Abstract

The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (5)

L. Liu, R. Muñoz, R. Casellas, T. Tsuritani, R. Martínez, and I. Morita, “OpenSlice: An OpenFlow-based control plane for spectrum sliced elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 4, pp. 4194–4204, Feb. 2013.
[CrossRef]

M. Channegowda, R. Nejabati, M. Rashidi Fard, S. Peng, N. Amaya, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, R. Vilalta, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, R. Muñoz, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, A. Autenrieth, J. P. Elbers, P. Kostecki, and P. Kaczmarek, “Experimental demonstration of an OpenFlow based software-defined optical network employing packet, fixed and flexible DWDM grid technologies on an international multi-domain testbed,” Opt. Express, vol.  21, no. 5, pp. 5487–5498, Mar. 2013.
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Choi, L. Liu, T. Tsuritani, and I. Morita, “Demonstration of BER-adaptive WSON employing flexible transmitter/receiver with an extended OpenFlow-based control plane,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  25, no. 2, pp. 119–121, Jan. 2013.
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, M. De Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, no. 1, pp. 65–87, 2013.
[CrossRef]

T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive quality of transmission estimator for core optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 942–951, Mar. 2013.
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
[CrossRef]

Z. Movahevic, M. Ayari, R. Langar, and G. Pujolle, “A survey of autonomic network architectures and evaluation criteria,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 464–490, 2012.
[CrossRef]

W. Wei, C. Wang, and J. Yu, “Cognitive optical networks: Key drivers, enabling techniques, and adaptive bandwidth services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. 106–113, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (4)

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  2, no. 3, pp. 387–403, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Spinnler, “Equalizer design and complexity for digital coherent receivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol.  16, no. 5, pp. 1180–1192, Sept.–Oct. 2010.
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  22, no. 21, pp. 1601–1603, Nov. 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. V. Kiran, T. Venkatesh, and C. S. R. Murthy, “A reinforcement learning framework for path selection and wavelength selection in optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  25, no. 9, pp. 18–26, Dec. 2007.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Praveen, B. Praveen, T. Venkatesh, Y. V. Kiran, and C. S. R. Murthy, “A first step toward autonomic optical burst switched networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol.  24, no. 12, pp. 94–105, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Thomas, D. H. Friend, L. A. DaSilva, and A. B. MacKenzie, “Cognitive networks: Adaptation and learning to achieve end-to-end performance objectives,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, pp. 51–57, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, “Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol.  6, no. 2, pp. 197–206, Apr. 1998.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Aamodt and E. Plaza, “Case-based reasoning: Foundational issues, methodological variations, and system approaches,” AI Comm., vol.  7, no. 1, pp. 39–59, 1994.

Aamodt, A.

A. Aamodt and E. Plaza, “Case-based reasoning: Foundational issues, methodological variations, and system approaches,” AI Comm., vol.  7, no. 1, pp. 39–59, 1994.

Abril, E. J.

T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive quality of transmission estimator for core optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 942–951, Mar. 2013.
[CrossRef]

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, N. Merayo, J. C. Aguado, P. Fernández, T. Jiménez, I. Rodríguez, D. Sánchez, R. M. Lorenzo, E. J. Abril, M. Angelou, and I. Tomkos, “Survivable and impairment-aware virtual topologies for reconfigurable optical networks: A cognitive approach,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012, pp. 183–189.

R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

Agraz, F.

Aguado, J. C.

T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive quality of transmission estimator for core optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 942–951, Mar. 2013.
[CrossRef]

I. Rodríguez, R. J. Durán, D. Siracusa, I. de Miguel, A. Francescon, J. C. Aguado, E. Salvadori, and R. M. Lorenzo, “Minimization of the impact of the TED inaccuracy problem in PCE-based networks by means of cognition,” accepted for presentation at ECOC, paper We.4.E.2.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, N. Merayo, J. C. Aguado, P. Fernández, T. Jiménez, I. Rodríguez, D. Sánchez, R. M. Lorenzo, E. J. Abril, M. Angelou, and I. Tomkos, “Survivable and impairment-aware virtual topologies for reconfigurable optical networks: A cognitive approach,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012, pp. 183–189.

E. Palkopolou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, T. Jiménez, N. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, J. López, Y. Ye, and I. Tomkos, “Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network: A techno-economic evaluation,” in Proc. Future Network and Mobile Summit, 2013.

R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

Al Zahr, S.

Alfiad, M. S.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J., vol.  2, no. 3, pp. 387–403, June 2010.
[CrossRef]

Ali, Z.

