Abstract

With the recent popularity of mobile data devices, the demand for mobile data traffic has grown rapidly as never before. Hence, service providers are trying to come up with cost-effective solutions to battle this ever increasing demand for bandwidth in their cellular networks. Deployment of a denser heterogeneous network, with a large number of small cells, has been identified as an effective strategy not only to satisfy this unabated growth in mobile data traffic but also to facilitate ubiquitous wireless access. While the cost associated with on-site small cell equipment is low in comparison with a typical macro cell, deployment of small cells opens a new set of challenges, especially in relation to expenditures and capacity requirements associated with the backhaul. In this paper we discuss an efficient small cell backhauling strategy that leverages existing fiber resources in a cost-optimal manner. In particular, we formulate an optimization framework for planning a cost-minimized backhaul for a small cell network, which is based on the deployment of passive optical networks on top of the existing infrastructure. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by using our optimization framework to design a cost-optimal backhaul for a small portion of a realistic backhaul network. Our results show that in comparison to the typical point-to-point fiber backhauling approach, our technique can halve the costs associated with small cell backhaul deployment.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. H.  Claussen, L.  Ho, T. W.  Lester, L. G.  Samuel, “An overview of the femtocell concept,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  13, pp. 221–245, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  2. Cisco, “Cisco visual networking index: Global mobile data traffic forecast update, 2012–2017,” 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/ .
  3. Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGNM), “Small cell backhaul requirements,” White Paper, 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.ngmn.org .
  4. M.  Esfandiari, “Reliability evaluation of SBC’s fiber to the node network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2006, paper NWD1.
  5. F. J.  Effenberger, K.  McCammon, V.  O’Byrne, “Cost minimization planning for passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Netw., vol.  6, no. 7, pp. 808–8180, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  6. P.  Iannone, K.  Reichmann, C.  Ranaweera, M.  Resende, “A small cell augmentation to a wireless network leveraging fiber-to-the-node access infrastructure for backhaul and power,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTu2E.2.
  7. “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON): General characteristics,” , 2008.
  8. A.  Schrijver, Theory of Linear and Integer Programming. Wiley, 1998.
  9. J.  Hoydis, M.  Kobayashi, M.  Debbah, “Green small-cell networks,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag., vol.  6, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  10. O.  Arnold, F.  Richter, G.  Fettweis, O.  Blume, “Power consumption modeling of different base station types in heterogeneous cellular networks,” in IEEE Future Network and Mobile Summit, Florence, 2010.
  11. B.  Badic, T.  O’Farrrell, P.  Loskot, J.  He, “Energy efficient radio access architectures for green radio: Large versus small cell size deployment,” in IEEE 70th Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall (VTC 2009-Fall), Anchorage, AK, 2009.
  12. J.  Li, G.  Shen, “Cost minimization planning for passive optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper NThD1.
  13. A.  Agata, K.  Nishimura, “Suboptimal PON network designing algorithm for minimizing deployment cost of optical fiber cables,” in Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, 2012.
  14. S. U.  Khan, “Heuristics-based PON deployment, “ IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  9, no. 9, pp. 847–849, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  15. C.  Ranaweera, P.  Iannone, K.  Oikonomou, K.  Reichmann, R.  Sinha, “Cost optimization of fiber deployment for small cell backhaul,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2013, paper NTH3F.2.
  16. GNU, “GNU Linear Programming Kit,” version glpk-4.47.1, Sept. 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.gnu.org/software/glpk/ .

2011 (1)

J.  Hoydis, M.  Kobayashi, M.  Debbah, “Green small-cell networks,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag., vol.  6, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H.  Claussen, L.  Ho, T. W.  Lester, L. G.  Samuel, “An overview of the femtocell concept,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  13, pp. 221–245, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

S. U.  Khan, “Heuristics-based PON deployment, “ IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  9, no. 9, pp. 847–849, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Agata, A.

A.  Agata, K.  Nishimura, “Suboptimal PON network designing algorithm for minimizing deployment cost of optical fiber cables,” in Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, 2012.

Arnold, O.

