Abstract

Reduction of packet buffers in an optical network unit (ONU) has been proposed previously as a power savings mechanism. To support smaller buffer sizes at an ONU, the polling scheme used must be extended to two levels. Similar to an ONU reporting its queue length to the optical line terminal (OLT), with two-level polling the end nodes (ENs) will report their queue lengths to the connected ONU. We present ONU report computation schemes that take reported EN queue lengths as the input and compute the report duration to be sought from the OLT. This problem can be mapped onto the minimum makespan scheduling (MMS) problem that is NP-complete. Three different heuristics were studied: longest duration first (LD), wrapped round robin (WR), and earliest free first (EF). To incorporate the small-buffer case, three sequencing strategies were also proposed. These strategies are executed before (PRE), after (PST), or during (INL) the execution of a given MMS heuristic. The performances of nine combinations (3 heuristics × 3 sequencing strategies) were evaluated by using a simulation-based model. Based on simulations, the EF–PST combination emerged as the best possible solution for Poisson, video, and WAN traffic types.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Lam, Passive Optical Networks. Academic, 2007.
  2. A. R. Dhaini, P.-H. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, Nov. 2011.
  3. G. C. Sankaran and K. M. Sivalingam, “ONU buffer elimination for power savings in passive optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011.
  4. G. C. Sankaran, “ONU power saving mechanisms in passive optical networks,” M.S. thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 2012.
  5. M. R. Garey, D. S. Johnson, and R. Sethi, “The complexity of Flowshop and Jobshop scheduling,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1976.
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
  7. J. Zheng and H. T. Mouftah, “A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 151–162, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Mandin, “EPON power saving via sleep mode,” in IEEE P802.3av 10GEPON Task Force Meeting, vol. 3, Sept. 2008, pp. 15–33 [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/av/public/2008_09/3av_0809_mandin_4.pdf .
  9. R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2009.
  10. B. Skubic and D. Hood, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Netw., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 20–24, Mar.–Apr 2011.
  11. W. T. Rhee and M. Talagrand, “Martingale inequalities and NP-complete problems,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  12, no. 1, pp. 177–181, 1987.
    [CrossRef]
  12. “All SPEC CPU 2000 results published by SPEC,” Apr. 2008. [Online]. Available: http://www.spec.org/cpu2000/results/cpu2000.html .
  13. “OMNeT++,” Dec. 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.omnetpp.org/ .
  14. “MAWI WAN traffic traces” [Online]. Available: http://mawi.wide.ad.jp/mawi/ .
  15. “Video trace library,” last accessed Aug. 10, 2011 [Online]. Available: http://trace.eas.asu.edu/ .
  16. G. C. Sankaran and K. M. Sivalingam, “Reporting in ONUs with reduced buffers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, Apr. 2012.

2011 (1)

B. Skubic and D. Hood, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Netw., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 20–24, Mar.–Apr 2011.

2009 (1)

J. Zheng and H. T. Mouftah, “A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 151–162, 2009.
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

W. T. Rhee and M. Talagrand, “Martingale inequalities and NP-complete problems,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  12, no. 1, pp. 177–181, 1987.
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. R. Garey, D. S. Johnson, and R. Sethi, “The complexity of Flowshop and Jobshop scheduling,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1976.
[CrossRef]

Dhaini, A. R.

A. R. Dhaini, P.-H. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, Nov. 2011.

Fujimoto, Y.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2009.

Garey, M. R.

M. R. Garey, D. S. Johnson, and R. Sethi, “The complexity of Flowshop and Jobshop scheduling,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1976.
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.-H.

A. R. Dhaini, P.-H. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, Nov. 2011.

Hood, D.

B. Skubic and D. Hood, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Netw., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 20–24, Mar.–Apr 2011.

Johnson, D. S.

M. R. Garey, D. S. Johnson, and R. Sethi, “The complexity of Flowshop and Jobshop scheduling,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1976.
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2009.

Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Kubo, R.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2009.

Kumozaki, K.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2009.

Lam, C.

C. Lam, Passive Optical Networks. Academic, 2007.

Mandin, J.

J. Mandin, “EPON power saving via sleep mode,” in IEEE P802.3av 10GEPON Task Force Meeting, vol. 3, Sept. 2008, pp. 15–33 [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/av/public/2008_09/3av_0809_mandin_4.pdf .

Mouftah, H. T.

J. Zheng and H. T. Mouftah, “A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 151–162, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Rhee, W. T.

