Abstract

To reduce the energy consumption of the Internet, much research effort has been dedicated to the design of energy-minimized IP over WDM networks. In this study, we design energy-minimized IP over WDM networks based on modular router cards and by jointly applying the lightpath bypass and router-card sleeping strategies. As a key advantage, the design does not require rerouting of IP flows or optical channels in either the IP or optical layer. Rather, to save energy, we only need to sleep or wake up the router cards according to user traffic demands when applying the sleeping strategy, which significantly simplifies the network control and management. To minimize the total energy consumption of the IP over WDM network in a time period (e.g., 1 day), we develop a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) optimization model. Moreover, to alleviate the computational complexity of the MILP model, we divide the minimization problem into two subproblems, namely, 1) establishing a virtual topology and 2) allocating router ports on router cards to the optical channels on different virtual links. For each of the subproblems, we develop a separate MILP optimization model. Further, for large-network design, we also propose two efficient heuristics to optimize energy consumption. Simulation studies indicate that the joint MILP model with the lightpath bypass and router-card sleeping strategies can maximally reduce energy consumption, up to 40% compared to the nonsleeping case. In addition, under the router-card sleeping strategy, the approach of allocating the router ports on different router cards to the optical channels plays an important role in the design of an energy-minimized IP over WDM network. A mixed mode that jointly performs interleaving and sequential router-port allocations can achieve the highest energy savings.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, J. P. Jue, and J. J. P. C. Rodrigues, “A study of energy-aware traffic grooming in optical network: Static and dynamic cases,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  7, no. 1, pp. 161–173, Mar. 2013.
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

2010 (2)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[Crossref]

A. Neg, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, Feb. 2010.
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2003 (1)

P. Veitch, “A survivable and cost-effective IP metro interconnect architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  41, no. 12, pp. 100–105, Dec. 2003.
[Crossref]

Ayre, R.

Baldi, M.

M. Baldi and Y. Ofek, “Time for a “greener” Internet,” in Proc. ICC Workshops, June 2009.

Baliga, J.

Barford, P.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. INFOCOM, Apr. 2008.

Castoldi, P.

P. Monti, A. Muhammad, I. Cerutti, C. Cavdar, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient lightpath provisioning in a static WDM network with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. ICTON, June 2011.

Cavdar, C.

P. Monti, A. Muhammad, I. Cerutti, C. Cavdar, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient lightpath provisioning in a static WDM network with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. ICTON, June 2011.

Cerutti, I.

P. Monti, A. Muhammad, I. Cerutti, C. Cavdar, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient lightpath provisioning in a static WDM network with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. ICTON, June 2011.

Chabarek, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. INFOCOM, Apr. 2008.

Chiaraviglio, L.

Y. Wu, L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Power-aware routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: A case study,” in Proc. ICC Workshops, June 2009.

Chowdhury, P.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[Crossref]

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “On the energy efficiency of mixed-line-rate networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Mar. 2010.

Cianfrani, A.

A. Cianfrani, V. Eramo, M. Listanti, and M. Polverini, “An OSPF enhancement for energy saving in IP networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM Workshop, Apr. 2011.

Coiro, A.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[Crossref]

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Power-aware routing and wavelength assignment in multifiber optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 816–829, Nov. 2011.
[Crossref]

Colle, D.

Dong, X.

Duque, R.

J. López, Y. Ye, V. López, F. Jiménez, R. Duque, and P. Krummrich, “On the energy efficiency of survivable optical transport networks with flexible-grid,” in Proc. ECOC, June 2012.

Dutta, R.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: A changing role in green optical networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2009.

Ei-Gorashi, T.

Elmirghani, J. M. H.

Eramo, V.

A. Cianfrani, V. Eramo, M. Listanti, and M. Polverini, “An OSPF enhancement for energy saving in IP networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM Workshop, Apr. 2011.

Estan, C.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. INFOCOM, Apr. 2008.

Farahmand, F.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, J. P. Jue, and J. J. P. C. Rodrigues, “A study of energy-aware traffic grooming in optical network: Static and dynamic cases,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  7, no. 1, pp. 161–173, Mar. 2013.
[Crossref]

Grkovic, V.

F. Musumeci, F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, M. Tornatore, and A. Pattavina, “On the energy efficiency of optical transport with time driven switching,” in Proc. ICC, June 2011.