O.  Arnold, F.  Richter, G.  Fettweis, O.  Blume, “Power consumption modeling of different base station types in heterogeneous cellular networks,” in IEEE Future Network and Mobile Summit, Florence, 2010.

Badic, B.

B.  Badic, T.  O’Farrrell, P.  Loskot, J.  He, “Energy efficient radio access architectures for green radio: Large versus small cell size deployment,” in IEEE 70th Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall (VTC 2009-Fall), Anchorage, AK, 2009.

Blume, O.

O.  Arnold, F.  Richter, G.  Fettweis, O.  Blume, “Power consumption modeling of different base station types in heterogeneous cellular networks,” in IEEE Future Network and Mobile Summit, Florence, 2010.

Claussen, H.

H.  Claussen, L.  Ho, T. W.  Lester, L. G.  Samuel, “An overview of the femtocell concept,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  13, pp. 221–245, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Debbah, M.

J.  Hoydis, M.  Kobayashi, M.  Debbah, “Green small-cell networks,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag., vol.  6, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Effenberger, F. J.

Esfandiari, M.

M.  Esfandiari, “Reliability evaluation of SBC’s fiber to the node network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2006, paper NWD1.

Fettweis, G.

O.  Arnold, F.  Richter, G.  Fettweis, O.  Blume, “Power consumption modeling of different base station types in heterogeneous cellular networks,” in IEEE Future Network and Mobile Summit, Florence, 2010.

He, J.

B.  Badic, T.  O’Farrrell, P.  Loskot, J.  He, “Energy efficient radio access architectures for green radio: Large versus small cell size deployment,” in IEEE 70th Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall (VTC 2009-Fall), Anchorage, AK, 2009.

Ho, L.

H.  Claussen, L.  Ho, T. W.  Lester, L. G.  Samuel, “An overview of the femtocell concept,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  13, pp. 221–245, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Hoydis, J.

J.  Hoydis, M.  Kobayashi, M.  Debbah, “Green small-cell networks,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag., vol.  6, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Iannone, P.

P.  Iannone, K.  Reichmann, C.  Ranaweera, M.  Resende, “A small cell augmentation to a wireless network leveraging fiber-to-the-node access infrastructure for backhaul and power,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTu2E.2.

C.  Ranaweera, P.  Iannone, K.  Oikonomou, K.  Reichmann, R.  Sinha, “Cost optimization of fiber deployment for small cell backhaul,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2013, paper NTH3F.2.

Khan, S. U.

S. U.  Khan, “Heuristics-based PON deployment, “ IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  9, no. 9, pp. 847–849, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

J.  Hoydis, M.  Kobayashi, M.  Debbah, “Green small-cell networks,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag., vol.  6, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Lester, T. W.

H.  Claussen, L.  Ho, T. W.  Lester, L. G.  Samuel, “An overview of the femtocell concept,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  13, pp. 221–245, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J.  Li, G.  Shen, “Cost minimization planning for passive optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper NThD1.

Loskot, P.

B.  Badic, T.  O’Farrrell, P.  Loskot, J.  He, “Energy efficient radio access architectures for green radio: Large versus small cell size deployment,” in IEEE 70th Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall (VTC 2009-Fall), Anchorage, AK, 2009.

McCammon, K.

Nishimura, K.

A.  Agata, K.  Nishimura, “Suboptimal PON network designing algorithm for minimizing deployment cost of optical fiber cables,” in Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, 2012.

O’Byrne, V.

O’Farrrell, T.

B.  Badic, T.  O’Farrrell, P.  Loskot, J.  He, “Energy efficient radio access architectures for green radio: Large versus small cell size deployment,” in IEEE 70th Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall (VTC 2009-Fall), Anchorage, AK, 2009.

Oikonomou, K.

C.  Ranaweera, P.  Iannone, K.  Oikonomou, K.  Reichmann, R.  Sinha, “Cost optimization of fiber deployment for small cell backhaul,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2013, paper NTH3F.2.

Ranaweera, C.

C.  Ranaweera, P.  Iannone, K.  Oikonomou, K.  Reichmann, R.  Sinha, “Cost optimization of fiber deployment for small cell backhaul,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2013, paper NTH3F.2.

