Abstract

With the emerging diversified services, the gigabit-capable passive optical network (GPON) has emerged as one of the most important technologies to support the next-generation broadband access networks. Dynamic bandwidth assignment (DBA) avoids transmission collision in the upstream direction and improves the efficiency of the PON upstream bandwidth by dynamically adjusting the bandwidth among the optical network units (ONUs) in response to the ONU burst traffic requirement. Instead of using GATE and REPORT control messages in Ethernet PON DBA, the buffer REPORT/GRANT message is embedded into a GPON encapsulation mode (GEM)/GPON transmission convergence (GTC) frame, and all ONUs are essentially polled simultaneously within a GEM/GTC frame in GPON DBA. This paper proposes a bipartition DBA (BI-DBA) mechanism in GPON that divides the transmission cycle time into two groups and adjusts the bandwidth dynamically. Two cases are considered: in the first case, there is a first group for high priorities T-CONT 1 and T-CONT 2 and a second group for low priorities T-CONT 3 and T-CONT 4, called class based scheduling (CBDBA). In the second case, the first and the second group are created according to the number of ONUs, called group based scheduling (GBDBA). Moreover, the T-CONT 2 traffic has a prediction mechanism and recycles the remaining unused bandwidth for the low-priority T-CONTs. The GBDBA has better system performances in terms of the average bandwidth utilization, packet latency, and drop probability; on the other hand, the CBDBA has better packet delay performance when the proportion of T-CONT 1 traffic is higher and has better fairness performance.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  23. C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, and R. Rockell, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec. 2003.
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2012 (1)

2010 (1)

J. Ozimkiewicz, S. Ruepp, L. Dittmann, H. Wessing, and S. Smolorz, “Evaluation of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms in GPON networks,” WSEAS Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 111–120, Feb. 2010.

2009 (6)

K. Kanonakis and I. Tomkos, “Offset-based scheduling with flexible intervals for evolving GPON networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 15, pp. 3259–3268, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang and J. M. Senior, “A new efficient dynamic MAC protocol for the delivery of multiple services over GPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  18, no. 2, pp. 227–236, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Berisa, A. Bazant, and V. Mikac, “Bandwidth and delay guaranteed polling with adaptive cycle time (BDGPACT): A scheme for providing bandwidth and delay guarantees in passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  8, no. 4, pp. 337–345, Apr. 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Zheng and H. T. Mouftah, “A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 151–162, July 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, T. J. Lee, M. Y. Chung, and H. Choo, “Double-phase polling algorithm based on partitioned ONU subgroups for high utilization in EPONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 5, pp. 484–497, Oct.2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

I. S. Hwang, Z. D. Shyu, L. Y. Ke, and C. C. Chang, “A novel early DBA mechanism with prediction-based fair excessive bandwidth allocation scheme in EPON,” Comput. Commun., vol.  31, no. 9, pp. 1814–1823, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. C. Law, C. W. Lin, C. Y. Lin, W. C. Fang, C. S. Wang, and S. Y. Cheng, “Assessing and analyzing the differentiae of transmission efficiency among BPON, EPON, and GPON,” J. Telecommun. Lab., vol.  37, no. 4, pp. 435–454, Aug. 2007.

2003 (1)

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, and R. Rockell, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec. 2003.

2002 (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, J.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Bae, M. H.

S. K. Lee, J. W. Jang, and M. H. Bae, “Development and performance evaluation of a BR-DBA algorithm,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, Nov. 2008, pp. 1103–1108.

Bazant, A.

Berisa, T.

Chang, C. C.

I. S. Hwang, Z. D. Shyu, L. Y. Ke, and C. C. Chang, “A novel early DBA mechanism with prediction-based fair excessive bandwidth allocation scheme in EPON,” Comput. Commun., vol.  31, no. 9, pp. 1814–1823, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S. Y.

