Abstract

This paper describes a novel multilayer (ML) path computation element (PCE) architecture based on a hybrid approach. Such a method operates in all network life cycles, optimizing both the design and the operative phases. The hybrid PCE is based on combined non-real-time and real-time operation and is able to integrate control and management functions. This architecture results in a reduction of overprovisioning during network design while guaranteeing availability of traffic by using control-plane-driven dynamic recovery schemes. It introduces advanced control functionality into the network, providing an easy-to-integrate solution. To fully exploit the control plane capabilities, a new architecture of colorless, directionless, and contentionless reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers and its related cost model are also presented. The solution has been assessed by simulations on the Spanish backbone network of Telefonica. The simulation analysis demonstrates the good performance of the proposed ML solution. The reduction of overprovisioning allows a capital expenditure saving of up to 46% with respect to a single-layer approach without any effect on the level of survivability of the traffic, thanks to new ML recovery schemes.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” , Oct. 2004.
  2. J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, Ó. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, and J. A. Hernández, “Is multilayer networking feasible?” J. Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, Apr. 2009.
    [Crossref]
  3. E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” , Sept. 2009, pp. 1–34 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5623 .
  4. P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, M. Puleri, G. Oriolo, C. Snels, F. Di Michele, and A. Germoni, “Multi-layer grooming and routing in packet-optical networks including WSONs,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper JWA059.
  5. J. P. Vasseur and J. L. Le Roux, “Path computation element (PCE) communication protocol (PCEP),” , Mar. 2009.
  6. P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, and G. Oriolo, “Routing through network having optical and electrical layers,” International patentWO2011085823(A1) (July 11, 2011) [Online]. Available: http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument;jsessionid=25FAED7762CFEAB6DF9A987FFF68E3AD.espacenet_levelx_prod_3?CC=WO&NR=2011085823A1&KC=A1&FT=D&ND=&date=20110721&DB=&locale=en_GB .
  7. G. Bottari and D. Caviglia, “Twin impairments aware PCEs for WSON networks,” presented at the 6th International Congress on IP + Optical Networks (iPOP 2010), Tokyo, Japan, June 10–11, 2010.
  8. D. Caviglia, F. Lazzeri, and G. Bottari, “WSON impact on optical network planning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper JWA6.
  9. B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” in Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2003.
  10. F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, I. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK5.
  11. F. Muñoz, V. López, Ó. González de Dios, and J. P. Fernández-Palacios, “Multi-layer restoration in hierarchical IP/MPLS over WSON networks,” in 2012 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), June 2012, pp. 1–6.
  12. G. F. Rambach, B. Konrad, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, M. Gunkel, M. Quagliotti, L. Serra, and V. Lopez, “A multi-layer cost model for metro/core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 210–225, Mar. 2013.
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.
  15. M. Gunkel, A. Autenrieth, M. Neugirg, and J. Elbers, “Advanced multilayer resilience scheme with optical restoration for IP-over-DWDM core networks,” in 4th Int. Congr. on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), St. Petersburg, Russia, Oct. 3–5, 2012.
  16. P. Iovanna, A. Germoni, and V. López, “Integration of planning and control plane in packet optical multilayer network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2013, paper NW1F.2.

2013 (1)

2010 (1)

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, Ó. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, and J. A. Hernández, “Is multilayer networking feasible?” J. Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, Apr. 2009.
[Crossref]

Andriolli, N.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, I. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK5.

Aracil, J.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, Ó. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, and J. A. Hernández, “Is multilayer networking feasible?” J. Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, Apr. 2009.
[Crossref]

Autenrieth, A.

M. Gunkel, A. Autenrieth, M. Neugirg, and J. Elbers, “Advanced multilayer resilience scheme with optical restoration for IP-over-DWDM core networks,” in 4th Int. Congr. on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), St. Petersburg, Russia, Oct. 3–5, 2012.

Basch, B.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[Crossref]

Bottari, G.

P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, M. Puleri, G. Oriolo, C. Snels, F. Di Michele, and A. Germoni, “Multi-layer grooming and routing in packet-optical networks including WSONs,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper JWA059.

G. Bottari and D. Caviglia, “Twin impairments aware PCEs for WSON networks,” presented at the 6th International Congress on IP + Optical Networks (iPOP 2010), Tokyo, Japan, June 10–11, 2010.

P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, and G. Oriolo, “Routing through network having optical and electrical layers,” International patentWO2011085823(A1) (July 11, 2011) [Online]. Available: http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument;jsessionid=25FAED7762CFEAB6DF9A987FFF68E3AD.espacenet_levelx_prod_3?CC=WO&NR=2011085823A1&KC=A1&FT=D&ND=&date=20110721&DB=&locale=en_GB .

D. Caviglia, F. Lazzeri, and G. Bottari, “WSON impact on optical network planning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper JWA6.

Castoldi, P.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, I. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK5.

Caviglia, D.

G. Bottari and D. Caviglia, “Twin impairments aware PCEs for WSON networks,” presented at the 6th International Congress on IP + Optical Networks (iPOP 2010), Tokyo, Japan, June 10–11, 2010.

