Abstract

Connection requests for data-intensive applications can require a specific start time and end time/duration when they are submitted. With the additional time domain information, cost-efficient connections can be established. In this paper, we propose two capital expenditure (CapEx) optimized approaches: the multilayer (ML) approach and a transponder/regenerator reuse (TRR) approach. Integer linear programming (ILP) is used to formulate the routing, wavelength assignment, and regenerator/multiplexer placement problem in a complex multilayer optical network to provide lower bounds for the optimized CapEx value. Due to the time and space complexity of ILP when it deals with large networks and traffic demands, we also propose a greedy heuristic and a tabu-search (TS) heuristic to solve the same problem in a less time- and resource-consuming manner. Finally, we compare the results in terms of computing time and optimized CapEx value across the ILP, greedy heuristic, and TS heuristic methods with the ML approaches for the Internet2 topology and a six-node ring topology. The performance of all three methods with the TRR approach is also tested with the same input traffic, which is composed of a mix of 10, 40, and 100 Gbps demands. The results show 30%–40% less CapEx when comparing ML with TRR. Further, our TS heuristic performs better than the greedy heuristic, and it can achieve near-optimal results compared to the ILPs.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (6)

Y. Li, L. Gao, G. Shen, and L. Peng, “Impact of ROADM colorless, directionless, and contentionless (CDC) features on optical network performance [invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 11, pp. B58–B67, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Cost efficient traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2012.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wei, and X. Gong, “Multi-granularity and robust grooming in power-and port-cost-efficient IP over WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2383–2399, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. López Vizcíano, Y. Ye, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Energy efficiency analysis for flexible-grid OFDM-based optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2400–2419, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Charbonneau and V. M. Vokkarane, “A survey of advance reservation routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1037–1064, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

N. Charbonneau, V. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. Xie, F. Xu, N. Ghani, E. Chaniotakis, C. Guok, and T. Lehman, “Load-balancing for advance reservation connection rerouting,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 578–580, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Sai Kishore, P. Ganesan, K. Sandesha, A. Devarajan, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “CAPEX minimization through node degree reduction in a colorless and directionless ROADM architecture for flexible optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  7, pp. 141–152, 2010.

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2003 (2)

S. Zhang and B. Ramamurthy, “Dynamic traffic grooming algorithms for reconfigurable SONET over WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1165–1172, 2003.
[CrossRef]

E. Q. Martins and M. M. Pascoal, “A new implementation of Yens ranking loopless paths algorithm,” Q. J. Belgian, French Ital. Oper. Res. Soc., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. 121–133, 2003.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Netw., vol.  11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  3, no. 5, pp. 489–500, 1995.
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

F. Glover and C. McMillan, “The general employee scheduling problem: An integration of MS and A,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  13, pp. 563–573, May 1986, Special Issue on Applications of Integer Programming.
[CrossRef]

Angu, P.

P. Angu and B. Ramamurthy, “Continuous and parallel optimization of dynamic bandwidth scheduling in WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM 2010), 2010, pp. 1–6.

Assi, C.

Bauschert, T.

E. Palkopoulou, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, L. Wosinska, and T. Bauschert, “Combining multi-period and multi-layer network planning: Ignored potential,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

Borghesani, A.

A. M. Clarke, A. Borghesani, D. W. Smith, P. Ossieur, P. Townsend, R. Jensen, and N. Parsons, “Demonstration of wavelength agile metro node using reflective colorless components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OMN2.

Careglio, D.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Castro, A.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.-K.

D. Shen, G. Li, A. Chiu, D.-m. Hwang, D. Xu, D. Wang, C.-K. Chan, and R. Doverspike, “On multiplexing optimization in DWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuR3.

Chaniotakis, E.

C. Xie, F. Xu, N. Ghani, E. Chaniotakis, C. Guok, and T. Lehman, “Load-balancing for advance reservation connection rerouting,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 578–580, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, N.

N. Charbonneau and V. M. Vokkarane, “A survey of advance reservation routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1037–1064, 2012.
[CrossRef]

N. Charbonneau, V. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Chbat, M. W.

T. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, “Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, pp. 1–9.

