Abstract

This paper investigates the spectrum fragmentation issue, which undermines the bandwidth efficiency in elastic optical networks. After categorizing the two-dimensional fragmentation problem as the fragmentation and misalignment subproblems, this paper proposes joint routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) algorithms to alleviate the spectral fragmentation in the lightpath provisioning process. The time complexity of the two proposed algorithms are analyzed in detail, and both algorithms can run in O(kdnClogC) time, where k is the number of the shortest path in the routing algorithm, d is the maximum node degree in the network, n is the number of nodes in the network, and C is the link capacity expressed as the number of spectral slots. Simulation results indicate that the proposed fragmentation-aware (FA) RSA algorithm and the FA algorithm with congestion avoidance (CA) outperform the existing schemes in terms of blocking probability (BP) reduction. Compared with the benchmark K-shortest-path routing and first-fit assignment (KSP-FF) algorithm, the proposed FA and FA-CA algorithms can achieve a BP reduction of [100%, 4.43%] and [100%, 6.45%], respectively, according to the traffic load in a sample NSFNET topology.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  3. “Spectral grids for WDM applications: DWDM frequency grid,” , Feb. 2012.
  4. D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Fundamental Algorithms, 3rd ed. Addison-Wesley, 1973, vol. 1.
  5. S. Kosaka, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Shared protected elastic optical path network design that applies iterative re-optimization based on resource utilization efficiency measures,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.4.D.5.
  6. C. T. Politi, V. Anagnostopoulos, C. Matrakidis, and A. Stavdas, “Dynamic flexi-grid OFDM optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.3.D.3.
  7. N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Routing and spectrum assignment for super-channels in flex-grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Mo.1.D.4.
  8. A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, 2011, paper OTuI8.
  9. T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, 2011.
  10. Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.
  12. Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.
  13. S. J. B. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, pp. 955–966, 1996.
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Malis, P. Pate, E. R. Cohen, and D. Zelig, “Synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) circuit emulation over packet (CEP),” , 2007.
  15. Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in INFOCOM, 2011, pp. 1503–1511.
  16. Y. Edel and A. Klein, “Implementation of population count algorithms,” 2009 [Online]. Available: http://cage.ugent.be/~klein/popc.html .

2012 (2)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, pp. 955–966, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Anagnostopoulos, V.

C. T. Politi, V. Anagnostopoulos, C. Matrakidis, and A. Stavdas, “Dynamic flexi-grid OFDM optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.3.D.3.

Bottari, G.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Routing and spectrum assignment for super-channels in flex-grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Mo.1.D.4.

Cao, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in INFOCOM, 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Castoldi, P.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Routing and spectrum assignment for super-channels in flex-grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Mo.1.D.4.

Chang, S.

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Cohen, E. R.

A. Malis, P. Pate, E. R. Cohen, and D. Zelig, “Synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) circuit emulation over packet (CEP),” , 2007.

Cugini, F.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Routing and spectrum assignment for super-channels in flex-grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Mo.1.D.4.

Geisler, D. J.

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, H.

S. Kosaka, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Shared protected elastic optical path network design that applies iterative re-optimization based on resource utilization efficiency measures,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.4.D.5.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, 2011.

Hirano, A.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, 2011.

S. Kosaka, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Shared protected elastic optical path network design that applies iterative re-optimization based on resource utilization efficiency measures,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.4.D.5.

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

Iovanna, P.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Routing and spectrum assignment for super-channels in flex-grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Mo.1.D.4.

Ishida, O.

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

Ji, P. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, 2011, paper OTuI8.

Jinno, M.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Kosaka, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Shared protected elastic optical path network design that applies iterative re-optimization based on resource utilization efficiency measures,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.4.D.5.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, 2011.

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

Jue, J. P.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, 2011, paper OTuI8.

Kadohata, A.

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

Knuth, D. E.

D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Fundamental Algorithms, 3rd ed. Addison-Wesley, 1973, vol. 1.

Kosaka, S.

S. Kosaka, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Shared protected elastic optical path network design that applies iterative re-optimization based on resource utilization efficiency measures,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.4.D.5.

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Malis, A.

A. Malis, P. Pate, E. R. Cohen, and D. Zelig, “Synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) circuit emulation over packet (CEP),” , 2007.

Matrakidis, C.

