Abstract

We report the first field trials of an integrated packet/circuit hybrid optical network. In a long-haul field trial with production traffic, the mean capacity utilization of an Ethernet wavelength is doubled. The transport shares a single lightpath between the circuit and packet layers. Router bypassing is demonstrated at sub-wavelength granularity in a metro network field trial. In both trials the circuit quality of service is shown to be independent of the load of the network. The vacant resources in the circuit are utilized by the packet layer’s statistical multiplexing in an interleaved manner without affecting the timing of the circuit. In addition, an analytical model that provides an upper bound on the maximum achievable utilization is presented.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. “Cisco visual networking index: Forecast and methodology, 2011–2016,” Cisco White Paper [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/ .
  2. Z.  Ghebretensaé, J.  Harmatos, K.  Gustafsson, “Mobile broadband backhaul network migration from TDM to carrier Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 102–109, Oct. 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  3. S.  Chia, M.  Gasparroni, P.  Brick, “The next challenge for cellular networks: Backhaul,” IEEE Microw. Mag., vol.  10, no. 5, pp. 54–66, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  5. P.  Briggs, R.  Chundury, J.  Olsson, “Carrier Ethernet for mobile backhaul,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 94–100, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  6. L.  Cosart, “NGN packet network synchronization measurement and analysis,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 2, pp. 148–154, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. P.  Fernández-Palacios, L.  Perez, J.  Rodriguez, J.  Dunne, M.  Basham, “IP off-loading over multi-granular photonic switching technologies,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.
  8. C. M.  Gauger, J. P.  Kuhn, E. V.  Breusegem, M.  Pickavet, P.  Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: Bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  9. S.  Bjørnstad, D. R.  Hjelme, N.  Stol, “A packet-switched hybrid optical network with service guarantees,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 8, pp. 97–107, 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  10. N.  Stol, C.  Raffaelli, M.  Savi, “3-level integrated hybrid optical network (3LIHON) to meet future QoS requirements,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM)Houston, TX, Dec. 2011.
  11. R.  Veisllari, S.  Bjornstad, K.  Bozorgebrahimi, “Integrated packet/circuit hybrid network field-trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, 2013, paper NW4I.5.
  12. S.  Bjornstad, R.  Veisllari, K.  Bozorgebrahimi, “Long-haul Ethernet-transport integrated packet/circuit hybrid network field-trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, 2013, paper PDP5A.8.
  13. F.  Callegati, A.  Campi, W.  Cerroni, “A cost-effective approach to optical packet/burst scheduling,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Scotland, June 2007.
  14. R.  Veisllari, S.  Bjornstad, N.  Stol, “Scheduling techniques in an integrated hybrid node with electronic buffers,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Essex, UK, Apr. 2012.
  15. CAIDA, “Traffic analysis research” [Online]. Available: http://www.caida.org/research/traffic-analysis/pkt_size_distribution/graphs.xml .
  16. H.-Q.  Ye, “Stability of data networks under an optimization-based bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 1238–1242, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  17. L.  Kleinrock, Queuing Systems, Volume 1: Theory. Wiley, 1975.
  18. G. M.  Birtwistle, DEMOS-a System for Discrete Event Modelling on Simula. University of Sheffield, 2003.

2011 (1)

L.  Cosart, “NGN packet network synchronization measurement and analysis,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 2, pp. 148–154, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Z.  Ghebretensaé, J.  Harmatos, K.  Gustafsson, “Mobile broadband backhaul network migration from TDM to carrier Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 102–109, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

P.  Briggs, R.  Chundury, J.  Olsson, “Carrier Ethernet for mobile backhaul,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 94–100, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S.  Chia, M.  Gasparroni, P.  Brick, “The next challenge for cellular networks: Backhaul,” IEEE Microw. Mag., vol.  10, no. 5, pp. 54–66, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. M.  Gauger, J. P.  Kuhn, E. V.  Breusegem, M.  Pickavet, P.  Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: Bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, 2006.
[CrossRef]

S.  Bjørnstad, D. R.  Hjelme, N.  Stol, “A packet-switched hybrid optical network with service guarantees,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 8, pp. 97–107, 2006.
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H.-Q.  Ye, “Stability of data networks under an optimization-based bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 1238–1242, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Basham, M.

J. P.  Fernández-Palacios, L.  Perez, J.  Rodriguez, J.  Dunne, M.  Basham, “IP off-loading over multi-granular photonic switching technologies,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Birtwistle, G. M.

G. M.  Birtwistle, DEMOS-a System for Discrete Event Modelling on Simula. University of Sheffield, 2003.

Bjornstad, S.