Chiu, A.

D. Shen, G. Li, A. Chiu, D.-m. Hwang, D. Xu, D. Wang, C.-K. Chan, and R. Doverspike, “On multiplexing optimization in DWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuR3.

D. Xu, G. Li, B. Ramamurthy, A. Chiu, D. Wang, and R. Doverspike, “SRLG-diverse routing of multiple circuits in a heterogeneous optical transport network,” in 8th Int. Workshop on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Oct. 2011, pp. 180–187.

Clarke, A. M.

A. M. Clarke, A. Borghesani, D. W. Smith, P. Ossieur, P. Townsend, R. Jensen, and N. Parsons, “Demonstration of wavelength agile metro node using reflective colorless components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OMN2.

Cormen, T. H.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms.MIT & McGraw-Hill, 2011.

Devarajan, A.

B. Sai Kishore, P. Ganesan, K. Sandesha, A. Devarajan, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “CAPEX minimization through node degree reduction in a colorless and directionless ROADM architecture for flexible optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  7, pp. 141–152, 2010.

Ding, H.

H. Ding, P. Yi, and B. Ramamurthy, “CAPEX optimized routing for scheduled traffic in multi-layer optical networks,” in 19th IEEE Int. Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, 2013, pp. 1–6.

Doverspike, R.

D. Shen, G. Li, A. Chiu, D.-m. Hwang, D. Xu, D. Wang, C.-K. Chan, and R. Doverspike, “On multiplexing optimization in DWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuR3.

D. Xu, G. Li, B. Ramamurthy, A. Chiu, D. Wang, and R. Doverspike, “SRLG-diverse routing of multiple circuits in a heterogeneous optical transport network,” in 8th Int. Workshop on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Oct. 2011, pp. 180–187.

Dutta, R.

R. Dutta, A. E. Kamal, and G. N. Rouskas, Traffic Grooming for Optical Networks: Foundations, Techniques, and Frontiers.Springer, 2008.

Fan, Y.

B. Wang, T. Li, X. Luo, Y. Fan, and C. Xin, “On service provisioning under a scheduled traffic model in reconfigurable WDM optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks (BroadNets), 2005, pp. 13–22.

Fernández-Palacios, J. P.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Ganesan, P.

B. Sai Kishore, P. Ganesan, K. Sandesha, A. Devarajan, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “CAPEX minimization through node degree reduction in a colorless and directionless ROADM architecture for flexible optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  7, pp. 141–152, 2010.

Gao, C.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Cost efficient traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2012.

Gao, L.

Ghani, N.

C. Xie, F. Xu, N. Ghani, E. Chaniotakis, C. Guok, and T. Lehman, “Load-balancing for advance reservation connection rerouting,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 578–580, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Glover, F.

F. Glover and C. McMillan, “The general employee scheduling problem: An integration of MS and A,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  13, pp. 563–573, May 1986, Special Issue on Applications of Integer Programming.
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wei, and X. Gong, “Multi-granularity and robust grooming in power-and port-cost-efficient IP over WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2383–2399, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Gunkel, M.

Guo, L.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wei, and X. Gong, “Multi-granularity and robust grooming in power-and port-cost-efficient IP over WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2383–2399, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Guok, C.

N. Charbonneau, V. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, 2011.
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, F. Xu, N. Ghani, E. Chaniotakis, C. Guok, and T. Lehman, “Load-balancing for advance reservation connection rerouting,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 578–580, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wei, and X. Gong, “Multi-granularity and robust grooming in power-and port-cost-efficient IP over WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2383–2399, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Huelsermann, R.

Hwang, D.-m.

D. Shen, G. Li, A. Chiu, D.-m. Hwang, D. Xu, D. Wang, C.-K. Chan, and R. Doverspike, “On multiplexing optimization in DWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuR3.

Jensen, R.

A. M. Clarke, A. Borghesani, D. W. Smith, P. Ossieur, P. Townsend, R. Jensen, and N. Parsons, “Demonstration of wavelength agile metro node using reflective colorless components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OMN2.

