Abstract

Due to claims of enhanced spectral efficiency and the ability to accommodate future modulation formats, flexible-grid networks in which the center wavelength and passband width of the optical channels can be set on the fly have attracted wide attention. A flexible-grid reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) requires more than a flexible-grid wavelength-selective switch, and a flexible-grid network requires far more than flexible-grid ROADMs. We discuss the technologies required to enable flexible-grid networks. We examine the potential benefits of using flexible-grid ROADMs and compare this approach with alternative strategies.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

K. Wen, C. Xinran, Y. Yawei, D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, and P. Magill, “Rate-adaptable optics for next generation long-haul transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 3, pp. 41–49, 2013.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, N. Sambo, L. Potì, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull defragmentation without traffic disruption in flexible grid optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 125–133, 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012 (7)

R. Proietti, C. Qin, B. Guan, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, R. Yu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Rapid and complete hitless defragmentation method using a coherent RX LO with fast wavelength tracking in elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 24, pp. 26958–26968, 2012.
[CrossRef]

O. Pedrola, A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “CAPEX study for a multilayer IP/MPLS-over-flexgrid optical network,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 639–650, 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou and L. E. Nelson, “400 G WDM transmission on the 50 GHz grid for future optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 24, pp. 3779–3792, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, J. P. Wilde, and T. A. Zeid, “Bandwidth-scalable long-haul transmission using synchronized colorless transceivers and efficient wavelength-selective switches,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 16, pp. 2646–2660, 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. Wan, N. Hua, and X. Zheng, “Dynamic routing and spectrum assignment in spectrum-flexible transparent optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 8, pp. 603–613, 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, L. Guangzhi, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. L. Woodward, and X. Dahai, “Architectures and protocols for capacity-efficient, highly-dynamic and highly-resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Amaya, N.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Aoki, Y.

K. Sone, X. Wang, S. Oda, G. Nakagawa, Y. Aoki, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, T. Hoshida, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “First demonstration of hitless spectrum defragmentation using real-time coherent receivers in flexible grid optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2012, paper Th.3.D.1.

Banias, K.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Barros, D. J. F.

Basch, B.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Berrettini, G.

Bihon, D.

Birk, M.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper NThA1.

Boertjes, D.

S. Thiagarajan, M. Frankel, and D. Boertjes, “Spectrum efficient super-channels in dynamic flexible grid networks—a blocking analysis,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper OTuI6.

Borel, P.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, B. Zhu, P. Borel, D. Peckham, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495  Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFCN/FOEC), 2013, paper OTu2B.

Bosco, G.

Bottari, G.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper JTh2A.

Bruno, G.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper JTh2A.

Calvitti, J.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2006, paper Th1.2.2.

Cao, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Careglio, D.

Carena, A.

Carlson, K.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, B. Zhu, P. Borel, D. Peckham, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495  Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFCN/FOEC), 2013, paper OTu2B.

Castoldi, P.

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, N. Sambo, L. Potì, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull defragmentation without traffic disruption in flexible grid optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 125–133, 2013.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper JTh2A.

Castro, A.

Chiu, A.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper NThA1.

Chiu, A. L.

Choudhury, G.

Clapp, G.

Cugini, F.

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, N. Sambo, L. Potì, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull defragmentation without traffic disruption in flexible grid optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 125–133, 2013.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper JTh2A.

Curri, V.

Dahai, X.

Doverspike, R.

A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, L. Guangzhi, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. L. Woodward, and X. Dahai, “Architectures and protocols for capacity-efficient, highly-dynamic and highly-resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper NThA1.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Dugan, M.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Egorov, R.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Falta, K.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2006, paper Th1.2.2.

Fernández-Palacios, J. P.

Feuer, M.

Feuer, M. D.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, M. D. Feuer, J. L. Strand, and S. L. Woodward, “Integrated restoration for next-generation IP-over-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 6, pp. 916–924, 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. L. Woodward and M. D. Feuer, “Toward more dynamic optical networking,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2010, pp. 114–115.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper NThA1.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2006, paper Th1.2.2.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. Willner, Eds. New York: Academic, 2008, ch. 8.