Hasan, M. M.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, J. P. Jue, and J. J. P. C. Rodrigues, “A study of energy-aware traffic grooming in optical network: Static and dynamic cases,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  7, no. 1, pp. 161–173, Mar. 2013.
[Crossref]

Heddeghem, W.

Hinton, K.

Huang, S.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: A changing role in green optical networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2009.

Idzikowski, F.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP over WDM networks—Maximize energy saving,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, Mar. 2011.
[Crossref]

Ip, E.

Jiang, M.

P. Lai, Q. Yang, C. Wu, and M. Jiang, “Configuring network topology towards energy-efficient IP networks,” in Proc. ICCSN, May 2011.

Jiménez, F.

J. López, Y. Ye, V. López, F. Jiménez, R. Duque, and P. Krummrich, “On the energy efficiency of survivable optical transport networks with flexible-grid,” in Proc. ECOC, June 2012.

Jue, J. P.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, J. P. Jue, and J. J. P. C. Rodrigues, “A study of energy-aware traffic grooming in optical network: Static and dynamic cases,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  7, no. 1, pp. 161–173, Mar. 2013.
[Crossref]

Kantarci, B.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Greening the availability design of optical WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM Workshops, Dec. 2010.

Kim, Y.

C. Lee, Y. Kim, and J.-K. K. Rhee, “Green IP over WDM network design considering energy-load proportionality,” in Proc. ICNC, Jan. 2012.

Krummrich, P.

J. López, Y. Ye, V. López, F. Jiménez, R. Duque, and P. Krummrich, “On the energy efficiency of survivable optical transport networks with flexible-grid,” in Proc. ECOC, June 2012.

Lai, P.

P. Lai, Q. Yang, C. Wu, and M. Jiang, “Configuring network topology towards energy-efficient IP networks,” in Proc. ICCSN, May 2011.

Lambert, S.

Lannoo, B.

Lee, C.

C. Lee, Y. Kim, and J.-K. K. Rhee, “Green IP over WDM network design considering energy-load proportionality,” in Proc. ICNC, Jan. 2012.

Listanti, M.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[Crossref]

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Power-aware routing and wavelength assignment in multifiber optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 816–829, Nov. 2011.
[Crossref]

A. Cianfrani, V. Eramo, M. Listanti, and M. Polverini, “An OSPF enhancement for energy saving in IP networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM Workshop, Apr. 2011.

López, J.

J. López, Y. Ye, V. López, F. Jiménez, R. Duque, and P. Krummrich, “On the energy efficiency of survivable optical transport networks with flexible-grid,” in Proc. ECOC, June 2012.

López, V.

J. López, Y. Ye, V. López, F. Jiménez, R. Duque, and P. Krummrich, “On the energy efficiency of survivable optical transport networks with flexible-grid,” in Proc. ECOC, June 2012.

Lui, Y.

Y. Lui, G. Shen, and W. Shao, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks under modular router line cards,” in Proc. ICCC, Aug. 2012.

Y. Lui, G. Shen, and W. Shao, “Optimal port grouping for maximal router card sleeping,” in Proc. ACP, Nov. 2012.

Matera, F.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[Crossref]

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Power-aware routing and wavelength assignment in multifiber optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 816–829, Nov. 2011.
[Crossref]

Mellia, M.

Y. Wu, L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Power-aware routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 2009.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: A case study,” in Proc. ICC Workshops, June 2009.

Monti, P.

P. Monti, A. Muhammad, I. Cerutti, C. Cavdar, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient lightpath provisioning in a static WDM network with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. ICTON, June 2011.

Mouftah, H. T.

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Greening the availability design of optical WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM Workshops, Dec. 2010.

Muhammad, A.

P. Monti, A. Muhammad, I. Cerutti, C. Cavdar, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient lightpath provisioning in a static WDM network with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. ICTON, June 2011.

Mukherjee, B.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
[Crossref]

A. Neg, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, Feb. 2010.
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[Crossref]

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “On the energy efficiency of mixed-line-rate networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Mar. 2010.

Musumeci, F.

F. Musumeci, F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, M. Tornatore, and A. Pattavina, “On the energy efficiency of optical transport with time driven switching,” in Proc. ICC, June 2011.

