pp. 439–451, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, J. W. Walewski, B. Inan, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Impact of nonlinear LED transfer function on discrete multitone modulation: Analytical approach,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 22, pp. 4970–4978, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

O’Gorman, M.

B. Charbonnier, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, J. Le Masson, J. D. Lambkin, M. O’Gorman, and R. Gaudino, “EU project POF-PLUS: Gigabit transmission over 50  m of step-index plastic optical fibre for home networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

Ochiai, H.

H. Ochiai and H. Imai, “Performance analysis of deliberately clipped OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 89–101, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Okonkwo, C.

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4.7  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m long 1  mm diameter multi-core plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Okonkwo, C. M.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Ouzzif, M.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Charbonnier, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, J. Le Masson, J. D. Lambkin, M. O’Gorman, and R. Gaudino, “EU project POF-PLUS: Gigabit transmission over 50  m of step-index plastic optical fibre for home networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

Peng, L.

L. Peng, M. Hélard, and S. Haese, “Optimization of multi-band DFT-spread DMT system for polymer optical fiber communications,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 2013.

L. Peng, S. Haese, and M. Hélard, “Optimum configuration for discrete multi-tone transmission over polymer optical fiber,” in Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, 2012.

Prasad, R.

R. V. Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications. Artech House, 2000.

Proakis, J.

J. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 2007.

Randel, S.

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, and J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron, vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept.–Oct. 2010.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Inan, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, I. Neokosmidis, A. M. J. Koonen, and J. W. Walewski, “Impact of LED nonlinearity on discrete multitone modulation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  1, no. 5, pp. 439–451, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, O. Ziemann, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Low-cost and robust 1-Gbit/s plastic optical fiber link based on light-emitting diode technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2008.

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “40-Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on discrete multitone modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4.7  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m long 1  mm diameter multi-core plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4  Gbit/s over 50-m large core diameter GI-POF using low-cost VCSEL,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009.

Rietzsch, P.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Salehi, M.

J. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 2007.

Schmauss, B.

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, C. A. Bunge, O. Ziemann, B. Schmauss, and J. Vinogradov, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 25-m bend-insensitive multicore polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1604–1606, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Shi, Y.

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Academic, 2009.

Shore, K. A.

J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, “Maximizing the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode-fiber links by optimizing analog-to-digital converters,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 787–798, Mar. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Smyth, F.

B. Cardiff, M. F. Flanagan, F. Smyth, L. P. Barry, and A. D. Fagan, “On bit and power loading for OFDM over SI-POF,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 10, pp. 1547–1554, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

Sphicopoulos, T.

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, J. W. Walewski, B. Inan, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Impact of nonlinear LED transfer function on discrete multitone modulation: Analytical approach,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 22, pp. 4970–4978, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Spruyt, P.

D. J. G. Mestdagh, P. Spruyt, and B. Biran, “Analysis of clipping effect in DMT-based ADSL systems,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1994.

Steglich, R.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

Stegun, I. A.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. New York: Dover, 1965, ch. 7, p. 297.

Stojanovic, N.

B. Mao, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, M. Chen, L. N. Binh, and N. Yang, “Impacts of ENOB on the performance of 112  Gbps PDMQPSK digital coherent receiver,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

Tang, J. M.

J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, “Maximizing the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode-fiber links by optimizing analog-to-digital converters,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 787–798, Mar. 2007.
[CrossRef]

Tangdiongga, E.

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “40-Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on discrete multitone modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4  Gbit/s over 50-m large core diameter GI-POF using low-cost VCSEL,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4.7  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m long 1  mm diameter multi-core plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Tartarini, G.

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Urvoas, P.

B. Charbonnier, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, J. Le Masson, J. D. Lambkin, M. O’Gorman, and R. Gaudino, “EU project POF-PLUS: Gigabit transmission over 50  m of step-index plastic optical fibre for home networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

van den Boom, H. P. A.

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, O. Ziemann, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Low-cost and robust 1-Gbit/s plastic optical fiber link based on light-emitting diode technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2008.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4.7  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m long 1  mm diameter multi-core plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4  Gbit/s over 50-m large core diameter GI-POF using low-cost VCSEL,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009.

Vinogradov, J.