R.  Veisllari, S.  Bjornstad, N.  Stol, “Scheduling techniques in an integrated hybrid node with electronic buffers,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Essex, UK, Apr. 2012.

R.  Veisllari, S.  Bjornstad, K.  Bozorgebrahimi, “Integrated packet/circuit hybrid network field-trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, 2013, paper NW4I.5.

S.  Bjornstad, R.  Veisllari, K.  Bozorgebrahimi, “Long-haul Ethernet-transport integrated packet/circuit hybrid network field-trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, 2013, paper PDP5A.8.

Bjørnstad, S.

S.  Bjørnstad, D. R.  Hjelme, N.  Stol, “A packet-switched hybrid optical network with service guarantees,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 8, pp. 97–107, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Bozorgebrahimi, K.

R.  Veisllari, S.  Bjornstad, K.  Bozorgebrahimi, “Integrated packet/circuit hybrid network field-trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, 2013, paper NW4I.5.

S.  Bjornstad, R.  Veisllari, K.  Bozorgebrahimi, “Long-haul Ethernet-transport integrated packet/circuit hybrid network field-trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, 2013, paper PDP5A.8.

Breusegem, E. V.

C. M.  Gauger, J. P.  Kuhn, E. V.  Breusegem, M.  Pickavet, P.  Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: Bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Brick, P.

S.  Chia, M.  Gasparroni, P.  Brick, “The next challenge for cellular networks: Backhaul,” IEEE Microw. Mag., vol.  10, no. 5, pp. 54–66, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Briggs, P.

P.  Briggs, R.  Chundury, J.  Olsson, “Carrier Ethernet for mobile backhaul,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 94–100, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Callegati, F.

F.  Callegati, A.  Campi, W.  Cerroni, “A cost-effective approach to optical packet/burst scheduling,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Scotland, June 2007.

Campi, A.

F.  Callegati, A.  Campi, W.  Cerroni, “A cost-effective approach to optical packet/burst scheduling,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Scotland, June 2007.

Cerroni, W.

F.  Callegati, A.  Campi, W.  Cerroni, “A cost-effective approach to optical packet/burst scheduling,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Scotland, June 2007.

Chia, S.

S.  Chia, M.  Gasparroni, P.  Brick, “The next challenge for cellular networks: Backhaul,” IEEE Microw. Mag., vol.  10, no. 5, pp. 54–66, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chundury, R.

P.  Briggs, R.  Chundury, J.  Olsson, “Carrier Ethernet for mobile backhaul,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 94–100, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Cosart, L.

L.  Cosart, “NGN packet network synchronization measurement and analysis,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 2, pp. 148–154, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

C. M.  Gauger, J. P.  Kuhn, E. V.  Breusegem, M.  Pickavet, P.  Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: Bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Dunne, J.

J. P.  Fernández-Palacios, L.  Perez, J.  Rodriguez, J.  Dunne, M.  Basham, “IP off-loading over multi-granular photonic switching technologies,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Fernández-Palacios, J. P.

J. P.  Fernández-Palacios, L.  Perez, J.  Rodriguez, J.  Dunne, M.  Basham, “IP off-loading over multi-granular photonic switching technologies,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Ferrant, J. L.

J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Gasparroni, M.

S.  Chia, M.  Gasparroni, P.  Brick, “The next challenge for cellular networks: Backhaul,” IEEE Microw. Mag., vol.  10, no. 5, pp. 54–66, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Gauger, C. M.

C. M.  Gauger, J. P.  Kuhn, E. V.  Breusegem, M.  Pickavet, P.  Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: Bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Ghebretensaé, Z.

Z.  Ghebretensaé, J.  Harmatos, K.  Gustafsson, “Mobile broadband backhaul network migration from TDM to carrier Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 102–109, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Gilson, M.

J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, K.

Z.  Ghebretensaé, J.  Harmatos, K.  Gustafsson, “Mobile broadband backhaul network migration from TDM to carrier Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 102–109, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Harmatos, J.

Z.  Ghebretensaé, J.  Harmatos, K.  Gustafsson, “Mobile broadband backhaul network migration from TDM to carrier Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 102–109, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Hjelme, D. R.

S.  Bjørnstad, D. R.  Hjelme, N.  Stol, “A packet-switched hybrid optical network with service guarantees,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 8, pp. 97–107, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Jobert, S.

J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Kleinrock, L.

L.  Kleinrock, Queuing Systems, Volume 1: Theory. Wiley, 1975.

Kuhn, J. P.

C. M.  Gauger, J. P.  Kuhn, E. V.  Breusegem, M.  Pickavet, P.  Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: Bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Mayer, M.

J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Montini, L.