Z. Ali, S. Sivabalan, C. Filsfils, R. Varga, and V. Lopez, “Path computation element communication protocol (PCEP): Extensions for remote-initiated GMPLS LSP setup,” IETF draft (draft-ali-pce-remote-initiated-gmpls-lsp-00.txt), 2013.

Amaya, N.

Angelou, M.

T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive quality of transmission estimator for core optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 942–951, Mar. 2013.
[CrossRef]

S. Azodolmoky, J. Perelló, M. Angelou, F. Agraz, L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, Y. Pointurier, A. Francescon, C. V. Saradhi, P. Kokkinos, E. Varvarigos, S. Al Zahr, M. Gagnaire, M. Gunkel, D. Klonidis, and I. Tomkos, “Experimental demonstration of an impairment aware network planning and operation tool for transparent/translucent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 439–448, 2011.
[CrossRef]

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, N. Merayo, J. C. Aguado, P. Fernández, T. Jiménez, I. Rodríguez, D. Sánchez, R. M. Lorenzo, E. J. Abril, M. Angelou, and I. Tomkos, “Survivable and impairment-aware virtual topologies for reconfigurable optical networks: A cognitive approach,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012, pp. 183–189.

D. Siracusa, E. Salvadori, A. Francescon, A. Zanardi, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, D. Sánchez, R. J. Durán, and I. de Miguel, “A control plane framework for future cognitive heterogeneous optical networks,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012.

I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Caballero, I. Tafur Monroy, Y. Ye, A. Tymecki, I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, A. Francescon, D. Siracusa, and E. Salvadori, “Cognitive dynamic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2013, paper OW1H.1.

I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, R. J. Durán Barroso, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo Toledo, D. Siracusa, E. Salvadori, A. Tymecki, Y. Ye, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Next generation flexible and cognitive heterogeneous optical networks,” in The Future Internet—Future Internet Assembly 2012: From Promises to Reality. Springer, 2012, pp. 225–236.

R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

Ash, J.

A. Farrel, J.-P. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” , 2006.

Atallah, N.

R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

Autenrieth, A.

Ayari, M.

Z. Movahevic, M. Ayari, R. Langar, and G. Pujolle, “A survey of autonomic network architectures and evaluation criteria,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  14, no. 2, pp. 464–490, 2012.
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Azizoglu, M.

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R. W. Thomas, D. H. Friend, L. A. DaSilva, and A. B. MacKenzie, “Cognitive networks: Adaptation and learning to achieve end-to-end performance objectives,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, pp. 51–57, Dec. 2006.
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D. Siracusa, E. Salvadori, A. Francescon, A. Zanardi, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, D. Sánchez, R. J. Durán, and I. de Miguel, “A control plane framework for future cognitive heterogeneous optical networks,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012.

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N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, E. Palkopoulou, I. de Miguel, I. Stiakogiannakis, N. Merayo, I. Tomkos, and R. M. Lorenzo, “Virtual topology design and reconfiguration using cognition: Performance evaluation in case of failure,” accepted for presentation at RNDM.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, N. Merayo, J. C. Aguado, P. Fernández, T. Jiménez, I. Rodríguez, D. Sánchez, R. M. Lorenzo, E. J. Abril, M. Angelou, and I. Tomkos, “Survivable and impairment-aware virtual topologies for reconfigurable optical networks: A cognitive approach,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012, pp. 183–189.

R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

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T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive quality of transmission estimator for core optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 942–951, Mar. 2013.
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I. Rodríguez, R. J. Durán, D. Siracusa, I. de Miguel, A. Francescon, J. C. Aguado, E. Salvadori, and R. M. Lorenzo, “Minimization of the impact of the TED inaccuracy problem in PCE-based networks by means of cognition,” accepted for presentation at ECOC, paper We.4.E.2.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, N. Merayo, J. C. Aguado, P. Fernández, T. Jiménez, I. Rodríguez, D. Sánchez, R. M. Lorenzo, E. J. Abril, M. Angelou, and I. Tomkos, “Survivable and impairment-aware virtual topologies for reconfigurable optical networks: A cognitive approach,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012, pp. 183–189.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, E. Palkopoulou, I. de Miguel, I. Stiakogiannakis, N. Merayo, I. Tomkos, and R. M. Lorenzo, “Virtual topology design and reconfiguration using cognition: Performance evaluation in case of failure,” accepted for presentation at RNDM.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, E. Palkopoulou, I. de Miguel, I. Stiakogiannakis, N. Merayo, I. Tomkos, and R. M. Lorenzo, “Techno-economic advantages of cognitive virtual topology design,” accepted for presentation at ECOC, paper Tu.3.E.6.