Nag, A.

Neg, A.

Neri, F.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: A case study,” in Proc. ICC Workshops, June 2009.

Y. Wu, L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Power-aware routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 2009.

Ofek, Y.

M. Baldi and Y. Ofek, “Time for a “greener” Internet,” in Proc. ICC Workshops, June 2009.

Orlowski, S.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP over WDM networks—Maximize energy saving,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, Mar. 2011.
[Crossref]

Parker, M. C.

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, “Energy-efficiency optimized upgrade paths for cascaded, stochastically-based, master-slave IP router configurations,” in Proc. ECOC, June 2012.

Pattavina, A.

F. Musumeci, F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, M. Tornatore, and A. Pattavina, “On the energy efficiency of optical transport with time driven switching,” in Proc. ICC, June 2011.

Peng, L.

Pickavet, M.

Polverini, M.

A. Cianfrani, V. Eramo, M. Listanti, and M. Polverini, “An OSPF enhancement for energy saving in IP networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM Workshop, Apr. 2011.

Raack, C.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP over WDM networks—Maximize energy saving,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, Mar. 2011.
[Crossref]

Rhee, J.-K. K.

C. Lee, Y. Kim, and J.-K. K. Rhee, “Green IP over WDM network design considering energy-load proportionality,” in Proc. ICNC, Jan. 2012.

Rodrigues, J. J. P. C.

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, J. P. Jue, and J. J. P. C. Rodrigues, “A study of energy-aware traffic grooming in optical network: Static and dynamic cases,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  7, no. 1, pp. 161–173, Mar. 2013.
[Crossref]

Rouskas, G. N.

E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2009.

Sardesai, H. P.

Seshadri, D.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: A changing role in green optical networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2009.

Shao, W.

Y. Lui, G. Shen, and W. Shao, “Optimal port grouping for maximal router card sleeping,” in Proc. ACP, Nov. 2012.

Y. Lui, G. Shen, and W. Shao, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks under modular router line cards,” in Proc. ICCC, Aug. 2012.

Shen, G.

G. Shen, L. Peng, Y. Shen, and H. P. Sardesai, “Optimal node hardware module planning for layer-one optical transport networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 12, pp. 937–946, Dec. 2011.
[Crossref]

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, June 2009.
[Crossref]

Y. Lui, G. Shen, and W. Shao, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks under modular router line cards,” in Proc. ICCC, Aug. 2012.

Y. Lui, G. Shen, and W. Shao, “Optimal port grouping for maximal router card sleeping,” in Proc. ACP, Nov. 2012.

Shen, Y.

Sommers, J.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. INFOCOM, Apr. 2008.

Sorin, W. V.

Squarcia, T.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[Crossref]

Tornatore, M.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, A. Nag, E. Ip, T. Wang, and B. Mukherjee, “On the design of energy-efficient mixed-line-rate (MLR) optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 1, pp. 130–139, Jan. 2012.
[Crossref]

A. Neg, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  28, no. 4, pp. 466–475, Feb. 2010.
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[Crossref]

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “On the energy efficiency of mixed-line-rate networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Mar. 2010.

F. Musumeci, F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, M. Tornatore, and A. Pattavina, “On the energy efficiency of optical transport with time driven switching,” in Proc. ICC, June 2011.

Tsiang, D.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. INFOCOM, Apr. 2008.

Tucker, R. S.

Tzanakaki, A.

P. Monti, A. Muhammad, I. Cerutti, C. Cavdar, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient lightpath provisioning in a static WDM network with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. ICTON, June 2011.

Valenti, A.

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[Crossref]

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Power-aware routing and wavelength assignment in multifiber optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 816–829, Nov. 2011.
[Crossref]

Veitch, P.

P. Veitch, “A survivable and cost-effective IP metro interconnect architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  41, no. 12, pp. 100–105, Dec. 2003.
[Crossref]

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Vismara, F.

F. Musumeci, F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, M. Tornatore, and A. Pattavina, “On the energy efficiency of optical transport with time driven switching,” in Proc. ICC, June 2011.

Walker, S. D.

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, “Energy-efficiency optimized upgrade paths for cascaded, stochastically-based, master-slave IP router configurations,” in Proc. ECOC, June 2012.