Fontaine, N. K.

K. Wen, C. Xinran, Y. Yawei, D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, R. P. Scott, C. Xinran, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.2.

Forghieri, F.

Frankel, M.

S. Thiagarajan, M. Frankel, and D. Boertjes, “Spectrum efficient super-channels in dynamic flexible grid networks—a blocking analysis,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper OTuI6.

Fresi, F.

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
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Gannett, J. W.

Garcia, F.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Garrich, M.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Geisler, D. J.

K. Wen, C. Xinran, Y. Yawei, D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2013.
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D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, R. P. Scott, C. Xinran, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.2.

Gerstel, O.

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, R. P. Scott, C. Xinran, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.2.

Gringeri, S.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
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Guan, B.

Guangzhi, L.

Hallock, B.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Harris, J. M.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Hasegawa, H.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Henning, I.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
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Hirano, A.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
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M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
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Hoshida, T.

K. Sone, X. Wang, S. Oda, G. Nakagawa, Y. Aoki, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, T. Hoshida, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “First demonstration of hitless spectrum defragmentation using real-time coherent receivers in flexible grid optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2012, paper Th.3.D.1.

Hua, N.

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
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Hutcheon, V.

V. Hutcheon, “OTN to enable flexible networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper NMC1.

Iovanna, P.

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper JTh2A.

Irfan, M.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Ishida, O.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
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M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

Jackel, J.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
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M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Kahn, J. M.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, “Overview of OFT V volumes A & B,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VA. New York: Academic, 2008, ch. 1.

Kennedy, T.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Kilper, D. C.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. Willner, Eds. New York: Academic, 2008, ch. 8.

Kim, G.

Kim, I.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98 (2012).
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X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Blocking performance in dynamic flexible grid optical networks—what is the ideal spectrum granularity?” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.6.

K. Sone, X. Wang, S. Oda, G. Nakagawa, Y. Aoki, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, T. Hoshida, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “First demonstration of hitless spectrum defragmentation using real-time coherent receivers in flexible grid optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2012, paper Th.3.D.1.

Klincewicz, J.

Kobayashi, T.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

Koley, B.

V. Vusirikala, C. Lam, P. Schultz, and B. Koley, “Drivers and applications of optical technologies for Internet data center networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper NThD2.

Kondis, J. P.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Kwon, T.

Lackey, T.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Lam, C.

V. Vusirikala, C. Lam, P. Schultz, and B. Koley, “Drivers and applications of optical technologies for Internet data center networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper NThD2.

Lehmen, A.

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, “Overview of OFT V volumes A & B,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VA. New York: Academic, 2008, ch. 1.

Lindquist, R. G.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Liu, S.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Lord, A.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Magill, P.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, and P. Magill, “Rate-adaptable optics for next generation long-haul transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 3, pp. 41–49, 2013.
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A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, L. Guangzhi, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. L. Woodward, and X. Dahai, “Architectures and protocols for capacity-efficient, highly-dynamic and highly-resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan. 2012.
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X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper NThA1.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, B. Zhu, P. Borel, D. Peckham, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495  Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFCN/FOEC), 2013, paper OTu2B.

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

Mavrogiorgis, E.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper NThA1.

Meloni, G.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

Nakagawa, G.

K. Sone, X. Wang, S. Oda, G. Nakagawa, Y. Aoki, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, T. Hoshida, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “First demonstration of hitless spectrum defragmentation using real-time coherent receivers in flexible grid optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2012, paper Th.3.D.1.

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, and P. Magill, “Rate-adaptable optics for next generation long-haul transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 3, pp. 41–49, 2013.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou and L. E. Nelson, “400 G WDM transmission on the 50 GHz grid for future optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 24, pp. 3779–3792, 2012.
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X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, B. Zhu, P. Borel, D. Peckham, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495  Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFCN/FOEC), 2013, paper OTu2B.

Oda, S.

