Abstract

Advances in the development of colorless and nondirectional reconfigurable optical add–drop multiplexers (ROADMs) enable flexible predeployment of optoelectronic regenerators (reshaping, retiming, and reamplifying known as 3R) in future optical networks. Compared to the current practice of installing a regenerator only when a circuit needs them, predeployment of regenerators in specific sites will allow service providers to achieve rapid provisioning such as bandwidth-on-demand service and fast restoration. Concentrating the predeployment of regenerators in a subset of ROADM sites will achieve high utilization and reduces the network operational costs. We prove the resulting optimization problem is NP-hard and provide the proof. We present an efficient heuristic for this problem that takes into account both the cost of individual circuits (regenerator cost and transmission line system cost) and the number of regenerator sites. We validate our heuristic approach with integer linear programming (ILP) formulations for a small network. Using specific network examples, we show that our heuristic has near-optimal performance under most studied scenarios and cost models. We further enhance the heuristic to incorporate the probability of demand for each circuit. This enables a reduction in the number of regenerator sites by allowing circuits to use costlier paths if they have lower probability of being needed. We also evaluate the heuristic to determine the extra regenerator sites required to support diverse routing. In this paper, we provide detailed analysis, pseudocodes, and proofs for the models presented in our previous work [Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2012, NW3F.6; 9th Int. Conf. on Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), 2013, 139] and compare the heuristic results with ILP for a small-scale network topology.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (3)

2011 (1)

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Chen, I. Ljubic, and S. Raghavan, “The regenerator placement problem,” Networks, vol.  55, no. 3, pp. 205–220, 2010.

2009 (2)

2005 (2)

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  10, pp. 39–53, July 2005.

X. Yang, L. Shen, and B. Ramamurthy, “Survivable lightpath provisioning in WDM mesh networks under shared path protection and signal quality constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, no. 4, pp. 1556–1567, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Antonis, O.

W. Van Parys, P. Arijs, O. Antonis, and P. Demeester, “Quantifying the benefits of selective wavelength regeneration in ultra long-haul WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, vol. 2, paper TuT4.

Arijs, P.

W. Van Parys, P. Arijs, O. Antonis, and P. Demeester, “Quantifying the benefits of selective wavelength regeneration in ultra long-haul WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, vol. 2, paper TuT4.

Bathula, B.

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

Bathula, B. G.

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

Bergman, K.

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

Bihon, D.

S. Woodward, M. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity: Rapid provisioning strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

Birk, M.

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

Bose, S.

Cankaya, H.

Chen, S.

S. Chen, I. Ljubic, and S. Raghavan, “The regenerator placement problem,” Networks, vol.  55, no. 3, pp. 205–220, 2010.

S. Chen, I. Ljubic, and S. Raghavan, “The generalized regenerator location problem,” in Proc. Int. Network Optimization Conf., 2009, pp. 1–32.

Cheng, T.

Chiu, A.

A. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. Simmons, R. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. Wilson, S. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, J. Gannett, J. Klincewicz, G. Li, R. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Von Lehmen, and D. Xu, “Network design and architectures for highly dynamic next-generation IP-over-optical long distance networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1878–1890, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

Chiu, A. L.

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

Choudhury, G.

Clapp, G.

Demeester, P.

W. Van Parys, P. Arijs, O. Antonis, and P. Demeester, “Quantifying the benefits of selective wavelength regeneration in ultra long-haul WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, vol. 2, paper TuT4.

Doverspike, R.

A. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. Simmons, R. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. Wilson, S. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, J. Gannett, J. Klincewicz, G. Li, R. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Von Lehmen, and D. Xu, “Network design and architectures for highly dynamic next-generation IP-over-optical long distance networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1878–1890, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. Gerber and R. Doverspike, “Traffic types and growth in backbone networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, pp. 1–3.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

Feuer, M.

A. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. Simmons, R. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. Wilson, S. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Woodward, M. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity: Rapid provisioning strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

Feuer, M. D.