D. Caviglia, F. Lazzeri, and G. Bottari, “WSON impact on optical network planning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper JWA6.

Colle, S.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” in Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2003.

Cugini, F.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, I. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK5.

De Maesschalck, D.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” in Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2003.

Dembeck, L.

Demeester, P.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” in Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2003.

Di Michele, F.

P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, M. Puleri, G. Oriolo, C. Snels, F. Di Michele, and A. Germoni, “Multi-layer grooming and routing in packet-optical networks including WSONs,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper JWA059.

Egorov, R.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[Crossref]

Elbers, J.

M. Gunkel, A. Autenrieth, M. Neugirg, and J. Elbers, “Advanced multilayer resilience scheme with optical restoration for IP-over-DWDM core networks,” in 4th Int. Congr. on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), St. Petersburg, Russia, Oct. 3–5, 2012.

Farrel, A.

E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” , Sept. 2009, pp. 1–34 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5623 .

Fernández Palacios, J. P.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, Ó. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, and J. A. Hernández, “Is multilayer networking feasible?” J. Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, Apr. 2009.
[Crossref]

Fernández-Palacios, J. P.

F. Muñoz, V. López, Ó. González de Dios, and J. P. Fernández-Palacios, “Multi-layer restoration in hierarchical IP/MPLS over WSON networks,” in 2012 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), June 2012, pp. 1–6.

Gabeiras, J. E.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, Ó. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, and J. A. Hernández, “Is multilayer networking feasible?” J. Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, Apr. 2009.
[Crossref]

García Argos, C.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, Ó. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, and J. A. Hernández, “Is multilayer networking feasible?” J. Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, Apr. 2009.
[Crossref]

Gebhard, U.

Germoni, A.

P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, M. Puleri, G. Oriolo, C. Snels, F. Di Michele, and A. Germoni, “Multi-layer grooming and routing in packet-optical networks including WSONs,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper JWA059.

P. Iovanna, A. Germoni, and V. López, “Integration of planning and control plane in packet optical multilayer network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2013, paper NW1F.2.

Giorgetti, A.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, I. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK5.

Goh, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.

González de Dios, Ó.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, Ó. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, and J. A. Hernández, “Is multilayer networking feasible?” J. Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, Apr. 2009.
[Crossref]

F. Muñoz, V. López, Ó. González de Dios, and J. P. Fernández-Palacios, “Multi-layer restoration in hierarchical IP/MPLS over WSON networks,” in 2012 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), June 2012, pp. 1–6.

Gringeri, S.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[Crossref]

Gunkel, M.

G. F. Rambach, B. Konrad, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, M. Gunkel, M. Quagliotti, L. Serra, and V. Lopez, “A multi-layer cost model for metro/core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  5, no. 3, pp. 210–225, Mar. 2013.
[Crossref]

M. Gunkel, A. Autenrieth, M. Neugirg, and J. Elbers, “Advanced multilayer resilience scheme with optical restoration for IP-over-DWDM core networks,” in 4th Int. Congr. on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), St. Petersburg, Russia, Oct. 3–5, 2012.

Hattori, K.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.

Hernández, J. A.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, Ó. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, and J. A. Hernández, “Is multilayer networking feasible?” J. Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, Apr. 2009.
[Crossref]

Iovanna, P.

P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, M. Puleri, G. Oriolo, C. Snels, F. Di Michele, and A. Germoni, “Multi-layer grooming and routing in packet-optical networks including WSONs,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper JWA059.

P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, and G. Oriolo, “Routing through network having optical and electrical layers,” International patentWO2011085823(A1) (July 11, 2011) [Online]. Available: http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument;jsessionid=25FAED7762CFEAB6DF9A987FFF68E3AD.espacenet_levelx_prod_3?CC=WO&NR=2011085823A1&KC=A1&FT=D&ND=&date=20110721&DB=&locale=en_GB .

P. Iovanna, A. Germoni, and V. López, “Integration of planning and control plane in packet optical multilayer network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2013, paper NW1F.2.

Jiménez Chico, F. J.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, Ó. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, and J. A. Hernández, “Is multilayer networking feasible?” J. Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, Apr. 2009.
[Crossref]

Kamei, S.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.

Konrad, B.

Lazzeri, F.

D. Caviglia, F. Lazzeri, and G. Bottari, “WSON impact on optical network planning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper JWA6.

Le Roux, J. L.

J. P. Vasseur and J. L. Le Roux, “Path computation element (PCE) communication protocol (PCEP),” , Mar. 2009.

E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” , Sept. 2009, pp. 1–34 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5623 .

Lievens, I.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” in Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2003.

Lopez, V.

López, V.

J. E. Gabeiras, V. López, J. Aracil, J. P. Fernández Palacios, C. García Argos, Ó. González de Dios, F. J. Jiménez Chico, and J. A. Hernández, “Is multilayer networking feasible?” J. Opt. Switching Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 129–140, Apr. 2009.
[Crossref]

P. Iovanna, A. Germoni, and V. López, “Integration of planning and control plane in packet optical multilayer network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2013, paper NW1F.2.