P. C. Law, C. W. Lin, C. Y. Lin, W. C. Fang, C. S. Wang, and S. Y. Cheng, “Assessing and analyzing the differentiae of transmission efficiency among BPON, EPON, and GPON,” J. Telecommun. Lab., vol.  37, no. 4, pp. 435–454, Aug. 2007.

Choi, S. Y.

Choo, H.

Chung, M. Y.

Cotton, C.

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, and R. Rockell, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec. 2003.

Dittmann, L.

J. Ozimkiewicz, S. Ruepp, L. Dittmann, H. Wessing, and S. Smolorz, “Evaluation of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms in GPON networks,” WSEAS Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 111–120, Feb. 2010.

Erramilli, A.

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, and A. Erramilli, “A bibliographical guide to self-similar traffic and performance modeling for modern high-speed networks,” Stochastic Networks: Theory and Applications (Royal Statistical Society Lecture Notes Series, Vol. 4). Oxford University, 1996.

Fang, W. C.

P. C. Law, C. W. Lin, C. Y. Lin, W. C. Fang, C. S. Wang, and S. Y. Cheng, “Assessing and analyzing the differentiae of transmission efficiency among BPON, EPON, and GPON,” J. Telecommun. Lab., vol.  37, no. 4, pp. 435–454, Aug. 2007.

Fraleigh, C.

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, and R. Rockell, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec. 2003.

Hamada, A.

A. Hamada and A. Mohamed, “An end-to-end QoS mechanism for GPON access networks,” in IEEE GCC Conf. and Exhibition (GCC), Feb. 2011, pp. 513–516.

Haran, O.

O. Haran and A. Sheffer, “The importance of dynamic bandwidth allocation in GPON networks,” , Jan. 2008.

Hwang, I. S.

I. S. Hwang, J. Y. Lee, K. R. Lai, and A. T. Liem, “Generic QoS-aware interleaved dynamic bandwidth allocation in scalable EPONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 99–107, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

I. S. Hwang, Z. D. Shyu, L. Y. Ke, and C. C. Chang, “A novel early DBA mechanism with prediction-based fair excessive bandwidth allocation scheme in EPON,” Comput. Commun., vol.  31, no. 9, pp. 1814–1823, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

I. S. Hwang and J. Y. Lee, “Adaptive priority scheduling integrated with B-DBA for revenue optimization with QoS and CoS guarantees in GPON,” in 13th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symp. (APNOMS), Sept. 2011.

I. S. Hwang, J. Y. Lee, and T. J. Yeh, “Performance assessment of K-partition group for status-report DBAs with different service agreements over GPONs,” , Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan, 2012.

Iniewski, K.

K. Iniewski, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in EPON and GPON,” in Convergence of Mobile and Stationary Next-Generation Networks. Wiley, 2010, pp. 226–251.

Jang, J. W.

S. K. Lee, J. W. Jang, and M. H. Bae, “Development and performance evaluation of a BR-DBA algorithm,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, Nov. 2008, pp. 1103–1108.

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang and J. M. Senior, “A new efficient dynamic MAC protocol for the delivery of multiple services over GPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  18, no. 2, pp. 227–236, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kanonakis, K.

Ke, L. Y.

I. S. Hwang, Z. D. Shyu, L. Y. Ke, and C. C. Chang, “A novel early DBA mechanism with prediction-based fair excessive bandwidth allocation scheme in EPON,” Comput. Commun., vol.  31, no. 9, pp. 1814–1823, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Khan, M.

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, and R. Rockell, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec. 2003.

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Lai, K. R.

Law, P. C.

P. C. Law, C. W. Lin, C. Y. Lin, W. C. Fang, C. S. Wang, and S. Y. Cheng, “Assessing and analyzing the differentiae of transmission efficiency among BPON, EPON, and GPON,” J. Telecommun. Lab., vol.  37, no. 4, pp. 435–454, Aug. 2007.

Lee, J. Y.

I. S. Hwang, J. Y. Lee, K. R. Lai, and A. T. Liem, “Generic QoS-aware interleaved dynamic bandwidth allocation in scalable EPONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 99–107, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

I. S. Hwang, J. Y. Lee, and T. J. Yeh, “Performance assessment of K-partition group for status-report DBAs with different service agreements over GPONs,” , Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan, 2012.