J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Olsson, J.

P.  Briggs, R.  Chundury, J.  Olsson, “Carrier Ethernet for mobile backhaul,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 94–100, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ouellette, M.

J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Perez, L.

J. P.  Fernández-Palacios, L.  Perez, J.  Rodriguez, J.  Dunne, M.  Basham, “IP off-loading over multi-granular photonic switching technologies,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Pickavet, M.

C. M.  Gauger, J. P.  Kuhn, E. V.  Breusegem, M.  Pickavet, P.  Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: Bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, 2006.
[CrossRef]

Raffaelli, C.

N.  Stol, C.  Raffaelli, M.  Savi, “3-level integrated hybrid optical network (3LIHON) to meet future QoS requirements,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM)Houston, TX, Dec. 2011.

Rodrigues, S.

J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, J.

J. P.  Fernández-Palacios, L.  Perez, J.  Rodriguez, J.  Dunne, M.  Basham, “IP off-loading over multi-granular photonic switching technologies,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

Ruffini, S.

J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Savi, M.

N.  Stol, C.  Raffaelli, M.  Savi, “3-level integrated hybrid optical network (3LIHON) to meet future QoS requirements,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM)Houston, TX, Dec. 2011.

Stol, N.

S.  Bjørnstad, D. R.  Hjelme, N.  Stol, “A packet-switched hybrid optical network with service guarantees,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 8, pp. 97–107, 2006.
[CrossRef]

R.  Veisllari, S.  Bjornstad, N.  Stol, “Scheduling techniques in an integrated hybrid node with electronic buffers,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Essex, UK, Apr. 2012.

N.  Stol, C.  Raffaelli, M.  Savi, “3-level integrated hybrid optical network (3LIHON) to meet future QoS requirements,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM)Houston, TX, Dec. 2011.

Veisllari, R.

S.  Bjornstad, R.  Veisllari, K.  Bozorgebrahimi, “Long-haul Ethernet-transport integrated packet/circuit hybrid network field-trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, 2013, paper PDP5A.8.

R.  Veisllari, S.  Bjornstad, N.  Stol, “Scheduling techniques in an integrated hybrid node with electronic buffers,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Essex, UK, Apr. 2012.

R.  Veisllari, S.  Bjornstad, K.  Bozorgebrahimi, “Integrated packet/circuit hybrid network field-trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, 2013, paper NW4I.5.

Ye, H.-Q.

H.-Q.  Ye, “Stability of data networks under an optimization-based bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 1238–1242, 2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (5)

C. M.  Gauger, J. P.  Kuhn, E. V.  Breusegem, M.  Pickavet, P.  Demeester, “Hybrid optical network architectures: Bringing packets and circuits together,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, no. 8, pp. 36–42, 2006.
[CrossRef]

J. L.  Ferrant, M.  Gilson, S.  Jobert, M.  Mayer, M.  Ouellette, L.  Montini, S.  Rodrigues, S.  Ruffini, “Synchronous Ethernet: A method to transport synchronization,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  46, no. 9, pp. 126–134, 2008.
[CrossRef]

P.  Briggs, R.  Chundury, J.  Olsson, “Carrier Ethernet for mobile backhaul,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 94–100, 2010.
[CrossRef]

L.  Cosart, “NGN packet network synchronization measurement and analysis,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 2, pp. 148–154, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Z.  Ghebretensaé, J.  Harmatos, K.  Gustafsson, “Mobile broadband backhaul network migration from TDM to carrier Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 10, pp. 102–109, Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S.  Bjørnstad, D. R.  Hjelme, N.  Stol, “A packet-switched hybrid optical network with service guarantees,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 8, pp. 97–107, 2006.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

S.  Chia, M.  Gasparroni, P.  Brick, “The next challenge for cellular networks: Backhaul,” IEEE Microw. Mag., vol.  10, no. 5, pp. 54–66, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Autom. Control (1)

H.-Q.  Ye, “Stability of data networks under an optimization-based bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 1238–1242, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

L.  Kleinrock, Queuing Systems, Volume 1: Theory. Wiley, 1975.

G. M.  Birtwistle, DEMOS-a System for Discrete Event Modelling on Simula. University of Sheffield, 2003.

J. P.  Fernández-Palacios, L.  Perez, J.  Rodriguez, J.  Dunne, M.  Basham, “IP off-loading over multi-granular photonic switching technologies,” in Proc. European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010.

N.  Stol, C.  Raffaelli, M.  Savi, “3-level integrated hybrid optical network (3LIHON) to meet future QoS requirements,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf. (GLOBECOM)Houston, TX, Dec. 2011.