C. T. Politi, V. Anagnostopoulos, C. Matrakidis, and A. Stavdas, “Dynamic flexi-grid OFDM optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.3.D.3.

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in INFOCOM, 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Pate, P.

A. Malis, P. Pate, E. R. Cohen, and D. Zelig, “Synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) circuit emulation over packet (CEP),” , 2007.

Patel, A. N.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, 2011, paper OTuI8.

Politi, C. T.

C. T. Politi, V. Anagnostopoulos, C. Matrakidis, and A. Stavdas, “Dynamic flexi-grid OFDM optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.3.D.3.

Sambo, N.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Routing and spectrum assignment for super-channels in flex-grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Mo.1.D.4.

Sato, K.-i.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, 2011.

S. Kosaka, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Shared protected elastic optical path network design that applies iterative re-optimization based on resource utilization efficiency measures,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.4.D.5.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, 2011.

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

Stavdas, A.

C. T. Politi, V. Anagnostopoulos, C. Matrakidis, and A. Stavdas, “Dynamic flexi-grid OFDM optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.3.D.3.

Takagi, T.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, 2011.

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kosaka, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Shared protected elastic optical path network design that applies iterative re-optimization based on resource utilization efficiency measures,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.4.D.5.

Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, 2011, paper OTuI8.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in INFOCOM, 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Wen, K.

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Yoo, S. J. B.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Y. Yin, K. Wen, D. J. Geisler, R. Liu, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand defragmentation in flexible bandwidth elastic optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol.  20, pp. 1798–1804, Jan. 2012.
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, pp. 955–966, 1996.
[CrossRef]

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Zelig, D.

A. Malis, P. Pate, E. R. Cohen, and D. Zelig, “Synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) circuit emulation over packet (CEP),” , 2007.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  47, pp. 66–73, 2009.
[CrossRef]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: A new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  50, pp. s12–s20, 2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, “Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  14, pp. 955–966, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (12)

K. Wen, Y. Yin, D. J. Geisler, S. Chang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Dynamic on-demand lightpath provisioning using spectral defragmentation in flexible bandwidth networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.2.K.4.

Y. Sone, A. Hirano, A. Kadohata, M. Jinno, and O. Ishida, “Routing and spectrum assignment algorithm maximizes spectrum utilization in optical networks,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, paper Mo.1.K.3.

A. Malis, P. Pate, E. R. Cohen, and D. Zelig, “Synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) circuit emulation over packet (CEP),” , 2007.

Y. Wang, X. Cao, and Y. Pan, “A study of the routing and spectrum allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks,” in INFOCOM, 2011, pp. 1503–1511.

Y. Edel and A. Klein, “Implementation of population count algorithms,” 2009 [Online]. Available: http://cage.ugent.be/~klein/popc.html .

“Spectral grids for WDM applications: DWDM frequency grid,” , Feb. 2012.

D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Fundamental Algorithms, 3rd ed. Addison-Wesley, 1973, vol. 1.

S. Kosaka, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Shared protected elastic optical path network design that applies iterative re-optimization based on resource utilization efficiency measures,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.4.D.5.

C. T. Politi, V. Anagnostopoulos, C. Matrakidis, and A. Stavdas, “Dynamic flexi-grid OFDM optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Tu.3.D.3.

N. Sambo, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, and P. Castoldi, “Routing and spectrum assignment for super-channels in flex-grid optical networks,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2012, paper Mo.1.D.4.

A. N. Patel, P. N. Ji, J. P. Jue, and T. Wang, “Defragmentation of transparent flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, 2011, paper OTuI8.

T. Takagi, H. Hasegawa, K.-i. Sato, Y. Sone, A. Hirano, and M. Jinno, “Disruption minimized spectrum defragmentation in elastic optical path networks that adopt distance adaptive modulation,” in European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, 2011.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Sample network and the spectral fragmentation shown in the dashed outline in (b), (b) the spectral dimension on a link, and (c) the spatial dimension on neighboring links.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Example FISH network and the spectral assignment status on the links, (b) number of cuts to all the candidate solutions to connection request A–E, and (c) misalignment increase for the choice of path ADE with slot 8 or slot 2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Blocking probability comparison of different algorithms in (a) the 14-node NSFNET network and (b) the 28-node USBN network.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Fragmentation-Aware RSA Algorithms

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Fcmt=Fc+Fm/(S×N)+H×S/C,