Abstract

Passive optical network (PON) monitoring with as many as 1024 subscribers encounters difficulties due to high splitting losses and drop fiber differentiation problems. In this work a novel concept for monitoring PONs for fiber to the home (FTTH) access, which is based on concatenated wavelength-selective mirrors, has been investigated in a field trial. At each subscriber a unique mirror combination is installed. Binomial coefficients guarantee that each mirror combination in a given PON is used only once. The field trial has been performed successfully with a PON consisting of 37 km deployed standard single-mode fiber and up to 132 passive optical power splitting causing a total one-way attenuation of at least 30.7 dB. Different subscribers located at equal distances from the optical time domain reflectometry could be distinguished and identified individually. For the measurement setup only low-cost components were used.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Segarra, “Access services availability and traffic forecast in PON deployment,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Barcelona, June 2011, pp. 1–6.
  3. P. W. Shumate, “Fiber-to-the-home: 1977–2007,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  26, no. 9, pp. 1093–1103, May 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Aleksić and A. Lovrić, “Power consumption of wired access network technologies,” in 7th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), July 2010, pp. 147–151.
  5. A. Erhardt, F. Escher, L. Schurer, H.-M. Foisel, A. Templin, M. Adamy, and C. Gerlach, “PON measurements and monitoring solutions for FTTH networks during deployment and operation,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Stockholm, June 2011, pp. 1–6.
  6. A. Valenti, F. Matera, and G. T. Beleffi, “Power consumption measurements of access networks in a wide geographical area test bed and economic perspectives,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), Rome, July 2012, pp. 1–6.
  7. A. Gladisch, L. Christoph, and R. Leppla, “Power efficiency of optical versus electronic access networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Brussels, Sept. 2008, pp. 1–4.
  8. H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, and E. Gottwald, “Next generation ultra high capacity PONs,” in 23rd Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Nov. 2010, pp. 403–404.
  9. L. Mehedy, M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, and E. Skafidas, “Scalable and spectrally efficient long-reach optical access networks employing frequency interleaved directly detected optical OFDM,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, no. 11, pp. 881–890, Nov. 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Harsted and R. Sharpe, “Future fiber-to-the-home bandwidth demands favor time division multiplexing passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 11, pp. 218–223Nov. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Athens, June 2008, pp. 92–98.
  12. C. M. Bentz, S. Pachnicke, and P. M. Krummrich, “Combinatorial wavelength selective mirror concatenation for unambiguous subscriber line monitoring in FTTH/PON with high subscriber counts,” in IEEE Photonics Conf., Arlington, VA, Oct. 2011, pp. 933–934.
  13. C. M. Bentz and P. M. Krummrich, “Zuverlässigkeitsuntersuchung zur PON-Überwachungsmethode Kombinatorik kaskadierter Spiegel (Kaskatorik) bei vielen Teilnehmern und geringer Ortsauflösung der Messeinrichtung,” in 13. ITG Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, May 2012.
  14. C. M. Bentz, D. Fritzsche, E. Weis, and P. M. Krummrich, “Field trial of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, Mar. 2013, paper NM2I.1.
  15. C. M. Bentz, L. Baudzus, and P. M. Krummrich, “Measurements of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations using composite coding scheme OTDR for SNR enhancement,” in 14. ITG Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, May 2013.

2012 (1)

E. Harsted and R. Sharpe, “Future fiber-to-the-home bandwidth demands favor time division multiplexing passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 11, pp. 218–223Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

Adamy, M.

A. Erhardt, F. Escher, L. Schurer, H.-M. Foisel, A. Templin, M. Adamy, and C. Gerlach, “PON measurements and monitoring solutions for FTTH networks during deployment and operation,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Stockholm, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Aleksic, S.

S. Aleksić and A. Lovrić, “Power consumption of wired access network technologies,” in 7th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), July 2010, pp. 147–151.

Bakaul, M.

Baudzus, L.