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, C. A. Bunge, O. Ziemann, B. Schmauss, and J. Vinogradov, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 25-m bend-insensitive multicore polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1604–1606, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, O. Ziemann, J. Vinogradov, and C. A. Bunge, “10  Gbit/s over 25  m plastic optical fiber as a way for extremely low-cost optical interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Visani, D.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Walewski, J. W.

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, and J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron, vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept.–Oct. 2010.

B. Inan, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, I. Neokosmidis, A. M. J. Koonen, and J. W. Walewski, “Impact of LED nonlinearity on discrete multitone modulation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  1, no. 5, pp. 439–451, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, J. W. Walewski, B. Inan, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Impact of nonlinear LED transfer function on discrete multitone modulation: Analytical approach,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 22, pp. 4970–4978, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An overview: Peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers, vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 257–268, June 2008.

Xie, C.

B. Mao, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, M. Chen, L. N. Binh, and N. Yang, “Impacts of ENOB on the performance of 112  Gbps PDMQPSK digital coherent receiver,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

Yang, C. K. K.

E. H. Chen and C. K. K. Yang, “ADC-based serial I/O receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  57, no. 9, pp. 2248–2258, Sept. 2010.

Yang, H.

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “40-Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on discrete multitone modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4  Gbit/s over 50-m large core diameter GI-POF using low-cost VCSEL,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4.7  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m long 1  mm diameter multi-core plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

Yang, N.

B. Mao, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, M. Chen, L. N. Binh, and N. Yang, “Impacts of ENOB on the performance of 112  Gbps PDMQPSK digital coherent receiver,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

Yu, W.

W. Yu and J. M. Cioffi, “On constant power water-filling,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001.

Zamzow, P. E.

O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF Handbook: Optical Short Range Transmission Systems, 2nd ed. Springer, 2008.

Ziemann, O.

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, C. A. Bunge, O. Ziemann, B. Schmauss, and J. Vinogradov, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 25-m bend-insensitive multicore polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1604–1606, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, O. Ziemann, J. Vinogradov, and C. A. Bunge, “10  Gbit/s over 25  m plastic optical fiber as a way for extremely low-cost optical interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF Handbook: Optical Short Range Transmission Systems, 2nd ed. Springer, 2008.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, O. Ziemann, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Low-cost and robust 1-Gbit/s plastic optical fiber link based on light-emitting diode technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2008.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, C. A. Bunge, O. Ziemann, B. Schmauss, and J. Vinogradov, “10.7-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 25-m bend-insensitive multicore polymer optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett, vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1604–1606, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron

S. Randel, F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, and J. W. Walewski, “Advanced modulation schemes for short-range optical communications,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron, vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1280–1289, Sept.–Oct. 2010.

IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers

T. Jiang and Y. Wu, “An overview: Peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast Telev. Receivers, vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 257–268, June 2008.

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.

D. Dardari, “Joint clip and quantization effects characterization in OFDM receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  53, no. 8, pp. 1741–1748, Aug. 2006.

E. H. Chen and C. K. K. Yang, “ADC-based serial I/O receivers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  57, no. 9, pp. 2248–2258, Sept. 2010.

IEEE Trans. Commun

P. S. Chow, J. M. Cioffi, and J. A. C. Bingham, “A practical discrete multitone transceiver loading algorithm for data transmission over spectrally shaped channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  43, no. 2/3/4, pp. 773–775, Feb./Mar./Apr. 1995.
[CrossRef]

H. Ochiai and H. Imai, “Performance analysis of deliberately clipped OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans. Commun, vol.  50, no. 1, pp. 89–101, Jan. 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 3, pp. 189–204, Feb. 2009.
[CrossRef]

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, J. W. Walewski, B. Inan, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Impact of nonlinear LED transfer function on discrete multitone modulation: Analytical approach,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 22, pp. 4970–4978, Nov. 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Tang and K. A. Shore, “Maximizing the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode-fiber links by optimizing analog-to-digital converters,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  25, no. 3, pp. 787–798, Mar. 2007.
[CrossRef]

B. Cardiff, M. F. Flanagan, F. Smyth, L. P. Barry, and A. D. Fagan, “On bit and power loading for OFDM over SI-POF,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 10, pp. 1547–1554, May 2011.
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4  Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 352–359, Feb. 2010.
[CrossRef]