I. S. Hwang and J. Y. Lee, “Adaptive priority scheduling integrated with B-DBA for revenue optimization with QoS and CoS guarantees in GPON,” in 13th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symp. (APNOMS), Sept. 2011.

Lee, S.

Lee, S. K.

S. K. Lee, J. W. Jang, and M. H. Bae, “Development and performance evaluation of a BR-DBA algorithm,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, Nov. 2008, pp. 1103–1108.

Lee, T. J.

Liem, A. T.

Lin, C. W.

P. C. Law, C. W. Lin, C. Y. Lin, W. C. Fang, C. S. Wang, and S. Y. Cheng, “Assessing and analyzing the differentiae of transmission efficiency among BPON, EPON, and GPON,” J. Telecommun. Lab., vol.  37, no. 4, pp. 435–454, Aug. 2007.

Lin, C. Y.

P. C. Law, C. W. Lin, C. Y. Lin, W. C. Fang, C. S. Wang, and S. Y. Cheng, “Assessing and analyzing the differentiae of transmission efficiency among BPON, EPON, and GPON,” J. Telecommun. Lab., vol.  37, no. 4, pp. 435–454, Aug. 2007.

Lyles, B.

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, and R. Rockell, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec. 2003.

Mikac, V.

Mohamed, A.

A. Hamada and A. Mohamed, “An end-to-end QoS mechanism for GPON access networks,” in IEEE GCC Conf. and Exhibition (GCC), Feb. 2011, pp. 513–516.

Moll, D.

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, and R. Rockell, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec. 2003.

Moon, S.

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, and R. Rockell, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec. 2003.

Mouftah, H. T.

J. Zheng and H. T. Mouftah, “A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 151–162, July 2009.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Ozimkiewicz, J.

J. Ozimkiewicz, S. Ruepp, L. Dittmann, H. Wessing, and S. Smolorz, “Evaluation of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms in GPON networks,” WSEAS Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 111–120, Feb. 2010.

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

Prat, J.

J. Segarra, V. Sales, and J. Prat, “GPON scheduling disciplines under multiservice bursty traffic and long-reach approach,” in 12th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2010.

Rockell, R.

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, and R. Rockell, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec. 2003.

Ruepp, S.

J. Ozimkiewicz, S. Ruepp, L. Dittmann, H. Wessing, and S. Smolorz, “Evaluation of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms in GPON networks,” WSEAS Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 111–120, Feb. 2010.

Sales, V.

J. Segarra, V. Sales, and J. Prat, “GPON scheduling disciplines under multiservice bursty traffic and long-reach approach,” in 12th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2010.

Segarra, J.

J. Segarra, V. Sales, and J. Prat, “GPON scheduling disciplines under multiservice bursty traffic and long-reach approach,” in 12th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2010.

Senior, J. M.

J. Jiang and J. M. Senior, “A new efficient dynamic MAC protocol for the delivery of multiple services over GPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  18, no. 2, pp. 227–236, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Sheffer, A.

O. Haran and A. Sheffer, “The importance of dynamic bandwidth allocation in GPON networks,” , Jan. 2008.

Shyu, Z. D.

I. S. Hwang, Z. D. Shyu, L. Y. Ke, and C. C. Chang, “A novel early DBA mechanism with prediction-based fair excessive bandwidth allocation scheme in EPON,” Comput. Commun., vol.  31, no. 9, pp. 1814–1823, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

Skubic, B.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Smolorz, S.

J. Ozimkiewicz, S. Ruepp, L. Dittmann, H. Wessing, and S. Smolorz, “Evaluation of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms in GPON networks,” WSEAS Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 111–120, Feb. 2010.

Taqqu, M. S.

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, and A. Erramilli, “A bibliographical guide to self-similar traffic and performance modeling for modern high-speed networks,” Stochastic Networks: Theory and Applications (Royal Statistical Society Lecture Notes Series, Vol. 4). Oxford University, 1996.