C. M. Bentz, L. Baudzus, and P. M. Krummrich, “Measurements of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations using composite coding scheme OTDR for SNR enhancement,” in 14. ITG Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, May 2013.

Beleffi, G. T.

A. Valenti, F. Matera, and G. T. Beleffi, “Power consumption measurements of access networks in a wide geographical area test bed and economic perspectives,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), Rome, July 2012, pp. 1–6.

Bentz, C. M.

C. M. Bentz, S. Pachnicke, and P. M. Krummrich, “Combinatorial wavelength selective mirror concatenation for unambiguous subscriber line monitoring in FTTH/PON with high subscriber counts,” in IEEE Photonics Conf., Arlington, VA, Oct. 2011, pp. 933–934.

C. M. Bentz, L. Baudzus, and P. M. Krummrich, “Measurements of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations using composite coding scheme OTDR for SNR enhancement,” in 14. ITG Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, May 2013.

C. M. Bentz and P. M. Krummrich, “Zuverlässigkeitsuntersuchung zur PON-Überwachungsmethode Kombinatorik kaskadierter Spiegel (Kaskatorik) bei vielen Teilnehmern und geringer Ortsauflösung der Messeinrichtung,” in 13. ITG Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, May 2012.

C. M. Bentz, D. Fritzsche, E. Weis, and P. M. Krummrich, “Field trial of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, Mar. 2013, paper NM2I.1.

Cheng, N.

Christoph, L.

A. Gladisch, L. Christoph, and R. Leppla, “Power efficiency of optical versus electronic access networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Brussels, Sept. 2008, pp. 1–4.

Erhardt, A.

A. Erhardt, F. Escher, L. Schurer, H.-M. Foisel, A. Templin, M. Adamy, and C. Gerlach, “PON measurements and monitoring solutions for FTTH networks during deployment and operation,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Stockholm, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Escher, F.

A. Erhardt, F. Escher, L. Schurer, H.-M. Foisel, A. Templin, M. Adamy, and C. Gerlach, “PON measurements and monitoring solutions for FTTH networks during deployment and operation,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Stockholm, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Foisel, H.-M.

A. Erhardt, F. Escher, L. Schurer, H.-M. Foisel, A. Templin, M. Adamy, and C. Gerlach, “PON measurements and monitoring solutions for FTTH networks during deployment and operation,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Stockholm, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Fritzsche, D.

C. M. Bentz, D. Fritzsche, E. Weis, and P. M. Krummrich, “Field trial of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, Mar. 2013, paper NM2I.1.

Gerlach, C.

A. Erhardt, F. Escher, L. Schurer, H.-M. Foisel, A. Templin, M. Adamy, and C. Gerlach, “PON measurements and monitoring solutions for FTTH networks during deployment and operation,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Stockholm, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Gladisch, A.

A. Gladisch, L. Christoph, and R. Leppla, “Power efficiency of optical versus electronic access networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Brussels, Sept. 2008, pp. 1–4.

Gottwald, E.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, and E. Gottwald, “Next generation ultra high capacity PONs,” in 23rd Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Nov. 2010, pp. 403–404.

Gutierrez, D.

Harsted, E.

E. Harsted and R. Sharpe, “Future fiber-to-the-home bandwidth demands favor time division multiplexing passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 11, pp. 218–223Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

Krummrich, P. M.

C. M. Bentz, S. Pachnicke, and P. M. Krummrich, “Combinatorial wavelength selective mirror concatenation for unambiguous subscriber line monitoring in FTTH/PON with high subscriber counts,” in IEEE Photonics Conf., Arlington, VA, Oct. 2011, pp. 933–934.

C. M. Bentz, D. Fritzsche, E. Weis, and P. M. Krummrich, “Field trial of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, Mar. 2013, paper NM2I.1.

C. M. Bentz and P. M. Krummrich, “Zuverlässigkeitsuntersuchung zur PON-Überwachungsmethode Kombinatorik kaskadierter Spiegel (Kaskatorik) bei vielen Teilnehmern und geringer Ortsauflösung der Messeinrichtung,” in 13. ITG Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, May 2012.