I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Caballero, I. Tafur Monroy, Y. Ye, A. Tymecki, I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, A. Francescon, D. Siracusa, and E. Salvadori, “Cognitive dynamic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2013, paper OW1H.1.

R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

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N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, E. Palkopoulou, I. de Miguel, I. Stiakogiannakis, N. Merayo, I. Tomkos, and R. M. Lorenzo, “Techno-economic advantages of cognitive virtual topology design,” accepted for presentation at ECOC, paper Tu.3.E.6.

R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

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T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive quality of transmission estimator for core optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 942–951, Mar. 2013.
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R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

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D. Siracusa, E. Salvadori, A. Francescon, A. Zanardi, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, D. Sánchez, R. J. Durán, and I. de Miguel, “A control plane framework for future cognitive heterogeneous optical networks,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012.

R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Caballero, I. Tafur Monroy, Y. Ye, A. Tymecki, I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, A. Francescon, D. Siracusa, and E. Salvadori, “Cognitive dynamic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2013, paper OW1H.1.

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A. Autenrieth, J.-P. Elbers, M. Eiselt, K. Grobe, B. Teipen, and H. Griesser, “Evaluation of technology options for software-defined transceivers in fixed WDM grid versus flexible WDM grid optical transport networks,” in Proc. 14th ITG Symp. on Photonic Networks, May 2013.

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A. Autenrieth, J.-P. Elbers, M. Eiselt, K. Grobe, B. Teipen, and H. Griesser, “Evaluation of technology options for software-defined transceivers in fixed WDM grid versus flexible WDM grid optical transport networks,” in Proc. 14th ITG Symp. on Photonic Networks, May 2013.

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N. Sambo, P. Castoldi, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, and P. Iovanna, “Toward high-rate and flexible optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. 66–72, May 2012.
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E. Palkopolou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, T. Jiménez, N. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, J. López, Y. Ye, and I. Tomkos, “Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network: A techno-economic evaluation,” in Proc. Future Network and Mobile Summit, 2013.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, N. Merayo, J. C. Aguado, P. Fernández, T. Jiménez, I. Rodríguez, D. Sánchez, R. M. Lorenzo, E. J. Abril, M. Angelou, and I. Tomkos, “Survivable and impairment-aware virtual topologies for reconfigurable optical networks: A cognitive approach,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012, pp. 183–189.

R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

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S. Azodolmoky, J. Perelló, M. Angelou, F. Agraz, L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, Y. Pointurier, A. Francescon, C. V. Saradhi, P. Kokkinos, E. Varvarigos, S. Al Zahr, M. Gagnaire, M. Gunkel, D. Klonidis, and I. Tomkos, “Experimental demonstration of an impairment aware network planning and operation tool for transparent/translucent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 439–448, 2011.
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I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Caballero, I. Tafur Monroy, Y. Ye, A. Tymecki, I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, A. Francescon, D. Siracusa, and E. Salvadori, “Cognitive dynamic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2013, paper OW1H.1.

I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, R. J. Durán Barroso, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo Toledo, D. Siracusa, E. Salvadori, A. Tymecki, Y. Ye, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Next generation flexible and cognitive heterogeneous optical networks,” in The Future Internet—Future Internet Assembly 2012: From Promises to Reality. Springer, 2012, pp. 225–236.

N. Guerrero Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper P6.11.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
[CrossRef]

Teipen, B.

A. Autenrieth, J.-P. Elbers, M. Eiselt, K. Grobe, B. Teipen, and H. Griesser, “Evaluation of technology options for software-defined transceivers in fixed WDM grid versus flexible WDM grid optical transport networks,” in Proc. 14th ITG Symp. on Photonic Networks, May 2013.

Teixeira, A.

D. Dahan, U. Mahlab, A. Teixeira, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, “Optical performance monitoring for translucent/transparent optical networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 1, pp. 1–18, Feb. 2011.
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Thomas, R. W.

R. W. Thomas, D. H. Friend, L. A. DaSilva, and A. B. MacKenzie, “Cognitive networks: Adaptation and learning to achieve end-to-end performance objectives,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  44, pp. 51–57, Dec. 2006.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, R. M. Lorenzo, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive quality of transmission estimator for core optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, no. 6, pp. 942–951, Mar. 2013.
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S. Azodolmoky, J. Perelló, M. Angelou, F. Agraz, L. Velasco, S. Spadaro, Y. Pointurier, A. Francescon, C. V. Saradhi, P. Kokkinos, E. Varvarigos, S. Al Zahr, M. Gagnaire, M. Gunkel, D. Klonidis, and I. Tomkos, “Experimental demonstration of an impairment aware network planning and operation tool for transparent/translucent optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  29, no. 4, pp. 439–448, 2011.
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D. Dahan, U. Mahlab, A. Teixeira, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, “Optical performance monitoring for translucent/transparent optical networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 1, pp. 1–18, Feb. 2011.
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R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Caballero, I. Tafur Monroy, Y. Ye, A. Tymecki, I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, A. Francescon, D. Siracusa, and E. Salvadori, “Cognitive dynamic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2013, paper OW1H.1.