P.  Iannone, K.  Reichmann, C.  Ranaweera, M.  Resende, “A small cell augmentation to a wireless network leveraging fiber-to-the-node access infrastructure for backhaul and power,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTu2E.2.

Reichmann, K.

P.  Iannone, K.  Reichmann, C.  Ranaweera, M.  Resende, “A small cell augmentation to a wireless network leveraging fiber-to-the-node access infrastructure for backhaul and power,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTu2E.2.

C.  Ranaweera, P.  Iannone, K.  Oikonomou, K.  Reichmann, R.  Sinha, “Cost optimization of fiber deployment for small cell backhaul,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2013, paper NTH3F.2.

Resende, M.

P.  Iannone, K.  Reichmann, C.  Ranaweera, M.  Resende, “A small cell augmentation to a wireless network leveraging fiber-to-the-node access infrastructure for backhaul and power,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTu2E.2.

Richter, F.

O.  Arnold, F.  Richter, G.  Fettweis, O.  Blume, “Power consumption modeling of different base station types in heterogeneous cellular networks,” in IEEE Future Network and Mobile Summit, Florence, 2010.

Samuel, L. G.

H.  Claussen, L.  Ho, T. W.  Lester, L. G.  Samuel, “An overview of the femtocell concept,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  13, pp. 221–245, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Schrijver, A.

A.  Schrijver, Theory of Linear and Integer Programming. Wiley, 1998.

Shen, G.

J.  Li, G.  Shen, “Cost minimization planning for passive optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper NThD1.

Sinha, R.

C.  Ranaweera, P.  Iannone, K.  Oikonomou, K.  Reichmann, R.  Sinha, “Cost optimization of fiber deployment for small cell backhaul,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2013, paper NTH3F.2.

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

H.  Claussen, L.  Ho, T. W.  Lester, L. G.  Samuel, “An overview of the femtocell concept,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol.  13, pp. 221–245, 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

S. U.  Khan, “Heuristics-based PON deployment, “ IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  9, no. 9, pp. 847–849, 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. (1)

J.  Hoydis, M.  Kobayashi, M.  Debbah, “Green small-cell networks,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag., vol.  6, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Other (12)

Cisco, “Cisco visual networking index: Global mobile data traffic forecast update, 2012–2017,” 2013 [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/ .

Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGNM), “Small cell backhaul requirements,” White Paper, 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.ngmn.org .

M.  Esfandiari, “Reliability evaluation of SBC’s fiber to the node network,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2006, paper NWD1.

O.  Arnold, F.  Richter, G.  Fettweis, O.  Blume, “Power consumption modeling of different base station types in heterogeneous cellular networks,” in IEEE Future Network and Mobile Summit, Florence, 2010.

B.  Badic, T.  O’Farrrell, P.  Loskot, J.  He, “Energy efficient radio access architectures for green radio: Large versus small cell size deployment,” in IEEE 70th Vehicular Technology Conf. Fall (VTC 2009-Fall), Anchorage, AK, 2009.

J.  Li, G.  Shen, “Cost minimization planning for passive optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2008, paper NThD1.

A.  Agata, K.  Nishimura, “Suboptimal PON network designing algorithm for minimizing deployment cost of optical fiber cables,” in Optical Network Design and Modeling (ONDM), Colchester, UK, 2012.

C.  Ranaweera, P.  Iannone, K.  Oikonomou, K.  Reichmann, R.  Sinha, “Cost optimization of fiber deployment for small cell backhaul,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2013, paper NTH3F.2.

GNU, “GNU Linear Programming Kit,” version glpk-4.47.1, Sept. 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.gnu.org/software/glpk/ .

P.  Iannone, K.  Reichmann, C.  Ranaweera, M.  Resende, “A small cell augmentation to a wireless network leveraging fiber-to-the-node access infrastructure for backhaul and power,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTu2E.2.

“Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON): General characteristics,” , 2008.

A.  Schrijver, Theory of Linear and Integer Programming. Wiley, 1998.

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