Tomkos, I.

Wang, C. S.

P. C. Law, C. W. Lin, C. Y. Lin, W. C. Fang, C. S. Wang, and S. Y. Cheng, “Assessing and analyzing the differentiae of transmission efficiency among BPON, EPON, and GPON,” J. Telecommun. Lab., vol.  37, no. 4, pp. 435–454, Aug. 2007.

Wessing, H.

J. Ozimkiewicz, S. Ruepp, L. Dittmann, H. Wessing, and S. Smolorz, “Evaluation of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms in GPON networks,” WSEAS Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 111–120, Feb. 2010.

Willinger, W.

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, and A. Erramilli, “A bibliographical guide to self-similar traffic and performance modeling for modern high-speed networks,” Stochastic Networks: Theory and Applications (Royal Statistical Society Lecture Notes Series, Vol. 4). Oxford University, 1996.

Wosinska, L.

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Yeh, T. J.

I. S. Hwang, J. Y. Lee, and T. J. Yeh, “Performance assessment of K-partition group for status-report DBAs with different service agreements over GPONs,” , Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan, 2012.

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng and H. T. Mouftah, “A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 151–162, July 2009.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Commun. (1)

I. S. Hwang, Z. D. Shyu, L. Y. Ke, and C. C. Chang, “A novel early DBA mechanism with prediction-based fair excessive bandwidth allocation scheme in EPON,” Comput. Commun., vol.  31, no. 9, pp. 1814–1823, June 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

B. Skubic, J. Chen, J. Ahmed, L. Wosinska, and B. Mukherjee, “A comparison of dynamic bandwidth allocation for EPON, GPON, and next-generation TDM PON,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, no. 3, pp. S40–S48, Mar. 2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an Ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  40, no. 2, pp. 74–80, Feb. 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

C. Fraleigh, S. Moon, B. Lyles, C. Cotton, M. Khan, D. Moll, and R. Rockell, “Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone,” IEEE Network, vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 6–16, Nov.–Dec. 2003.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

J. Telecommun. Lab. (1)

P. C. Law, C. W. Lin, C. Y. Lin, W. C. Fang, C. S. Wang, and S. Y. Cheng, “Assessing and analyzing the differentiae of transmission efficiency among BPON, EPON, and GPON,” J. Telecommun. Lab., vol.  37, no. 4, pp. 435–454, Aug. 2007.

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

J. Zheng and H. T. Mouftah, “A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 151–162, July 2009.
[CrossRef]

Photonic Network Commun. (1)

J. Jiang and J. M. Senior, “A new efficient dynamic MAC protocol for the delivery of multiple services over GPON,” Photonic Network Commun., vol.  18, no. 2, pp. 227–236, Aug. 2009.
[CrossRef]

WSEAS Trans. Circuits Syst. (1)

J. Ozimkiewicz, S. Ruepp, L. Dittmann, H. Wessing, and S. Smolorz, “Evaluation of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms in GPON networks,” WSEAS Trans. Circuits Syst., vol.  9, no. 2, pp. 111–120, Feb. 2010.

Other (12)

A. Hamada and A. Mohamed, “An end-to-end QoS mechanism for GPON access networks,” in IEEE GCC Conf. and Exhibition (GCC), Feb. 2011, pp. 513–516.

J. Segarra, V. Sales, and J. Prat, “GPON scheduling disciplines under multiservice bursty traffic and long-reach approach,” in 12th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), June 2010.

I. S. Hwang and J. Y. Lee, “Adaptive priority scheduling integrated with B-DBA for revenue optimization with QoS and CoS guarantees in GPON,” in 13th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symp. (APNOMS), Sept. 2011.

I. S. Hwang, J. Y. Lee, and T. J. Yeh, “Performance assessment of K-partition group for status-report DBAs with different service agreements over GPONs,” , Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan, 2012.