I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, R. J. Durán Barroso, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo Toledo, D. Siracusa, E. Salvadori, A. Tymecki, Y. Ye, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Next generation flexible and cognitive heterogeneous optical networks,” in The Future Internet—Future Internet Assembly 2012: From Promises to Reality. Springer, 2012, pp. 225–236.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, N. Merayo, J. C. Aguado, P. Fernández, T. Jiménez, I. Rodríguez, D. Sánchez, R. M. Lorenzo, E. J. Abril, M. Angelou, and I. Tomkos, “Survivable and impairment-aware virtual topologies for reconfigurable optical networks: A cognitive approach,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012, pp. 183–189.

E. Palkopolou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, T. Jiménez, N. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, J. López, Y. Ye, and I. Tomkos, “Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network: A techno-economic evaluation,” in Proc. Future Network and Mobile Summit, 2013.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, E. Palkopoulou, I. de Miguel, I. Stiakogiannakis, N. Merayo, I. Tomkos, and R. M. Lorenzo, “Virtual topology design and reconfiguration using cognition: Performance evaluation in case of failure,” accepted for presentation at RNDM.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, E. Palkopoulou, I. de Miguel, I. Stiakogiannakis, N. Merayo, I. Tomkos, and R. M. Lorenzo, “Techno-economic advantages of cognitive virtual topology design,” accepted for presentation at ECOC, paper Tu.3.E.6.

D. Siracusa, E. Salvadori, A. Francescon, A. Zanardi, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, D. Sánchez, R. J. Durán, and I. de Miguel, “A control plane framework for future cognitive heterogeneous optical networks,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012.

Tsuritani, T.

Tymecki, A.

I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, R. J. Durán Barroso, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo Toledo, D. Siracusa, E. Salvadori, A. Tymecki, Y. Ye, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Next generation flexible and cognitive heterogeneous optical networks,” in The Future Internet—Future Internet Assembly 2012: From Promises to Reality. Springer, 2012, pp. 225–236.

I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Caballero, I. Tafur Monroy, Y. Ye, A. Tymecki, I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, A. Francescon, D. Siracusa, and E. Salvadori, “Cognitive dynamic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2013, paper OW1H.1.

Valcarenghi, L.

L. Valcarenghi, “Cognitive PONs: A novel approach toward energy efficiency,” in Proc. Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Nov. 2012, paper ATh1D.1.

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Z. Ali, S. Sivabalan, C. Filsfils, R. Varga, and V. Lopez, “Path computation element communication protocol (PCEP): Extensions for remote-initiated GMPLS LSP setup,” IETF draft (draft-ali-pce-remote-initiated-gmpls-lsp-00.txt), 2013.

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M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  48, pp. 138–145, Aug. 2010.
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I. H. Witten, E. Frank, and M. A. Hall, Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques, 3rd ed. Morgan Kaufmann, 2011.

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E. Palkopolou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, T. Jiménez, N. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, J. López, Y. Ye, and I. Tomkos, “Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network: A techno-economic evaluation,” in Proc. Future Network and Mobile Summit, 2013.

I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, R. J. Durán Barroso, I. de Miguel, R. M. Lorenzo Toledo, D. Siracusa, E. Salvadori, A. Tymecki, Y. Ye, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Next generation flexible and cognitive heterogeneous optical networks,” in The Future Internet—Future Internet Assembly 2012: From Promises to Reality. Springer, 2012, pp. 225–236.

I. de Miguel, R. J. Durán, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Caballero, I. Tafur Monroy, Y. Ye, A. Tymecki, I. Tomkos, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, A. Francescon, D. Siracusa, and E. Salvadori, “Cognitive dynamic optical networks,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2013, paper OW1H.1.

F. Pittalà, F. N. Hauske, Y. Ye, N. G. Gonzalez, and I. T. Monroy, “Joint PDL and in-band OSNR monitoring supported by data-aided channel estimation,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 4–8, 2012.

Yedugundla, V. K.