R. Jensen, “Optical switch architectures for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OThR3.

Johnson, R.

B. Sai Kishore, P. Ganesan, K. Sandesha, A. Devarajan, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “CAPEX minimization through node degree reduction in a colorless and directionless ROADM architecture for flexible optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  7, pp. 141–152, 2010.

Jue, J. P.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Cost efficient traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2012.

Kamal, A. E.

R. Dutta, A. E. Kamal, and G. N. Rouskas, Traffic Grooming for Optical Networks: Foundations, Techniques, and Frontiers.Springer, 2008.

Kamalov, V. F.

T. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, “Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, pp. 1–9.

Kaminow, I.

I. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks. Academic, 2010.

Klinkowski, M.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Lehman, T.

C. Xie, F. Xu, N. Ghani, E. Chaniotakis, C. Guok, and T. Lehman, “Load-balancing for advance reservation connection rerouting,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 578–580, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Leiserson, C. E.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms.MIT & McGraw-Hill, 2011.

Li, G.

D. Shen, G. Li, A. Chiu, D.-m. Hwang, D. Xu, D. Wang, C.-K. Chan, and R. Doverspike, “On multiplexing optimization in DWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuR3.

D. Xu, G. Li, B. Ramamurthy, A. Chiu, D. Wang, and R. Doverspike, “SRLG-diverse routing of multiple circuits in a heterogeneous optical transport network,” in 8th Int. Workshop on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Oct. 2011, pp. 180–187.

Li, T.

B. Wang, T. Li, X. Luo, Y. Fan, and C. Xin, “On service provisioning under a scheduled traffic model in reconfigurable WDM optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks (BroadNets), 2005, pp. 13–22.

I. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks. Academic, 2010.

Li, Y.

López Vizcíano, J.

J. López Vizcíano, Y. Ye, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Energy efficiency analysis for flexible-grid OFDM-based optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2400–2419, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Lu, W.

Luo, X.

B. Wang, T. Li, X. Luo, Y. Fan, and C. Xin, “On service provisioning under a scheduled traffic model in reconfigurable WDM optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks (BroadNets), 2005, pp. 13–22.

Martins, E. Q.

E. Q. Martins and M. M. Pascoal, “A new implementation of Yens ranking loopless paths algorithm,” Q. J. Belgian, French Ital. Oper. Res. Soc., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. 121–133, 2003.
[CrossRef]

McMillan, C.

F. Glover and C. McMillan, “The general employee scheduling problem: An integration of MS and A,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  13, pp. 563–573, May 1986, Special Issue on Applications of Integer Programming.
[CrossRef]

Meusburger, C.

R. Huelsermann, M. Gunkel, C. Meusburger, and D. A. Schupke, “Cost modeling and evaluation of capital expenditures in optical multilayer networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  7, no. 9, pp. 814–833, Sept. 2008.

E. Palkopoulou, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, L. Wosinska, and T. Bauschert, “Combining multi-period and multi-layer network planning: Ignored potential,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

Miller, G. J.

K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Netw., vol.  11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Monga, I.

N. Charbonneau, V. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Naito, T.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Cost efficient traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2012.

Ossieur, P.

A. M. Clarke, A. Borghesani, D. W. Smith, P. Ossieur, P. Townsend, R. Jensen, and N. Parsons, “Demonstration of wavelength agile metro node using reflective colorless components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OMN2.

Palacharla, P.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Cost efficient traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2012.

Palkopoulou, E.

E. Palkopoulou, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, L. Wosinska, and T. Bauschert, “Combining multi-period and multi-layer network planning: Ignored potential,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

Parsons, N.

A. M. Clarke, A. Borghesani, D. W. Smith, P. Ossieur, P. Townsend, R. Jensen, and N. Parsons, “Demonstration of wavelength agile metro node using reflective colorless components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OMN2.

Pascoal, M. M.