F. Muñoz, V. López, Ó. González de Dios, and J. P. Fernández-Palacios, “Multi-layer restoration in hierarchical IP/MPLS over WSON networks,” in 2012 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), June 2012, pp. 1–6.

Mannie, E.

E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” , Oct. 2004.

Mori, A.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.

Morita, K.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.

Muñoz, F.

F. Muñoz, V. López, Ó. González de Dios, and J. P. Fernández-Palacios, “Multi-layer restoration in hierarchical IP/MPLS over WSON networks,” in 2012 17th European Conf. on Networks and Optical Communications (NOC), June 2012, pp. 1–6.

Neugirg, M.

M. Gunkel, A. Autenrieth, M. Neugirg, and J. Elbers, “Advanced multilayer resilience scheme with optical restoration for IP-over-DWDM core networks,” in 4th Int. Congr. on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), St. Petersburg, Russia, Oct. 3–5, 2012.

Oki, E.

E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” , Sept. 2009, pp. 1–34 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5623 .

Oriolo, G.

P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, M. Puleri, G. Oriolo, C. Snels, F. Di Michele, and A. Germoni, “Multi-layer grooming and routing in packet-optical networks including WSONs,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper JWA059.

P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, and G. Oriolo, “Routing through network having optical and electrical layers,” International patentWO2011085823(A1) (July 11, 2011) [Online]. Available: http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument;jsessionid=25FAED7762CFEAB6DF9A987FFF68E3AD.espacenet_levelx_prod_3?CC=WO&NR=2011085823A1&KC=A1&FT=D&ND=&date=20110721&DB=&locale=en_GB .

Paolucci, I.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, I. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK5.

Pickavet, M.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” in Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2003.

Puleri, M.

P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, M. Puleri, G. Oriolo, C. Snels, F. Di Michele, and A. Germoni, “Multi-layer grooming and routing in packet-optical networks including WSONs,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper JWA059.

Puype, B.

B. Puype, Q. Yan, S. Colle, D. De Maesschalck, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Multi-layer traffic engineering in data-centric optical networks,” in Optical Networking Design and Modeling (ONDM), 2003.

Quagliotti, M.

Rambach, G. F.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.

Serra, L.

Shukla, V.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[Crossref]

Snels, C.

P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, M. Puleri, G. Oriolo, C. Snels, F. Di Michele, and A. Germoni, “Multi-layer grooming and routing in packet-optical networks including WSONs,” in Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2011, paper JWA059.

Sohma, S.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.

Suzuki, K.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.

Takahashi, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.

Takeda, T.

E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” , Sept. 2009, pp. 1–34 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5623 .

Valcarenghi, L.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, I. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., 2007, paper OWK5.

Vasseur, J. P.

J. P. Vasseur and J. L. Le Roux, “Path computation element (PCE) communication protocol (PCEP),” , Mar. 2009.

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, T. Goh, K. Hattori, A. Mori, T. Takahashi, T. Sakamoto, K. Morita, S. Sohma, and S. Kamei, “Compact PLC-based transponder aggregator for colorless and directionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf.2011, paper OTuD3.

Xia, T. J.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[Crossref]

Yan, Q.

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

PCE in network life cycle phases: the proposed HyPCE architecture addresses the NRT and RT PCE working in the NMS and control plane, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

HyPCE architecture (centralized RT PCE).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

HyPCE architecture (distributed RT PCE).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Flow chart of ML routing algorithm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Packet and optical nodes in the original topology.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Representation of the ways of the optical node according to topology transformation.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Representation of the ways and the electrical ports of the optical node according to topology transformation.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Topology transformation reporting the direction of the optical nodes represented by directed links.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spanish backbone network.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Conventional ROADM architecture.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

CDC ROADM architecture.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

A/D section architecture with multicast-switch-based TPA and optical amplifier array.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

ML node architectures: (a) conventional node and (b) CDC node.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

SL deployment scenario.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

ML deployment scenario: off-load reduces IP nodes and the corresponding optical paths for protection.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

ML-CP deployment scenario where for each virtual IP link no disjoint optical paths are required.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Total cost (SCUs) per component. The costs are derived by the dimensioning of the Spanish backbone on varying the load with a SL, ML, and ML-CP procedure and having (a) a conventional optical layer and (b) a CDC optical layer.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

CAPEX savings analysis. (a), (b) Savings of ML versus SL and ML-CP versus SL when conventional ROADMs or CDC ROADMs, respectively, are used. (c) Savings of ML-CP with CDC ROADMs versus SL with conventional ROADMs and ML-CP with CDC ROADMs versus ML with conventional ROADMs.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

ML restoration analysis. Mean percentage of recovered traffic at the packet level (blue) and at the optical level (red). The green column reports the percentage of the affected lightpath to be recovered in order to restore the red part of the traffic. Those results are reported for a network dimensioned with a percentage of on-the-fly (OTF) recovered traffic, respectively, equal to (a) 25%, (b) 50%, (c) 75%, and (d) 100%.

Tables (1)

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TABLE I Reference Cost Model