R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

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O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, no. 2, pp. s12–s20, Feb. 2012.
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W. Wei, C. Wang, and J. Yu, “Cognitive optical networks: Key drivers, enabling techniques, and adaptive bandwidth services,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. 106–113, Jan. 2012.
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Zacharopoulos, I.

D. Dahan, U. Mahlab, A. Teixeira, I. Zacharopoulos, and I. Tomkos, “Optical performance monitoring for translucent/transparent optical networks,” IET Optoelectron., vol.  5, no. 1, pp. 1–18, Feb. 2011.
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Zanardi, A.

D. Siracusa, E. Salvadori, A. Francescon, A. Zanardi, M. Angelou, D. Klonidis, I. Tomkos, D. Sánchez, R. J. Durán, and I. de Miguel, “A control plane framework for future cognitive heterogeneous optical networks,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012.

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Zervas, G. S.

G. S. Zervas and D. Simeonidou, “Cognitive optical networks: Need, requirements and architecture,” in Proc. ICTON, 2010, paper We.C1.3.

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G. Zhang, M. De Leenheer, A. Morea, and B. Mukherjee, “A survey on OFDM-based elastic core optical networking,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol.  15, no. 1, pp. 65–87, 2013.
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N. Guerrero Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper P6.11.

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R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, D. Sánchez, N. Fernández, T. Jiménez, J. C. Aguado, V. K. Yedugundla, M. Angelou, N. Merayo, P. Fernández, N. Atallah, R. M. Lorenzo, A. Francescon, I. Tomkos, and E. J. Abril, “A cognitive decision system for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks,” in Proc. Future Network & Mobile Summit, 2012.

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F. Pittalà, F. N. Hauske, Y. Ye, N. G. Gonzalez, and I. T. Monroy, “Joint PDL and in-band OSNR monitoring supported by data-aided channel estimation,” in Proc. OFC, Mar. 4–8, 2012.

A. Autenrieth, J.-P. Elbers, M. Eiselt, K. Grobe, B. Teipen, and H. Griesser, “Evaluation of technology options for software-defined transceivers in fixed WDM grid versus flexible WDM grid optical transport networks,” in Proc. 14th ITG Symp. on Photonic Networks, May 2013.

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E. Palkopolou, I. Stiakogiannakis, D. Klonidis, T. Jiménez, N. Fernández, J. C. Aguado, J. López, Y. Ye, and I. Tomkos, “Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network: A techno-economic evaluation,” in Proc. Future Network and Mobile Summit, 2013.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, I. de Miguel, N. Merayo, J. C. Aguado, P. Fernández, T. Jiménez, I. Rodríguez, D. Sánchez, R. M. Lorenzo, E. J. Abril, M. Angelou, and I. Tomkos, “Survivable and impairment-aware virtual topologies for reconfigurable optical networks: A cognitive approach,” in Proc. RNDM, 2012, pp. 183–189.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, E. Palkopoulou, I. de Miguel, I. Stiakogiannakis, N. Merayo, I. Tomkos, and R. M. Lorenzo, “Techno-economic advantages of cognitive virtual topology design,” accepted for presentation at ECOC, paper Tu.3.E.6.

N. Fernández, R. J. Durán, E. Palkopoulou, I. de Miguel, I. Stiakogiannakis, N. Merayo, I. Tomkos, and R. M. Lorenzo, “Virtual topology design and reconfiguration using cognition: Performance evaluation in case of failure,” accepted for presentation at RNDM.

N. Guerrero Gonzalez, D. Zibar, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links,” in Proc. ECOC, 2010, paper P6.11.

G. Zervas, K. Banias, B. R. Rofoee, N. Amaya, and D. Simeonidou, “Multi-core, multi-band and multi-dimensional cognitive optical networks: An architecture on demand approach,” in Proc. ICTON, 2012.

L. Valcarenghi, “Cognitive PONs: A novel approach toward energy efficiency,” in Proc. Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Nov. 2012, paper ATh1D.1.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cognitive loop.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CHRON schematic architecture (for a network with centralized cognition).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Percentage of successful classifications and false positives obtained by different data mining techniques when used for QoT assessment in the GÉANT2 network [5].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Maximum normalized total revenues that a network operator can obtain as a function of the maximum acceptable blocking probability in the Deutsche Telekom network with 64 wavelengths per link [46].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Number of solutions found depending on the time in which the request to design the virtual topology is created [47].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Percentage of solutions that belong to the common POS depending on the time in which the request to design the virtual topology is created [47].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Cognitive signal modulation format recognition for three data payloads with alternating QPSK, 8PSK, and 16QAM modulation formats [50].