C. M. Okonkwo, E. Tangdiongga, H. Yang, D. Visani, S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, B. Charbonnier, M. Ouzzif, I. Greiss, O. Ziemann, R. Gaudino, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Recent results from the EU POF-PLUS project: Multi-gigabit transmission over 1  mm core diameter plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 2, pp. 186–193, Jan. 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  27, no. 11, pp. 1503–1513, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, C. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, T. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. C. J. Lee, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Beyond 1  Gbit/s transmission over 1  mm diameter plastic optical fiber employing DMT for in-home communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol, vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 622–628, Feb. 2011.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw

B. Inan, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, I. Neokosmidis, A. M. J. Koonen, and J. W. Walewski, “Impact of LED nonlinearity on discrete multitone modulation,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  1, no. 5, pp. 439–451, Oct. 2009.
[CrossRef]

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “LED nonlinearity mitigation techniques in optical wireless OFDM communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw, vol.  4, no. 11, pp. 865–875, Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

T. P. Lee, “The nonlinearity of double-hetero structure LED’s for optical communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  65, no. 9, pp. 1408–1410, 1977.
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Wang, A. Hohn, K. Schwemmer, and J. Speidel, “Investigation and simulation of high speed gigabit transmission for POF based MOST networks,” Elektronik Automotive, Apr. 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.mostforum.com/static/2011/webinar/papers/MOST-Forum-2011-conference-5-Alpine-Uni-Stuttgart.pdf .

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. New York: Dover, 1965, ch. 7, p. 297.

B. P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 3rd ed. Oxford University, 1998.

A. Leke and J. M. Cioffi, “Maximum rate loading algorithm for discrete multitone modulation,” in Global Communications Conf., 1997.

W. Yu and J. M. Cioffi, “On constant power water-filling,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 2001.

Spectrum, “Measuring of dynamic figures: SNR, THD, SFDR,” [Online]. Available: www.spec.de .

Silicon Labs, “Improving ADC resolution by oversampling and averaging,” [Online]. Available: www.silabs.com .

L. Peng, M. Hélard, and S. Haese, “Optimization of multi-band DFT-spread DMT system for polymer optical fiber communications,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 2013.

J. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 2007.

L. Peng, S. Haese, and M. Hélard, “Optimum configuration for discrete multi-tone transmission over polymer optical fiber,” in Int. Conf. on Telecommunications, 2012.

D. J. G. Mestdagh, P. Spruyt, and B. Biran, “Analysis of clipping effect in DMT-based ADSL systems,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1994.

B. Mao, N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, M. Chen, L. N. Binh, and N. Yang, “Impacts of ENOB on the performance of 112  Gbps PDMQPSK digital coherent receiver,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

H. Eigalat, R. Mesleht, and H. Haast, “A study of LED nonlinearity effects on optical wireless transmission using OFDM,” in Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, 2009.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Hass, “Predistortion in optical wireless transmission using OFDM,” in Int. Conf. on Hybrid Intelligent Systems, 2009.

C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, and R. I. Killey, “Optimum clipping for optical OFDM with limited resolution DAC/ADC,” in Signal Processing in Photonics Communications (SPPCom), 2011.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications. Academic, 2009.

FC1000D-120, Firecomms datasheet [Online]. Available: www.firecomms.com .

J. Campello, “Practical bit loading for DMT,” in Int. Conf. on Communications, 1999.

H. E. Levin, “A complete and optimal data allocation method for practical discrete multitone systems,” in Global Communications Conf., 2001.

R. V. Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications. Artech House, 2000.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4  Gbit/s over 50-m large core diameter GI-POF using low-cost VCSEL,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2009.

D. Visani, C. M. Okonkwo, S. Loquai, H. Yang, Y. Shi, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. H. Ditewig, G. Tartarini, B. Schmauss, S. Randel, A. M. J. Koonen, and E. Tangdiongga, “Record 5.3  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m 1  mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “40-Gb/s transmission over 100  m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on discrete multitone modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

“Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) transceivers,” , July 1999.

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, O. Ziemann, H. P. A. van den Boom, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Low-cost and robust 1-Gbit/s plastic optical fiber link based on light-emitting diode technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2008.