E. Q. Martins and M. M. Pascoal, “A new implementation of Yens ranking loopless paths algorithm,” Q. J. Belgian, French Ital. Oper. Res. Soc., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. 121–133, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Patel, A. N.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Cost efficient traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2012.

Peng, L.

Ramakrishnan, K. K.

B. Ramamurthy, R. K. Sinha, and K. K. Ramakrishnan, “Multi-layer design of IP over WDM backbone networks: Impact on cost and survivability,” in DRCN, Budapest, Hungary, 2013.

B. Ramamurthy, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and R. K. Sinha, “Cost and reliability considerations in designing the next-generation IP over WDM backbone networks,” in Proc. 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2011, pp. 1–6.

Ramamurthy, B.

S. Zhang and B. Ramamurthy, “Dynamic traffic grooming algorithms for reconfigurable SONET over WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1165–1172, 2003.
[CrossRef]

P. Angu and B. Ramamurthy, “Continuous and parallel optimization of dynamic bandwidth scheduling in WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM 2010), 2010, pp. 1–6.

H. Ding, P. Yi, and B. Ramamurthy, “CAPEX optimized routing for scheduled traffic in multi-layer optical networks,” in 19th IEEE Int. Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, 2013, pp. 1–6.

B. Ramamurthy, R. K. Sinha, and K. K. Ramakrishnan, “Multi-layer design of IP over WDM backbone networks: Impact on cost and survivability,” in DRCN, Budapest, Hungary, 2013.

B. Ramamurthy, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and R. K. Sinha, “Cost and reliability considerations in designing the next-generation IP over WDM backbone networks,” in Proc. 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2011, pp. 1–6.

D. Xu, G. Li, B. Ramamurthy, A. Chiu, D. Wang, and R. Doverspike, “SRLG-diverse routing of multiple circuits in a heterogeneous optical transport network,” in 8th Int. Workshop on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Oct. 2011, pp. 180–187.

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  3, no. 5, pp. 489–500, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Rivest, R. L.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms.MIT & McGraw-Hill, 2011.

Rouskas, G. N.

R. Dutta, A. E. Kamal, and G. N. Rouskas, Traffic Grooming for Optical Networks: Foundations, Techniques, and Frontiers.Springer, 2008.

Ruiz, M.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Sai Kishore, B.

B. Sai Kishore, P. Ganesan, K. Sandesha, A. Devarajan, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “CAPEX minimization through node degree reduction in a colorless and directionless ROADM architecture for flexible optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  7, pp. 141–152, 2010.

Sandesha, K.

B. Sai Kishore, P. Ganesan, K. Sandesha, A. Devarajan, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “CAPEX minimization through node degree reduction in a colorless and directionless ROADM architecture for flexible optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  7, pp. 141–152, 2010.

Schupke, D.

E. Palkopoulou, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, L. Wosinska, and T. Bauschert, “Combining multi-period and multi-layer network planning: Ignored potential,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

Schupke, D. A.

Shami, A.

Shen, D.

D. Shen, G. Li, A. Chiu, D.-m. Hwang, D. Xu, D. Wang, C.-K. Chan, and R. Doverspike, “On multiplexing optimization in DWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuR3.

Shen, G.

Simmons, J.

J. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning. Springer, 2008.

Sinha, R. K.

B. Ramamurthy, R. K. Sinha, and K. K. Ramakrishnan, “Multi-layer design of IP over WDM backbone networks: Impact on cost and survivability,” in DRCN, Budapest, Hungary, 2013.

B. Ramamurthy, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and R. K. Sinha, “Cost and reliability considerations in designing the next-generation IP over WDM backbone networks,” in Proc. 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2011, pp. 1–6.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  3, no. 5, pp. 489–500, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. W.

A. M. Clarke, A. Borghesani, D. W. Smith, P. Ossieur, P. Townsend, R. Jensen, and N. Parsons, “Demonstration of wavelength agile metro node using reflective colorless components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OMN2.

Somani, A.

A. Somani, Survivability and Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks. Cambridge University, 2006.

Stein, C.

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms.MIT & McGraw-Hill, 2011.

Tafur Monroy, I.