K. Sone, X. Wang, S. Oda, G. Nakagawa, Y. Aoki, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, T. Hoshida, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “First demonstration of hitless spectrum defragmentation using real-time coherent receivers in flexible grid optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2012, paper Th.3.D.1.

Ohara, T.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

Palacharla, P.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Sone, X. Wang, S. Oda, G. Nakagawa, Y. Aoki, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, T. Hoshida, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “First demonstration of hitless spectrum defragmentation using real-time coherent receivers in flexible grid optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2012, paper Th.3.D.1.

X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Blocking performance in dynamic flexible grid optical networks—what is the ideal spectrum granularity?” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.6.

Pan, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Paolucci, F.

Paraschis, L.

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, R. P. Scott, C. Xinran, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.2.

Pastor, J.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper NThA1.

Peckham, D.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, B. Zhu, P. Borel, D. Peckham, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495  Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFCN/FOEC), 2013, paper OTu2B.

Pedrola, O.

Petropoulos, P.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Poggiolini, P.

Potì, L.

Proietti, R.

K. Wen, C. Xinran, Y. Yawei, D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2013.
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R. Proietti, C. Qin, B. Guan, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, R. Yu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Rapid and complete hitless defragmentation method using a coherent RX LO with fast wavelength tracking in elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 24, pp. 26958–26968, 2012.
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D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, R. P. Scott, C. Xinran, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.2.

Qin, C.

Rancano, V. J. F.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Rasmussen, J. C.

K. Sone, X. Wang, S. Oda, G. Nakagawa, Y. Aoki, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, T. Hoshida, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “First demonstration of hitless spectrum defragmentation using real-time coherent receivers in flexible grid optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2012, paper Th.3.D.1.

Rhee, J.-K.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Richardson, D. J.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Ruiz, M.

Sambo, N.

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, N. Sambo, L. Potì, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull defragmentation without traffic disruption in flexible grid optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 125–133, 2013.
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F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper JTh2A.

Sato, K.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Schultz, P.

V. Vusirikala, C. Lam, P. Schultz, and B. Koley, “Drivers and applications of optical technologies for Internet data center networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper NThD2.

Scott, B. A.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Scott, R. P.

K. Wen, C. Xinran, Y. Yawei, D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

R. Proietti, C. Qin, B. Guan, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, R. Yu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Rapid and complete hitless defragmentation method using a coherent RX LO with fast wavelength tracking in elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 24, pp. 26958–26968, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, R. P. Scott, C. Xinran, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.2.

Secondini, M.

F. Cugini, F. Paolucci, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Secondini, F. Fresi, N. Sambo, L. Potì, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull defragmentation without traffic disruption in flexible grid optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 125–133, 2013.
[CrossRef]

F. Cugini, M. Secondini, N. Sambo, G. Bottari, G. Bruno, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Push-pull technique for defragmentation in flexible optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2012, paper JTh2A.

Sekiya, M.

X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Blocking performance in dynamic flexible grid optical networks—what is the ideal spectrum granularity?” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.6.

K. Sone, X. Wang, S. Oda, G. Nakagawa, Y. Aoki, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, T. Hoshida, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “First demonstration of hitless spectrum defragmentation using real-time coherent receivers in flexible grid optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2012, paper Th.3.D.1.

Shukla, V.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Simeonidou, D.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Simmons, J. M.

Skoog, R. A.

Smith, K.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Sone, K.

K. Sone, X. Wang, S. Oda, G. Nakagawa, Y. Aoki, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, T. Hoshida, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “First demonstration of hitless spectrum defragmentation using real-time coherent receivers in flexible grid optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2012, paper Th.3.D.1.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Strand, J.

Strand, J. L.

Takada, A.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

Takagi, T.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
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M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

Tanaka, T.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
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T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Tanaka, B. Kozicki, Y. Sone, and M. Jinno, “Algorithms for maximizing spectrum efficiency in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2010, paper We.8.D.5.

Thiagarajan, S.

S. Thiagarajan, M. Frankel, and D. Boertjes, “Spectrum efficient super-channels in dynamic flexible grid networks—a blocking analysis,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper OTuI6.