C. M. Bentz, L. Baudzus, and P. M. Krummrich, “Measurements of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations using composite coding scheme OTDR for SNR enhancement,” in 14. ITG Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, May 2013.

Leppla, R.

A. Gladisch, L. Christoph, and R. Leppla, “Power efficiency of optical versus electronic access networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Brussels, Sept. 2008, pp. 1–4.

Lovric, A.

S. Aleksić and A. Lovrić, “Power consumption of wired access network technologies,” in 7th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), July 2010, pp. 147–151.

Matera, F.

A. Valenti, F. Matera, and G. T. Beleffi, “Power consumption measurements of access networks in a wide geographical area test bed and economic perspectives,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), Rome, July 2012, pp. 1–6.

Megret, P.

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Athens, June 2008, pp. 92–98.

Mehedy, L.

Moeyaert, V.

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Athens, June 2008, pp. 92–98.

Nirmalathas, A.

Pachnicke, S.

C. M. Bentz, S. Pachnicke, and P. M. Krummrich, “Combinatorial wavelength selective mirror concatenation for unambiguous subscriber line monitoring in FTTH/PON with high subscriber counts,” in IEEE Photonics Conf., Arlington, VA, Oct. 2011, pp. 933–934.

Rohde, H.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, and E. Gottwald, “Next generation ultra high capacity PONs,” in 23rd Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Nov. 2010, pp. 403–404.

Schurer, L.

A. Erhardt, F. Escher, L. Schurer, H.-M. Foisel, A. Templin, M. Adamy, and C. Gerlach, “PON measurements and monitoring solutions for FTTH networks during deployment and operation,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Stockholm, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Segarra, J.

J. Segarra, “Access services availability and traffic forecast in PON deployment,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Barcelona, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Sharpe, R.

E. Harsted and R. Sharpe, “Future fiber-to-the-home bandwidth demands favor time division multiplexing passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 11, pp. 218–223Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Shaw, W.-T.

Shumate, P. W.

Skafidas, E.

Smolorz, S.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, and E. Gottwald, “Next generation ultra high capacity PONs,” in 23rd Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Nov. 2010, pp. 403–404.

Templin, A.

A. Erhardt, F. Escher, L. Schurer, H.-M. Foisel, A. Templin, M. Adamy, and C. Gerlach, “PON measurements and monitoring solutions for FTTH networks during deployment and operation,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Stockholm, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

Valenti, A.

A. Valenti, F. Matera, and G. T. Beleffi, “Power consumption measurements of access networks in a wide geographical area test bed and economic perspectives,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), Rome, July 2012, pp. 1–6.

Weis, E.

C. M. Bentz, D. Fritzsche, E. Weis, and P. M. Krummrich, “Field trial of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, Mar. 2013, paper NM2I.1.

Wong, S.-W.

Wuilpart, M.

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Athens, June 2008, pp. 92–98.

Yuksel, K.

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Athens, June 2008, pp. 92–98.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

E. Harsted and R. Sharpe, “Future fiber-to-the-home bandwidth demands favor time division multiplexing passive optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 11, pp. 218–223Nov. 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Other (11)

K. Yuksel, V. Moeyaert, M. Wuilpart, and P. Megret, “Optical layer monitoring in passive optical networks (PONs): a review,” in 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Athens, June 2008, pp. 92–98.

C. M. Bentz, S. Pachnicke, and P. M. Krummrich, “Combinatorial wavelength selective mirror concatenation for unambiguous subscriber line monitoring in FTTH/PON with high subscriber counts,” in IEEE Photonics Conf., Arlington, VA, Oct. 2011, pp. 933–934.

C. M. Bentz and P. M. Krummrich, “Zuverlässigkeitsuntersuchung zur PON-Überwachungsmethode Kombinatorik kaskadierter Spiegel (Kaskatorik) bei vielen Teilnehmern und geringer Ortsauflösung der Messeinrichtung,” in 13. ITG Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, May 2012.