J. López Vizcíano, Y. Ye, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Energy efficiency analysis for flexible-grid OFDM-based optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2400–2419, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Thompson, K.

K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Netw., vol.  11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P.

A. M. Clarke, A. Borghesani, D. W. Smith, P. Ossieur, P. Townsend, R. Jensen, and N. Parsons, “Demonstration of wavelength agile metro node using reflective colorless components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OMN2.

Velasco, L.

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Venkataramaniah, K.

B. Sai Kishore, P. Ganesan, K. Sandesha, A. Devarajan, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “CAPEX minimization through node degree reduction in a colorless and directionless ROADM architecture for flexible optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  7, pp. 141–152, 2010.

Vokkarane, V.

N. Charbonneau, V. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Vokkarane, V. M.

N. Charbonneau and V. M. Vokkarane, “A survey of advance reservation routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1037–1064, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Voruganti, P.

B. Sai Kishore, P. Ganesan, K. Sandesha, A. Devarajan, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “CAPEX minimization through node degree reduction in a colorless and directionless ROADM architecture for flexible optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  7, pp. 141–152, 2010.

Wallace, T.

Wang, B.

B. Wang, T. Li, X. Luo, Y. Fan, and C. Xin, “On service provisioning under a scheduled traffic model in reconfigurable WDM optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks (BroadNets), 2005, pp. 13–22.

Wang, D.

D. Xu, G. Li, B. Ramamurthy, A. Chiu, D. Wang, and R. Doverspike, “SRLG-diverse routing of multiple circuits in a heterogeneous optical transport network,” in 8th Int. Workshop on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Oct. 2011, pp. 180–187.

D. Shen, G. Li, A. Chiu, D.-m. Hwang, D. Xu, D. Wang, C.-K. Chan, and R. Doverspike, “On multiplexing optimization in DWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuR3.

Wang, X.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Cost efficient traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2012.

Way, W. I.

W. I. Way, “Optimum architecture for M×N multicast switch-based colorless, directionless, contentionless, and flexible-grid ROADM,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2012, paper NW3F.5.

Wei, X.

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wei, and X. Gong, “Multi-granularity and robust grooming in power-and port-cost-efficient IP over WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2383–2399, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Wilder, R.

K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Netw., vol.  11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

I. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks. Academic, 2010.

Wosinska, L.

E. Palkopoulou, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, L. Wosinska, and T. Bauschert, “Combining multi-period and multi-layer network planning: Ignored potential,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

Wuth, T.

T. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, “Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, pp. 1–9.

Xie, C.

C. Xie, F. Xu, N. Ghani, E. Chaniotakis, C. Guok, and T. Lehman, “Load-balancing for advance reservation connection rerouting,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 578–580, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Xin, C.

B. Wang, T. Li, X. Luo, Y. Fan, and C. Xin, “On service provisioning under a scheduled traffic model in reconfigurable WDM optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks (BroadNets), 2005, pp. 13–22.

Xu, D.

D. Shen, G. Li, A. Chiu, D.-m. Hwang, D. Xu, D. Wang, C.-K. Chan, and R. Doverspike, “On multiplexing optimization in DWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuR3.

D. Xu, G. Li, B. Ramamurthy, A. Chiu, D. Wang, and R. Doverspike, “SRLG-diverse routing of multiple circuits in a heterogeneous optical transport network,” in 8th Int. Workshop on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Oct. 2011, pp. 180–187.

Xu, F.

C. Xie, F. Xu, N. Ghani, E. Chaniotakis, C. Guok, and T. Lehman, “Load-balancing for advance reservation connection rerouting,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 578–580, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.

J. López Vizcíano, Y. Ye, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Energy efficiency analysis for flexible-grid OFDM-based optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2400–2419, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Yi, P.

H. Ding, P. Yi, and B. Ramamurthy, “CAPEX optimized routing for scheduled traffic in multi-layer optical networks,” in 19th IEEE Int. Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, 2013, pp. 1–6.

Zhang, Q.