Tomizawa, M.

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
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Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

Varvarigos, E.

E. Varvarigos, “An introduction to routing and wavelength assignment algorithms for fixed and flexgrid,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2013, paper OW1H.4.

Velasco, L.

Verdiell, J. M.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2006, paper Th1.2.2.

Vusirikala, V.

V. Vusirikala, C. Lam, P. Schultz, and B. Koley, “Drivers and applications of optical technologies for Internet data center networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2011, paper NThD2.

Wan, X.

Wang, X.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98 (2012).
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X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Blocking performance in dynamic flexible grid optical networks—what is the ideal spectrum granularity?” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.6.

K. Sone, X. Wang, S. Oda, G. Nakagawa, Y. Aoki, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, T. Hoshida, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Rasmussen, “First demonstration of hitless spectrum defragmentation using real-time coherent receivers in flexible grid optical network,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2012, paper Th.3.D.1.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in INFOCOM, Apr. 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Watanabe, A.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Wen, K.

K. Wen, C. Xinran, Y. Yawei, D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2013.
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Wilde, J. P.

Willner, A. E.

I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, “Overview of OFT V volumes A & B,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VA. New York: Academic, 2008, ch. 1.

Wilson, B. J.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Wolf, D.

J.-K. Rhee, F. Garcia, A. Ellis, B. Hallock, T. Kennedy, T. Lackey, R. G. Lindquist, J. P. Kondis, B. A. Scott, J. M. Harris, D. Wolf, and M. Dugan, “Variable passband optical add-drop multiplexer using wavelength selective switch,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2001, paper ThL.1.7.

Woodward, S. L.

A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, J. Jackel, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, L. Guangzhi, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. L. Woodward, and X. Dahai, “Architectures and protocols for capacity-efficient, highly-dynamic and highly-resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, Jan. 2012.
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S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, and D. Bihon, “Service velocity strategies in optical ROADM networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  4, no. 2, pp. 92–98 (2012).
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A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, M. D. Feuer, J. L. Strand, and S. L. Woodward, “Integrated restoration for next-generation IP-over-optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 6, pp. 916–924, 2011.
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S. L. Woodward and M. D. Feuer, “Toward more dynamic optical networking,” in OptoElectronics and Communications Conf. (OECC), 2010, pp. 114–115.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper NThA1.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB, I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. Willner, Eds. New York: Academic, 2008, ch. 8.

S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, J. Calvitti, K. Falta, and J. M. Verdiell, “A high-degree photonic cross-connect for transparent networking, flexible provisioning & capacity growth,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2006, paper Th1.2.2.

Xia, T. J.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

Xinran, C.

K. Wen, C. Xinran, Y. Yawei, D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, R. P. Scott, C. Xinran, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.2.

Yates, J.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper NThA1.

Yawei, Y.

K. Wen, C. Xinran, Y. Yawei, D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, R. P. Scott, C. Xinran, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.2.

Yin, Y.

Yonenaga, K.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

Yoo, S. J. B.

K. Wen, C. Xinran, Y. Yawei, D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

R. Proietti, C. Qin, B. Guan, Y. Yin, R. P. Scott, R. Yu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Rapid and complete hitless defragmentation method using a coherent RX LO with fast wavelength tracking in elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, no. 24, pp. 26958–26968, 2012.
[CrossRef]

D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, Y. Yawei, R. P. Scott, C. Xinran, N. K. Fontaine, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, and S. J. B. Yoo, “The first testbed demonstration of a flexible bandwidth network with a real-time adaptive control plane,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.2.

Yoshimatsu, T.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, T. Yoshimatsu, T. Kobayashi, Y. Miyamoto, K. Yonenaga, A. Takada, O. Ishida, and S. Matsuoka, “Demonstration of novel spectrum-efficient elastic optical path network with per-channel variable capacity of 40  Gb/s to over 400  Gb/s,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2008, paper Th.3.F.6.

Yu, R.

Zeid, T. A.

Zervas, G.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Zhang, Q.