Wang, T.

Woesner, H.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP over WDM networks—Maximize energy saving,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, Mar. 2011.
[Crossref]

Wolisz, A.

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP over WDM networks—Maximize energy saving,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, Mar. 2011.
[Crossref]

Wosinska, L.

P. Monti, A. Muhammad, I. Cerutti, C. Cavdar, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient lightpath provisioning in a static WDM network with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. ICTON, June 2011.

Wright, S.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. INFOCOM, Apr. 2008.

Wu, C.

P. Lai, Q. Yang, C. Wu, and M. Jiang, “Configuring network topology towards energy-efficient IP networks,” in Proc. ICCSN, May 2011.

Wu, Y.

Y. Wu, L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Power-aware routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 2009.

Yang, Q.

P. Lai, Q. Yang, C. Wu, and M. Jiang, “Configuring network topology towards energy-efficient IP networks,” in Proc. ICCSN, May 2011.

Ye, Y.

J. López, Y. Ye, V. López, F. Jiménez, R. Duque, and P. Krummrich, “On the energy efficiency of survivable optical transport networks with flexible-grid,” in Proc. ECOC, June 2012.

Yetginer, E.

E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2009.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

P. Veitch, “A survivable and cost-effective IP metro interconnect architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  41, no. 12, pp. 100–105, Dec. 2003.
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, 2010.
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. S. Tucker, “Green optical communications—part II: Energy limitations in networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  17, no. 2, pp. 261–274, Mar. 2011.
[Crossref]

IEEE Syst. J. (1)

M. M. Hasan, F. Farahmand, J. P. Jue, and J. J. P. C. Rodrigues, “A study of energy-aware traffic grooming in optical network: Static and dynamic cases,” IEEE Syst. J., vol.  7, no. 1, pp. 161–173, Mar. 2013.
[Crossref]

IET Optoelectron. (1)

A. Coiro, M. Listanti, T. Squarcia, A. Valenti, and F. Matera, “Energy-minimised virtual topology design in IP over WDM backbone networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  6, no. 4, pp. 165–172, Aug. 2012.
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Switching Networking (1)

F. Idzikowski, S. Orlowski, C. Raack, H. Woesner, and A. Wolisz, “Dynamic routing at different layers in IP over WDM networks—Maximize energy saving,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol.  8, no. 3, pp. 181–200, Mar. 2011.
[Crossref]

Other (21)

Y. Wu, L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Power-aware routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks,” in Proc. ECOC, Sept. 2009.

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, “Energy-efficiency optimized upgrade paths for cascaded, stochastically-based, master-slave IP router configurations,” in Proc. ECOC, June 2012.

A. Cianfrani, V. Eramo, M. Listanti, and M. Polverini, “An OSPF enhancement for energy saving in IP networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM Workshop, Apr. 2011.

L. Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia, and F. Neri, “Energy-aware backbone networks: A case study,” in Proc. ICC Workshops, June 2009.

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, and R. Dutta, “Traffic grooming: A changing role in green optical networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2009.

E. Yetginer and G. N. Rouskas, “Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM, Nov. 2009.

“Enabling the low carbon economy in the information age,” SMART 2020 Report [Online]. Available: http://www.smart2020.org .

P. Lai, Q. Yang, C. Wu, and M. Jiang, “Configuring network topology towards energy-efficient IP networks,” in Proc. ICCSN, May 2011.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “On the energy efficiency of mixed-line-rate networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, Mar. 2010.

M. Baldi and Y. Ofek, “Time for a “greener” Internet,” in Proc. ICC Workshops, June 2009.

F. Musumeci, F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, M. Tornatore, and A. Pattavina, “On the energy efficiency of optical transport with time driven switching,” in Proc. ICC, June 2011.

C. Lee, Y. Kim, and J.-K. K. Rhee, “Green IP over WDM network design considering energy-load proportionality,” in Proc. ICNC, Jan. 2012.

“Cisco CRS-1 carrier routing system,” Cisco Brochure [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com .

B. Kantarci and H. T. Mouftah, “Greening the availability design of optical WDM networks,” in Proc. GLOBECOM Workshops, Dec. 2010.