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications. Waltham, MA: Academic, 2008, pp. 293–343.

Flammini, M.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” in Proc. 2nd Annu. Symp. Parallelism Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA), 2009, pp. 154–162.

Gannett, J.

Gao, C.

Garey, M.

M. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. W. H. Freeman and Company, 1979.

Gerber, A.

A. Gerber and R. Doverspike, “Traffic types and growth in backbone networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, pp. 1–3.

Goldstein, E. L.

J. Simmons, E. L. Goldstein, and A. A. M. Saleh, “On the value of wavelength-add/drop in WDM rings with uniform traffic,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Jose, CA, Feb. 1998, pp. 361–362.

Grover, W.

Jackel, J.

Johnson, D. S.

M. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. W. H. Freeman and Company, 1979.

Jue, J.

Kilper, D. C.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications. Waltham, MA: Academic, 2008, pp. 293–343.

Kim, G.

Kim, I.

S. Woodward, M. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity: Rapid provisioning strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

Klincewicz, J.

Kwon, T.

Lehmen, A.

Li, G.

A. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. Simmons, R. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. Wilson, S. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, J. Gannett, J. Klincewicz, G. Li, R. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Von Lehmen, and D. Xu, “Network design and architectures for highly dynamic next-generation IP-over-optical long distance networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  27, no. 12, pp. 1878–1890, June 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

Ljubic, I.

S. Chen, I. Ljubic, and S. Raghavan, “The regenerator placement problem,” Networks, vol.  55, no. 3, pp. 205–220, 2010.

S. Chen, I. Ljubic, and S. Raghavan, “The generalized regenerator location problem,” in Proc. Int. Network Optimization Conf., 2009, pp. 1–32.

Magill, P.

A. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. Simmons, R. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. Wilson, S. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

Mahimkar, A. A.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

Marchetti-Spaccamela, A.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” in Proc. 2nd Annu. Symp. Parallelism Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA), 2009, pp. 154–162.

Mavrogiorgis, E.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

Monaco, G.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” in Proc. 2nd Annu. Symp. Parallelism Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA), 2009, pp. 154–162.

Moscardelli, L.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” in Proc. 2nd Annu. Symp. Parallelism Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA), 2009, pp. 154–162.

Mukherjee, B.

S. Rai, C. F. Su, and B. Mukherjee, “On provisioning in all-optical networks: An impairment-aware approach,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 1989–2001, Dec. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Palacharla, P.

S. Woodward, M. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity: Rapid provisioning strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

C. Gao, H. Cankaya, A. Patel, J. Jue, X. Wang, Q. Zhang, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Survivable impairment-aware traffic grooming and regenerator placement with connection-level protection,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 3, pp. 259–270, Mar. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

Pastor, J.

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

Patel, A.

Raghavan, S.

S. Chen, I. Ljubic, and S. Raghavan, “The regenerator placement problem,” Networks, vol.  55, no. 3, pp. 205–220, 2010.

S. Chen, I. Ljubic, and S. Raghavan, “The generalized regenerator location problem,” in Proc. Int. Network Optimization Conf., 2009, pp. 1–32.

Rai, S.

S. Rai, C. F. Su, and B. Mukherjee, “On provisioning in all-optical networks: An impairment-aware approach,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 1989–2001, Dec. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, B.

X. Yang, L. Shen, and B. Ramamurthy, “Survivable lightpath provisioning in WDM mesh networks under shared path protection and signal quality constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, no. 4, pp. 1556–1567, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  10, pp. 39–53, July 2005.

Saleh, A. A. M.

J. Simmons, E. L. Goldstein, and A. A. M. Saleh, “On the value of wavelength-add/drop in WDM rings with uniform traffic,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Jose, CA, Feb. 1998, pp. 361–362.

Sekiya, M.

Sethi, V.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

Shen, G.

Shen, L.

Simmons, J.

Sinha, R.

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

Sinha, R. K.

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

Skoog, R.

Strand, J.

Su, C. F.