X. Wang, Q. Zhang, I. Kim, P. Palacharla, and M. Sekiya, “Blocking performance in dynamic flexible grid optical networks—what is the ideal spectrum granularity?” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.6.

Zhang, X. J.

X. J. Zhang, M. Birk, A. Chiu, R. Doverspike, M. D. Feuer, P. Magill, E. Mavrogiorgis, J. Pastor, S. L. Woodward, and J. Yates, “Bridge-and-roll demonstration in GRIPhoN,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), 2010, paper NThA1.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, and P. Magill, “Rate-adaptable optics for next generation long-haul transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 3, pp. 41–49, 2013.
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X. Zhou and L. E. Nelson, “400 G WDM transmission on the 50 GHz grid for future optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  30, no. 24, pp. 3779–3792, 2012.
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X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, B. Zhu, P. Borel, D. Peckham, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495  Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFCN/FOEC), 2013, paper OTu2B.

Zhou, Y. R.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620 km field fiber,” in European Conf. on Optical Communications (ECOC), 2011, paper Th.13.K.1.

Zhu, B.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, B. Zhu, P. Borel, D. Peckham, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495  Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFCN/FOEC), 2013, paper OTu2B.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (4)

M. Jinno, T. Ohara, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, O. Ishida, and M. Tomizawa, “Elastic and adaptive optical networks: possible adoption scenarios and future standardization aspects,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  49, no. 10, pp. 164–172, Oct. 2011.
[CrossRef]

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, July 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, no. 8, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, and P. Magill, “Rate-adaptable optics for next generation long-haul transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  51, no. 3, pp. 41–49, 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

K. Wen, C. Xinran, Y. Yawei, D. J. Geisler, R. Proietti, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Adaptive spectrum control and management in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  31, no. 1, pp. 39–48, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (4)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (21)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Hypothetical carrier network (the CORONET CONUS network) [2].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Hypothetical network for large datacenter operators [3].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Multi-degree ROADMs enable a network to grow overtime. For example, new routes can be added to the network (the blue dashed line connecting City E to City F). Capacity can also be added on an as-needed basis. If the route between City C and City E becomes congested, then another fiber pair can be used to serve the added demand (the red dashed–dotted line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Multi-degree ROADM with colorless and nondirectional add/drop ports. This ROADM utilizes a broadcast and select core: power splitters (PSs) broadcast each signal to every N×1 WSS, where it is either routed to another node along Routes 1–3 or added/dropped to a local transponder (T/R). Note that if the PSs and WSSs have extra ports, then this ROADM’s degree can be increased without disruption of existing services.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Depiction of the transmission characteristics of a fixed-grid WSS when four adjacent channels have been set to transmit the signal from a single input port. Both the transmission and group delay show significant variation at the boundaries between channels.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Depiction of the transmission characteristics of a flexible-grid WSS. The WSS has finer wavelength granularity (12.5 GHz rather than 50 GHz), and the passband is smooth in both transmission and group delay.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Illustration of spectrum utilization on a fiber in a flexible-grid network with 12.5 GHz granularity. When a signal utilizes N×12.5GHz, its laser must be capable of being tuned to the center of that band, requiring 6.25 GHz frequency granularity. This figure also illustrates how bandwidth can be stranded in 12.5 GHz slots (shown in black near 193.6 THz).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Illustration of how narrow bandwidth channels can easily block large channels in a mesh network. Four nodes of a flexible-grid network are shown, as well as the bandwidth usage on their links. Large demands use 11 slots, while small ones use 4 (bandwidth slot assignments are shown for each demand). A large traffic demand from Node D to Node C is blocked. The span from Node D to Node B has bandwidth available in two regions, but this spectrum is not available between Nodes B and C. While the blocking of slots 12–22 by the signal from ROADM A to C is similar to blocking found in a fixed-grid network, the wavelength blocking of the higher-frequency spectrum illustrates how variable channel bandwidth can exacerbate blocking in a flexible-grid network. Narrow bandwidth channels in slots 37–40 and 45–48 block large demands, requiring 11 slots between ROADMs C and D.