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Cost efficient traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2012.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang and B. Ramamurthy, “Dynamic traffic grooming algorithms for reconfigurable SONET over WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1165–1172, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

Comput. Netw. (3)

J. López Vizcíano, Y. Ye, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Energy efficiency analysis for flexible-grid OFDM-based optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2400–2419, 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, M. Klinkowski, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “Dynamic routing and spectrum (re)allocation in future flexgrid optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 12, pp. 2869–2883, 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Hou, L. Guo, X. Wei, and X. Gong, “Multi-granularity and robust grooming in power-and port-cost-efficient IP over WDM networks,” Comput. Netw., vol.  56, no. 10, pp. 2383–2399, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Comput. Oper. Res. (1)

F. Glover and C. McMillan, “The general employee scheduling problem: An integration of MS and A,” Comput. Oper. Res., vol.  13, pp. 563–573, May 1986, Special Issue on Applications of Integer Programming.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

C. Xie, F. Xu, N. Ghani, E. Chaniotakis, C. Guok, and T. Lehman, “Load-balancing for advance reservation connection rerouting,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  14, no. 6, pp. 578–580, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

N. Charbonneau, V. Vokkarane, C. Guok, and I. Monga, “Advance reservation frameworks in hybrid IP-WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 5, pp. 132–139, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials (1)

N. Charbonneau and V. M. Vokkarane, “A survey of advance reservation routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 4, pp. 1037–1064, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S. Zhang and B. Ramamurthy, “Dynamic traffic grooming algorithms for reconfigurable SONET over WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  21, no. 7, pp. 1165–1172, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Netw. (1)

K. Thompson, G. J. Miller, and R. Wilder, “Wide-area Internet traffic patterns and characteristics,” IEEE Netw., vol.  11, no. 6, pp. 10–23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  3, no. 5, pp. 489–500, 1995.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

Opt. Switching Networking (2)

A. N. Patel, C. Gao, J. P. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and T. Naito, “Cost efficient traffic grooming and regenerator placement in impairment-aware optical WDM networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  9, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2012.

B. Sai Kishore, P. Ganesan, K. Sandesha, A. Devarajan, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “CAPEX minimization through node degree reduction in a colorless and directionless ROADM architecture for flexible optical networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  7, pp. 141–152, 2010.

Q. J. Belgian, French Ital. Oper. Res. Soc. (1)

E. Q. Martins and M. M. Pascoal, “A new implementation of Yens ranking loopless paths algorithm,” Q. J. Belgian, French Ital. Oper. Res. Soc., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. 121–133, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Other (19)

T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms.MIT & McGraw-Hill, 2011.

A. Somani, Survivability and Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks. Cambridge University, 2006.

R. Dutta, A. E. Kamal, and G. N. Rouskas, Traffic Grooming for Optical Networks: Foundations, Techniques, and Frontiers.Springer, 2008.

B. Wang, T. Li, X. Luo, Y. Fan, and C. Xin, “On service provisioning under a scheduled traffic model in reconfigurable WDM optical networks,” in 2nd Int. Conf. Broadband Networks (BroadNets), 2005, pp. 13–22.

Internet2 Network [Online]. Available: http://www.internet2.edu/network/ .

IBM ILOG CPLEX [Online]. Available: http://www-01.ibm.com/software/integration/optimization/cplex-optimization-studio/ .

H. Ding, P. Yi, and B. Ramamurthy, “CAPEX optimized routing for scheduled traffic in multi-layer optical networks,” in 19th IEEE Int. Workshop on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, 2013, pp. 1–6.

B. Ramamurthy, R. K. Sinha, and K. K. Ramakrishnan, “Multi-layer design of IP over WDM backbone networks: Impact on cost and survivability,” in DRCN, Budapest, Hungary, 2013.

T. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, and V. F. Kamalov, “Multi-rate (100G/40G/10G) transport over deployed optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, pp. 1–9.

J. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning. Springer, 2008.

B. Ramamurthy, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and R. K. Sinha, “Cost and reliability considerations in designing the next-generation IP over WDM backbone networks,” in Proc. 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Aug. 2011, pp. 1–6.

I. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks. Academic, 2010.

R. Jensen, “Optical switch architectures for emerging colorless/directionless/contentionless ROADM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OThR3.

A. M. Clarke, A. Borghesani, D. W. Smith, P. Ossieur, P. Townsend, R. Jensen, and N. Parsons, “Demonstration of wavelength agile metro node using reflective colorless components,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OMN2.

W. I. Way, “Optimum architecture for M×N multicast switch-based colorless, directionless, contentionless, and flexible-grid ROADM,” in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2012, paper NW3F.5.

D. Shen, G. Li, A. Chiu, D.-m. Hwang, D. Xu, D. Wang, C.-K. Chan, and R. Doverspike, “On multiplexing optimization in DWDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2011, paper OTuR3.

D. Xu, G. Li, B. Ramamurthy, A. Chiu, D. Wang, and R. Doverspike, “SRLG-diverse routing of multiple circuits in a heterogeneous optical transport network,” in 8th Int. Workshop on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Oct. 2011, pp. 180–187.

E. Palkopoulou, C. Meusburger, D. Schupke, L. Wosinska, and T. Bauschert, “Combining multi-period and multi-layer network planning: Ignored potential,” in 36th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2010, pp. 1–3.

P. Angu and B. Ramamurthy, “Continuous and parallel optimization of dynamic bandwidth scheduling in WDM networks,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM 2010), 2010, pp. 1–6.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Establishment of a connection in an optical network.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Multilayer optical network.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Multiplexing different data rates into a wavelength channel.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Node bypass condition.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schedule illustration.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Illustration of computing maxCC.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Auxiliary graphs for multilayer topologies of the two networks investigated. (a) Auxiliary graph of Internet2. (b) Auxiliary graph of 6-node ring.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Optimized CapEx using ML and TRR in six-node ring topology and ST=6.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Optimized CapEx using ML-ILP, ML-greedy, and ML-TS.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Optimized CapEx using TRR-ILP, TRR-greedy, and TRR-TS.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Optimized CapEx using ML and TRR in Internet2 topology and ST=24.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Optimized CapEx in Internet2 topology with different scheduling length.

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table III Decision Variables

Tables Icon

Algorithm 1 Greedy Algorithm

Tables Icon

Algorithm 2 Tabu-Search Algorithm

Tables Icon

Table IV Computing Time (s) of Running ML-ILP, ML-Greedy, and ML-TS With ST=6

Tables Icon

TABLE V Computing Time (s) of Running ML-ILP, ML-Greedy, and ML-TS With ST=12

Tables Icon

TABLE VI Computing Time (s) of Running ML-ILP, ML-Greedy, and ML-TS With ST=24

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

minimizerDcr.
(sr,o)EP(sr,o)r=1,P(o,sr)r=0,
(i,j)EdP(i,j)r(j,k)EdP(j,k)r=0,jVd,(jsr,tr).
P(i,j)r=T(i,j),tr,(i,j)E,tsrtter.
w=1LW(i,j),t,wr=T(i,j),tr,(i,j)E,tsrtter.
ch=110M(i,j),t,w,mr=W(i,j),t,wr,rD10D40.
W(i,j),t,wr=W(i,j),t+1,wr,tsrtter1.
M(i,j),t,w,mr=W(i,j),t+1,w,mr,tsrtter1,rD10D40.
T(i,j),tr=T(l,k),tr,(i,j)Ep,(l,k)Ed.
rD100T(i,j),tr+2×rD40T(i,j),tr+10×rD10T(i,j),trL.
cr=2×Cot+(i,j)EP(i,j)r×αe×Cdis+(i,j)E(P(i,j)r1)×Creg+(i,j)Et=1Timew=1LM(i,j),t,w,mr×Cmux.
minimizerDcr.
rDcr=maxCC×2×Cot+1maxCC(i,j)E(P(i,j)r1)×Creg+(i,j)Et=1Timew=1LM(i,j),t,w,mr×Cmux,
maxCC=max1tTimeCCt.