C. M. Bentz, D. Fritzsche, E. Weis, and P. M. Krummrich, “Field trial of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Expo. and Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Anaheim, Mar. 2013, paper NM2I.1.

C. M. Bentz, L. Baudzus, and P. M. Krummrich, “Measurements of a novel FTTH/PON monitoring technique based on unique wavelength-selective mirror combinations using composite coding scheme OTDR for SNR enhancement,” in 14. ITG Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, May 2013.

J. Segarra, “Access services availability and traffic forecast in PON deployment,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Barcelona, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

S. Aleksić and A. Lovrić, “Power consumption of wired access network technologies,” in 7th Int. Symp. on Communication Systems Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), July 2010, pp. 147–151.

A. Erhardt, F. Escher, L. Schurer, H.-M. Foisel, A. Templin, M. Adamy, and C. Gerlach, “PON measurements and monitoring solutions for FTTH networks during deployment and operation,” in 13th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Stockholm, June 2011, pp. 1–6.

A. Valenti, F. Matera, and G. T. Beleffi, “Power consumption measurements of access networks in a wide geographical area test bed and economic perspectives,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), Rome, July 2012, pp. 1–6.

A. Gladisch, L. Christoph, and R. Leppla, “Power efficiency of optical versus electronic access networks,” in 34th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Brussels, Sept. 2008, pp. 1–4.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, and E. Gottwald, “Next generation ultra high capacity PONs,” in 23rd Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Nov. 2010, pp. 403–404.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example for a passive optical power splitter PON with two splitting stages. The whole ODN, including all drop fibers, has to be monitored, irrespective of whether or not ONUs are connected.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Maximum unique mirror combinations (Nsubscr.) against number of measurement wavelengths Nλm. The number of concatenated mirrors is noted next to each graph, increasing from right to left (gray arrow). The red horizontal line indicates the number of subscribers to be connected to the PON Ntarget=1024.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of Eq. (3) for Ntarget=1024 illustrating the influence of various Nλm and NMirrors. Only feasible values satisfying Eq. (2) are plotted.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of Eq. (3) for Ntarget=128 illustrating the influence of various Nλm and NMirrors. Only feasible values satisfying Eq. (2) are plotted. Note the y axis scale change in comparison to Fig 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematical measurement system setup deployed for the field trial. The CW laser sources are selected via an optical fiber switch and fed into a LiNbO3 intensity modulator. The optical impulse is sent to the PON via a circulator. Reflected optical signals are passed to an APD detector for data acquisition by an oscilloscope.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic drawing of the field trial setup. Two optical power splitters with splitting ratios of 14 and 18 were cascaded to emulate a 132 splitting. Unused splitter ports were terminated by open APCs. The feeder fiber consisted of 1.3 km of in-house fiber and 36.2 km of deployed SSMF with a one-way attenuation of 14.2 dB. The one-way attenuation of the passive optical power splitters was 16.5 dB. This results in a total one-way attenuation of at least 30.7 dB.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

All six subscribers are connected. Vertical dotted lines indicate reflections at the same distance. For easier interpretation, the subscriber IDs from Fig. 6 were added to the reflections and the wavelength color scheme is adopted.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Compared to Fig. 7, the reflections at λE and λG corresponding to a distance of 37.603 km are missing. Obviously the connection to subscriber VI is interrupted. The drop fiber to subscriber III is subject to bending loss.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Compared to Fig. 7 the reflection at λC corresponding to a distance of 37.550 km is missing, and the reflection amplitude at λA is approximately halved. Obviously the connection to subscriber I is interrupted.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Nsubscr.=(NλmNMirrors).
Nsubscr.Ntarget.
Nrefl./λm=Ntarget*NMirrorsNλm.
Nsubscr.=(NλmNMirrors)=(42)=6.