W. T. Rhee and M. Talagrand, “Martingale inequalities and NP-complete problems,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  12, no. 1, pp. 177–181, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Sankaran, G. C.

G. C. Sankaran and K. M. Sivalingam, “Reporting in ONUs with reduced buffers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, Apr. 2012.

G. C. Sankaran, “ONU power saving mechanisms in passive optical networks,” M.S. thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 2012.

G. C. Sankaran and K. M. Sivalingam, “ONU buffer elimination for power savings in passive optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011.

Sethi, R.

M. R. Garey, D. S. Johnson, and R. Sethi, “The complexity of Flowshop and Jobshop scheduling,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1976.
[CrossRef]

Shen, G.

A. R. Dhaini, P.-H. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, Nov. 2011.

Sivalingam, K. M.

G. C. Sankaran and K. M. Sivalingam, “ONU buffer elimination for power savings in passive optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011.

G. C. Sankaran and K. M. Sivalingam, “Reporting in ONUs with reduced buffers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, Apr. 2012.

Skubic, B.

B. Skubic and D. Hood, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Netw., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 20–24, Mar.–Apr 2011.

Talagrand, M.

W. T. Rhee and M. Talagrand, “Martingale inequalities and NP-complete problems,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  12, no. 1, pp. 177–181, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, N.

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2009.

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng and H. T. Mouftah, “A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 151–162, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Netw. (1)

B. Skubic and D. Hood, “Evaluation of ONU power saving modes for gigabit-capable passive optical networks,” IEEE Netw., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 20–24, Mar.–Apr 2011.

Math. Oper. Res. (2)

W. T. Rhee and M. Talagrand, “Martingale inequalities and NP-complete problems,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  12, no. 1, pp. 177–181, 1987.
[CrossRef]

M. R. Garey, D. S. Johnson, and R. Sethi, “The complexity of Flowshop and Jobshop scheduling,” Math. Oper. Res., vol.  1, no. 2, pp. 117–129, 1976.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Switch. Netw. (1)

J. Zheng and H. T. Mouftah, “A survey of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms for Ethernet passive optical networks,” Opt. Switch. Netw., vol.  6, no. 3, pp. 151–162, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

J. Mandin, “EPON power saving via sleep mode,” in IEEE P802.3av 10GEPON Task Force Meeting, vol. 3, Sept. 2008, pp. 15–33 [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/av/public/2008_09/3av_0809_mandin_4.pdf .

R. Kubo, J. Kani, Y. Fujimoto, N. Yoshimoto, and K. Kumozaki, “Sleep and adaptive link rate control for power saving in 10G-EPON systems,” in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM), 2009.

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Networks. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

C. Lam, Passive Optical Networks. Academic, 2007.

A. R. Dhaini, P.-H. Ho, and G. Shen, “Toward green next-generation passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 94–101, Nov. 2011.

G. C. Sankaran and K. M. Sivalingam, “ONU buffer elimination for power savings in passive optical networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Kyoto, Japan, June 2011.

G. C. Sankaran, “ONU power saving mechanisms in passive optical networks,” M.S. thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 2012.

“All SPEC CPU 2000 results published by SPEC,” Apr. 2008. [Online]. Available: http://www.spec.org/cpu2000/results/cpu2000.html .

“OMNeT++,” Dec. 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.omnetpp.org/ .

“MAWI WAN traffic traces” [Online]. Available: http://mawi.wide.ad.jp/mawi/ .

“Video trace library,” last accessed Aug. 10, 2011 [Online]. Available: http://trace.eas.asu.edu/ .

G. C. Sankaran and K. M. Sivalingam, “Reporting in ONUs with reduced buffers,” in Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, Apr. 2012.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A typical PON.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Network operation with small buffer at ONU.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of computation times (microseconds).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of buffer utilization with different schemes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Heuristic performance with variation in number of ENs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Performance of packet delay (in milliseconds) with variation in load (in gigabits/second).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Throughput performance with variation in load.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

WAN performance with variation in load.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Video performance with variation in load.

Tables (7)

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Algorithm 1 LD Algorithm

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Algorithm 2 WR Algorithm

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Algorithm 3 EF Algorithm

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Algorithm 4 PRE Algorithm

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Algorithm 5 PST Algorithm

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TABLE I Report Duration Ratio With Variation in Load

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TABLE II Packet Delay (ms) With Variation in Load