B. Charbonnier, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, J. Le Masson, J. D. Lambkin, M. O’Gorman, and R. Gaudino, “EU project POF-PLUS: Gigabit transmission over 50  m of step-index plastic optical fibre for home networking,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2009.

H. Yang, E. Tangdiongga, S. C. J. Lee, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. van den Boom, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “4.7  Gbit/s transmission over 50  m long 1  mm diameter multi-core plastic optical fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

S. Loquai, R. Kruglov, O. Ziemann, J. Vinogradov, and C. A. Bunge, “10  Gbit/s over 25  m plastic optical fiber as a way for extremely low-cost optical interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2010.

ICT ALPHA Project, http://www.ict-alpha.eu/ .

A. M. J. Koonen, H. P. A. van den Boom, E. O. Martinez, P. Guignard, and E. Tangdiongga, “Cost optimization of optical in-building networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication, 2011.

O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF Handbook: Optical Short Range Transmission Systems, 2nd ed. Springer, 2008.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (24)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

IM/DD optical communication system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Multimode propagation in POF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Illustration of DMT transmission. PRBS, pseudo-random binary sequence; S/P, serial to parallel; P/S, parallel to serial.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Illustration of experimental setup.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Channel frequency response of 50 m SI-POF system.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Multipath profile of 50 m SI-POF system.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured static power transfer function of the RC-LED.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured dynamic SFDR performance and SNR without harmonics distortions of the RC-LED.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Illustration of oversampling and averaging for ENOB enhancement (oversampling factor: 2).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

ENOB and the improvements in the ADC.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Theoretical clipped SNR versus clipping ratio C d B with unlimited and limited DAC/ADC resolution.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Relationship between bandwidth used and transmission rate in Gaussian low-pass filter channel model.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Simulation results of the available transmission rate with different ADC resolutions (512 subcarriers, BER at 1 × 10 3 ).

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Simulation results of the available transmission rate with different subcarrier numbers and clipping ratios (BER at 1 × 10 3 )

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Process of subcarrier SNR measurement [50]. PSK, phase-shift keying; FFT, fast Fourier transform.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

System performance with different CP lengths.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

System performance with different RC-LED biasing currents.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Measured SNR n ( f ) with different RC-LED biasing currents.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

System performance with different sampling rates of the ADC and DAC.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Measured SNR n ( f ) with different sampling rates in the ADC.

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

Measured subcarrier SNR with different subcarrier numbers and clipping values.

Fig. 22.
Fig. 22.

Allocated bits and power in each subcarrier.

Fig. 23.
Fig. 23.

Received BER in each subcarrier.

Fig. 24.
Fig. 24.

Received constellation map of the 50th and 300th subcarriers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Typical Values of SNR Gap [29]

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( k ) = 1 2 N n = 0 2 N 1 Re { X n exp ( j 2 π n k 2 N ) } , k = 0 , 1 , , 2 N 1 ,
X 2 N n = X n * ,
C bits = i = 1 N round [ log 2 ( 1 + SNR ( i ) Γ + γ margin ) ] ,
P out ( t ) = n = 0 b n [ I ( t ) I DC ] n ,
SNR r = I p 2 2 e B e ( I p + I d ) + 4 K T B e R L + P amp ,
D clip = t A ( t A clip ) 2 f ( t ) d t ,
f ( t ) = 1 2 π σ e t 2 2 σ 2 ,
SNR c = ( ( 1 + μ 2 ) · erfc ( μ 2 ) 2 π · μ · e μ 2 2 ) 1 ,
SNR q = 3 × 4 B × S ¯ 2 S max 2 ,
H ( f ) = A · e ( f f 0 ) 2 , with f 0 = f 3 dB / ln ( 2 ) ,
SNR ( f ) = | H ( f ) | 2 P signal ( f ) D receiver ( f ) ,
SNR n ( f ) = | H ( f ) | 2 ( P signal ( f ) D clip ) D nonlin ( f ) + D receiver ( f ) + D clip + D quan ,
f os = 4 w · f s ,
t A = { t , | t | A clip A clip , | t | > A clip ,
C dB = 10 log 10 ( A clip 2 / E [ t 2 ] ) .
C = B log 2 ( 1 + P N 0 B ) ,
C DMT = n = 1 N C n = n = 1 N log 2 ( 1 + E n | e ( f n f 0 ) 2 | 2 σ n 2 ) ,