S. Rai, C. F. Su, and B. Mukherjee, “On provisioning in all-optical networks: An impairment-aware approach,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 1989–2001, Dec. 2009.
[CrossRef]

Van Parys, W.

W. Van Parys, P. Arijs, O. Antonis, and P. Demeester, “Quantifying the benefits of selective wavelength regeneration in ultra long-haul WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, vol. 2, paper TuT4.

Von Lehmen, A.

Wang, X.

Wilson, B.

Woodward, S.

A. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. Simmons, R. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. Wilson, S. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. Woodward, M. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity: Rapid provisioning strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

Woodward, S. L.

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications. Waltham, MA: Academic, 2008, pp. 293–343.

Xu, D.

Yang, X.

X. Yang, L. Shen, and B. Ramamurthy, “Survivable lightpath provisioning in WDM mesh networks under shared path protection and signal quality constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  23, no. 4, pp. 1556–1567, Apr. 2005.
[CrossRef]

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  10, pp. 39–53, July 2005.

Yates, J.

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

Zaks, S.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” in Proc. 2nd Annu. Symp. Parallelism Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA), 2009, pp. 154–162.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, W.

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (2)

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  19, no. 2, pp. 498–511, Apr. 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Rai, C. F. Su, and B. Mukherjee, “On provisioning in all-optical networks: An impairment-aware approach,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  17, no. 6, pp. 1989–2001, Dec. 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Networks (1)

S. Chen, I. Ljubic, and S. Raghavan, “The regenerator placement problem,” Networks, vol.  55, no. 3, pp. 205–220, 2010.

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

X. Yang and B. Ramamurthy, “Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing,” Photon. Netw. Commun., vol.  10, pp. 39–53, July 2005.

Other (13)

B. G. Bathula, R. Sinha, A. Chiu, M. Feuer, G. Li, S. Woodward, W. Zhang, K. Bergman, I. Kim, and P. Palacharla, “On concentrating regenerator sites in ROADM networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NW3F.6.

B. G. Bathula, R. K. Sinha, A. L. Chiu, M. D. Feuer, G. Li, S. L. Woodward, W. Zhang, R. Doverspike, P. Magill, and K. Bergman, “Cost optimization using regenerator site concentration and routing in ROADM networks [Invited],” in 9th Int. Conf. Design of Reliable Communication Networks (DRCN), Budapest, Hungary, Mar. 2013, pp. 139–147.

M. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. W. H. Freeman and Company, 1979.

A. Duarte, R. Martí, and M. G. C. Resende, “Randomized heuristics for the regenerator location problem,” Optimization Online, 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.optimization-online.org/DB_HTML/2010/08/2706.html .

X. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN (Globally Reconfigurable Intelligent Photonic Network),” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–3.

M. Feuer, S. Woodward, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, B. Bathula, W. Zhang, R. Sinha, G. Li, and A. Chiu, “Simulations of a service velocity network employing regenerator site concentration,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NTu2J.5.

M. Flammini, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, G. Monaco, L. Moscardelli, and S. Zaks, “On the complexity of the regenerator placement problem in optical networks,” in Proc. 2nd Annu. Symp. Parallelism Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA), 2009, pp. 154–162.

S. Chen, I. Ljubic, and S. Raghavan, “The generalized regenerator location problem,” in Proc. Int. Network Optimization Conf., 2009, pp. 1–32.

A. Gerber and R. Doverspike, “Traffic types and growth in backbone networks,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, pp. 1–3.

J. Simmons, E. L. Goldstein, and A. A. M. Saleh, “On the value of wavelength-add/drop in WDM rings with uniform traffic,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Jose, CA, Feb. 1998, pp. 361–362.

W. Van Parys, P. Arijs, O. Antonis, and P. Demeester, “Quantifying the benefits of selective wavelength regeneration in ultra long-haul WDM networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 2001, vol. 2, paper TuT4.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications. Waltham, MA: Academic, 2008, pp. 293–343.