Y. Lui, G. Shen, and W. Shao, “Optimal port grouping for maximal router card sleeping,” in Proc. ACP, Nov. 2012.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, and S. Wright, “Power awareness in network design and routing,” in Proc. INFOCOM, Apr. 2008.

P. Monti, A. Muhammad, I. Cerutti, C. Cavdar, L. Wosinska, P. Castoldi, and A. Tzanakaki, “Energy-efficient lightpath provisioning in a static WDM network with dedicated path protection,” in Proc. ICTON, June 2011.

AMPL/Gurobi, http://www.gurobi.com .

J. López, Y. Ye, V. López, F. Jiménez, R. Duque, and P. Krummrich, “On the energy efficiency of survivable optical transport networks with flexible-grid,” in Proc. ECOC, June 2012.

“Cisco 10 Gbps multirate enhanced transponder card for the Cisco ONS 15454 multiservice transport platform data sheet” [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com .

Y. Lui, G. Shen, and W. Shao, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks under modular router line cards,” in Proc. ICCC, Aug. 2012.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Architecture of the IP over WDM network with lightpath bypass.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of router-port allocation strategies: (a) scheme (1), (b) scheme (2), (c) scheme (1) under low traffic demand, and (d) scheme (2) under low traffic demand.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example of router-port allocation. [The third router port on the third router card is used to establish virtual link (A–B).]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Flow chart of sequential router-port allocation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Flow chart of interleaving router-port allocation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Flow chart of router-port allocation in the mixed mode.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Test networks.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Daily traffic variation.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of total energy consumption in 1 day by different joint MILP models for the n4s5 network.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Comparison of total energy consumption of 1 day between different design approaches.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Energy consumption savings by the different design approaches relative to the nonsleeping situation.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Energy consumption in 1 day with lightpath bypass and non-bypass.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Energy consumption in 1 day by the n6s8 network under different interleaving ratios.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Energy consumption in 1 day by the USNET network under different interleaving ratios.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Optimal interleaving ratios under different peak-hour traffic demands.

Equations (30)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

tTiNCit·PL+tTiNΩ·Cit·Ptr+tTmNnNmAmn·fmn·Pe.
jN:ijλijsdjN:ijλjisd={Λsdi=sΛsdi=d0otherwises,d,iN:sd,
jN:ijλijsd,tjN:ijλjisd,t={Λsd,ti=sΛsd,ti=d0otherwises,d,iN:sd,tT,
sNdN:sdλijsdB·Viji,jN:ij,
sNdN:sdλijsd,tB·Vijti,jN:ij,tT,
λijsd,t=λjids,ti,j,s,dN,tT:ij,sd,
{λijsd,t=λijsdt=tpeakλijsd,tλijsdotherwisei,j,s,dN,tT:ij,sd,
Vijt=Vjiti,jN,tT:ij,
{Vijt=Vijt=tpeakVijtVijotherwisei,jN,tT:ij,
lWvijl=Viji,jN:ij.
nNmwmnlijnNmwnmlij={vijlm=ivijlm=j0otherwisei,j,mN:ij,lW,
iNjN:ijwmnlijfmnmN,nNm,lW.
aCIibPIxijab=Viji,jN:ij,
aCIibPIxijab,t=Vijti,jN:ij,
jN:ijxijab1iN,aCIi,bPI,
xijab,txijabi,jN:ij,aCIi,bPI,tT,
aCIizia=CiiN,
aCIizia,t=CitiN,tT,
Δ·ziajN:ijbPIxijabiN,aCIi,
Δ·zia,tjN:ijbPIxijab,tiN,aCIi,tT,
{zia,t=ziat=tpeakzia,tziaotherwiseiN,aCIi,tT.
λijsd=λjidsi,j,s,dN:ij,sd,
Vij=Vjii,jN:ij,
aCIibPIjNxijabΩ·CiiN,
aCIibPIjNxijab,tΩ·CitiN,tT,
{Cit=Cit=tpeakCitCiotherwiseiN,tT.
iNCi·PL+iNΩ·Ci·Ptr+mNnNmAmn·fmn·Pe.
jNVijΩ·CiiN.
{λijsd,t=λijsdt=tpeakλijsd,t=Λsd,tΛsd·λijsdotherwisei,j,s,dN,tT:ij,sd.
λsd,t=λsd[1ρ2(1+sin(f0(t8)))+ρ],