R.  Veisllari, S.  Bjornstad, K.  Bozorgebrahimi, “Integrated packet/circuit hybrid network field-trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, 2013, paper NW4I.5.

S.  Bjornstad, R.  Veisllari, K.  Bozorgebrahimi, “Long-haul Ethernet-transport integrated packet/circuit hybrid network field-trial,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Anaheim, 2013, paper PDP5A.8.

F.  Callegati, A.  Campi, W.  Cerroni, “A cost-effective approach to optical packet/burst scheduling,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), Glasgow, Scotland, June 2007.

R.  Veisllari, S.  Bjornstad, N.  Stol, “Scheduling techniques in an integrated hybrid node with electronic buffers,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Conf. on Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Essex, UK, Apr. 2012.

CAIDA, “Traffic analysis research” [Online]. Available: http://www.caida.org/research/traffic-analysis/pkt_size_distribution/graphs.xml .

“Cisco visual networking index: Forecast and methodology, 2011–2016,” Cisco White Paper [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/ .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of the IHON node. The SM packets are dropped at the input channel, processed based on the tag, and re-added toward the correct destination. The GST packets are delayed for a fixed time corresponding to the SM maximum transmission unit (MTU) to avoid preemption of the SM packets being scheduled. This delay also enables the GST gap detector to detect the GST in the input and update the information on the free gaps before SM insertion. The round-robin gap-filling scheduler finds SM packets at the head of the input queues that fit in the gaps and schedules them.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) GST (green) packets undergo the same fixed delay, and hence their timing is not changed and no PDV is introduced, and (b) the difference between GST scheduling in an IHON (lower part) and a high priority stream in an electronic packet switch (upper part) with non-preemptive scheduling.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Detection of free time gaps within the time window created by the fixed delay δ. Arrival and exit times are updated each time the start and end of a GST packet is sensed at the beginning of the delay line.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example of the insertion of SM packets of fitting length in the available free time gaps by the round-robin gap-filling scheduler. Each input interface, e.g., the four SM inputs, is assigned a separate virtual output queue, one per input SM stream, to increase the probability of finding an SM packet that fits within the free time gap.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

IHON field trial setup in the carrier network of UNINETT with three prototype Fusion nodes from TransPacket (http://www.transpacket.com/), two FreeBSD servers with Iperf traffic generators, and a Spirent SPT-2000 packet generator/tester. xe0 and xe1 are 10GE interfaces, while ge[0–9] are GE interfaces.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured system performance for the case with a fixed average GST rate of 0.99Gbits/s and nine SM streams. (a) The average packet latency for both SM and GST traffic as a function of the normalized offered load on the 10GE lightpath and (b) the total PLR for the SM traffic added on the lightpath. The GST stream does not experience any losses.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SM traffic performances as a function of the total load in the lightpath: (a) the average end-to-end packet delay and (b) the total PLR for the SM traffic added at each node. The SM load added at each load is normalized for the 10Gbit/s links, and the average GST traffic rate is 5.35Gbits/s. The results are shown for two cases of how the SM traffic added on N1 is forwarded in the network: 1) pass through intermediate nodes (N2) as GST with bypass and 2) dropped and re-added as in the case of a packet switch for drop/add.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Long-haul field trial test bed between Trondheim (Trd) and Oslo through the UNINETT network with two IHON prototypes from TransPacket. The production traffic added by the UNINETT routers is marked as GST at the xe1 interfaces of the IHON nodes. A Spirent SPT-2000 traffic generator/analyzer adds SM traffic through six GE interfaces at the Trondheim node. SM traffic is looped back at the Oslo node and received in Trondheim to be analyzed. DCF, dispersion-compensating fiber.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Average GST traffic rate (lower plot, left y axis) and average SM traffic rate (upper plot, right y axis) on the Trondheim–Oslo link as a function of the time of day (sources for GST are Fusion node and UNINETT statistics with 5 min sampling, and the source for SM is the traffic generator/analyzer with 10 min sampling. The GST stream does not experience any losses, while added SM traffic increases the throughput of the lightpath.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Average GST traffic rate (lower plot, left y axis) and average SM traffic rate (upper plot, right y axis) on the Trondheim–Oslo link as a function of the time of day (5 min samples).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Carried SM traffic as a function of the offered GST load on the channel for the analytical model, simulation, and experiment. The fourth curve (1AGST) shows the ideal leftover service available for SM, where AGST is the normalized GST load.

Tables (2)

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f(t)=λGeλGt.
ε=P(TG<Ss)=F(Ss).
ε=0SsλG·eλGtdt.
Rw=ε·(CRG).
CLS=CRGRw.