A. A. Mahimkar, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, V. Sethi, D. Xu, S. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Outage detection and dynamic re-provisioning in GRIPhoN: A globally reconfigurable intelligent photonic network,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2012, paper NM2F.5.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Colorless and nondirectional ROADM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Example network consisting of 10 nodes and 11 links. Solid lines represent original edges, and dotted lines represent augmented edges for reach equal to 2.5 times the link length. Filled circles represent regenerator locations obtained for min-regeneration CRLP.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

VCP to DCRLP transformation: (a)  G and (b)  G .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

US mesh topology used for heuristic evaluation with ILP. Link weights are the distance in km. Node numbers are used in the y axis of Fig. 5.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison for number of regenerator sites on USMESH for min-regeneration CRLP.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

CONUS network topology. Circles indicate regenerator sites appearing in the solution set for reach distance of 1800 km; c r = 1 and c m = 0 (min-regeneration).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Number of regeneration sites for different CRLP. (b) Percentage increase in total cost with one circuit on each route.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Percentage of node-pair paths with excess length, compared to the shortest-distance path. (b) Highest excess wavelength penalty among certain % node pairs for min-cost CRLP.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Number of regeneration sites for min-cost CRLP ( c r = 1000 , c m = 1 ) versus different latitudes for a given reach distance (km). (b) Percentage increase from L 0 for allowing small latitude from the min-cost paths.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Highest excess wavelength penalty among certain % node pairs for min-cost CRLP with latitude L 3 . (b) Highest deviation using probability of a node pair for min-cost CRLP with zero latitude. (c) Highest deviation using probability of a node pair for min-cost CRLP with latitude L 3 .

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Percentage of node pairs with wavelength-kilometer penalty for zero latitude, L 3 , L 4 , and L 5 . (b) Expected deviation ( D ¯ ) for zero latitude, L 3 , L 4 , and L 5 .

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Expected cost deviation ( D ¯ c ) for L k , where k { 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } .

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Algorithm 1 Barebone CRLP Heuristic

Tables Icon

Algorithm 2 CRLP Heuristic: Seeding R + , R , and PP

Tables Icon

TABLE I RS With Different Rank Rules and PP

Tables Icon

TABLE II | R S | for Various Latitude Scenarios Considered in the Proposed Heuristic

Tables Icon

TABLE III Evaluation of Δ R S for Diverse Routes on CONUS Topology

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D i v + D v j = D i j ,
rank 1 ( v ) = | { ( i , j ) | ( P i j = 0 ) ( D i v + D v j = D i j ) } | .
ramp ( v ) = | { ( i , j ) | ( P i j = 0 ) ( P i v = 1 ) ( P v j = 1 ) ( D i v + D v j = D i j ) } | .
rank 2 ( v ) = rank 1 ( v ) + ( | N | 1 ) × ramp ( v ) .
O ( ( | R S | × ( # of deletions in PP ) d a + d a ) × | N | 3 ) ,
L B = log ( d p ) ,
c r × number of regenerations in R + c m × length of R ,
Pr ( i , j ) = Pop ( i ) Pop ( j ) ( i , j ) , i j Pop ( i ) Pop ( j ) .
L 4 ( i , j ) = min ( 20 , 25 Pop ( i ) × Pop ( j ) × 3 ) .
L 5 ( i , j ) = min ( 20 , 5 Pr ( i , j ) × n p ) .
D ¯ c = Cost k Cost 0 Cost 0 × 100 , k { 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } .
min u V role ( u ) .
( u , v ) E f u , v k = H k , k K ,
v out ( s ) f s , v k v in ( s ) f v , s k = 1 ; k K , s = src ( k ) ,
v in ( t ) f v , t k v out ( t ) f t , v k = 1 , k K , t = tgt ( k ) ,
v out ( u ) f u , v k = v in ( u ) f v , u k , k K , u V ( src ( k ) or tgt ( k ) ) ,
role ( u ) v out ( u ) f u , v k N , k K , u V ( src ( k ) or tgt ( k ) ) , f u , v k , role ( u ) { 0 , 1 } .