“Gigabit-capable passive optical network (G-PON): Transmission convergence layer specification,” , 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.984.3/en .

“IEEE standard for information technology—telecommunications and information exchange between systems—local and metropolitan area networks—specific requirements part 3: Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications amendment 1: Physical layer specifications and management parameters for 10 Gb/s passive optical networks,” .

“10-gigabit-capable passive optical networks (XGPON): Physical media dependent (PMD) layer specification,” , 2009.

K. Iniewski, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation in EPON and GPON,” in Convergence of Mobile and Stationary Next-Generation Networks. Wiley, 2010, pp. 226–251.

O. Haran and A. Sheffer, “The importance of dynamic bandwidth allocation in GPON networks,” , Jan. 2008.

S. K. Lee, J. W. Jang, and M. H. Bae, “Development and performance evaluation of a BR-DBA algorithm,” in 3rd Int. Conf. on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, Nov. 2008, pp. 1103–1108.

W. Willinger, M. S. Taqqu, and A. Erramilli, “A bibliographical guide to self-similar traffic and performance modeling for modern high-speed networks,” Stochastic Networks: Theory and Applications (Royal Statistical Society Lecture Notes Series, Vol. 4). Oxford University, 1996.

R. Jain, A. Durresi, and G. Babic, “Throughput fairness index: An explanation” [Online]. Available: http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/atmf/ftp/af_fair.pdf .

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Bidirectional transmission and (b) GTC frame of GPON.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Traditional, (b) CBDBA, and (c) GBDBA upstream mechanisms.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Flowchart for BI-DBA mechanisms: (a) CBDBA and (b) GBDBA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pseudocode for the CBDBA schedule.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Pseudocode for the GBDBA scheduler.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Total ( = T 1 + T 2 + T 3 + T 4 ), (b) T-CONT 2, (c) T-CONT 3, and (d) T-CONT 4 throughput (bits/second) versus various traffic load comparisons with the CBDBA scheme and GBDBA scheme for 32 ONUs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Average, (b) T-CONT 2, (c) T-CONT 3, and (d) T-CONT 4 packet delay (millisecond) versus various traffic load comparisons with the CBDBA scheme and GBDBA scheme for 32 ONUs.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Packet drop probability (%) versus various traffic load comparisons with the CBDBA scheme and GBDBA scheme for 32 ONUs.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

T-CONT 2 jitter ( δ 2 ) versus various traffic load comparisons with the CBDBA scheme and GBDBA scheme for 32 ONUs.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Global fairness ( f ) versus various traffic load comparisons with the CBDBA scheme and GBDBA scheme for 32 ONUs.

Tables (2)

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TABLE I Definition of Parameters

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TABLE II Simulation Scenario

Equations (6)

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G i , C g 1 = i = 1 N G i , C T 1 + i = 1 N G i , C T 2 and G i , C g 2 = i = 1 N G i , C T 3 + i = 1 N G i , C T 4 ,
G i , C + 1 T 2 = { R i , C T 2 P i , C index < 0 and R i , C T 2 < B i min B i min P i , C index < 0 and R i , C T 2 > B i min R i , C T 2 + P i , C index P i , C index > 0 and R i , C T 2 + P i , C index < B i min B i min P i , C index > 0 and R i , C T 2 + P i , C index > B i min .
{ Δ P i , C T 2 = H C ¯ i T 2 × ( T waiting , i / C i ) Δ P i , C T 3 = R i , C T 3 H C ¯ i T 3 Δ P i , C T 4 = R i , C T 4 H C ¯ i T 4 .
{ F i , C T 2 = min ( P i , C T 2 , B i min ) F i , C T 3 = min ( P i , C T 3 , B i min F i , C T 2 ) F i , C T 4 = min ( P i , C T 4 , B i min F i , C T 2 + T 3 ) .
B remain = B excess j H ( T { T 2 , T 3 , T 4 } P j , C T B j min ) ,
f = ( i = 1 N G [ i ] ) 2 ( N × i = 1 N G [ i ] 2 ) ,