Abstract

We demonstrate a bidirectional millimeter-wave (mmW) radio-over-fiber system based on the use of a p–i–n photodiode (PD) biased in the nonlinear regime. Since frequency down-conversion and photodetection are carried out by a single photodiode, the base station (BS) architecture is simplified. Down-link transmission employs an optical heterodyning technique for mmW generation and remote local oscillator (LO) delivery to BSs. The up-link scheme uses the electrical port of the PD as an input for optoelectronic mixing with the remotely delivered LO. Up-link and down-link have been successfully demonstrated for 397 Mbps and 794 Mbps binary phase-shift keying complying with the 60 GHz ECMA 387 standard. Error vector magnitude measurements and theoretical analysis are discussed as regards optimal PD bias conditions. It is shown that PD can be used in this bidirectional system without any switching of the PD bias.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. T.-T. Pham, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, L. Dittmann, and I. T. Monroy, “A WDM-PON-compatible system for simultaneous distribution of gigabit baseband and wireless ultrawideband services with flexible bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  2. G.-K. Chang, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, and G. Ellinas, “Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. C35–C50, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Malyshev and A. L. Chizh, “P-I-N photodiodes for frequency mixing in radio-over-fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3236–3243, Nov.2007.
    [CrossRef]
  4. F.-M. Kuo, Y.-S. Wu, and J.-W. Shi, “Near-ballistic unitraveling-carrier photodiode-based V-band optoelectronic mixers with low upconversion loss and high operation current performance under optical IF signal injection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 21–23, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Vegas Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Reconfigurable radio-over-fiber networks: Multiple-access functionality directly over the optical layer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 3001–3010, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y.-Y. Won, H.-S. Kim, Y.-H. Son, and S.-K. Han, “Full colorless WDM-radio over fiber access network supporting simultaneous transmission of millimeter-wave band and baseband gigabit signals by sideband routing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 2213–2218, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous transmission of gigabit wireline signal and ECMA 387 mmW over fiber using a single MZM in multi-band modulation,” in IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct. 18–21, 2011.
  8. C.-S. Choi, Y. Shoji, and H. Ogawa, “Millimeter-wave fiber-fed wireless access systems based on dense wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 232–241, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  9. http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-387.htm.
  10. C.-S. Choi, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, H. Kamitsuna, M. Ida, and K. Kurishima, “60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber links based on InP–InGaAs HPT optoelectronic mixers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2721–2723, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.
  12. T. Shao, F. Parésys, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Investigation on the phase noise and EVM of digitally modulated millimeter wave signal in WDM optical heterodyning system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 876–885, 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. A. Malyshev, B. A. Galwas, A. L. Chizh, J. Dawidczyk, and V. F. Andrievski, “Frequency conversion of optical signals in p–i–n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 439–443, Feb.2005.
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, B. Cabon, Z. Bouhamri, and V. Dobremez, “Low cost bidirectional QPSK transmission with optical frequency conversion,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.
  15. R. A. Shafik, Md. S. Rahman, and A. H. M. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th Int. Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dhaka, Bengladesh, Dec. 2006, pp. 408–411.
  16. P. Smulders, H. Yang, and I. Akkermans, “On the design of low-cost 60-GHz radios for multigigabit-per-second transmission over short distances,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 44–51, Dec.2007.
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Varonen, M. Karkkainen, M. Kantanen, and K. A. Halonen, “Millimeter-wave integrated circuits in 65-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1991–2002, Sept. 2008.
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

T. Shao, F. Parésys, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Investigation on the phase noise and EVM of digitally modulated millimeter wave signal in WDM optical heterodyning system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 876–885, 2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T.-T. Pham, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, L. Dittmann, and I. T. Monroy, “A WDM-PON-compatible system for simultaneous distribution of gigabit baseband and wireless ultrawideband services with flexible bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. J. Vegas Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Reconfigurable radio-over-fiber networks: Multiple-access functionality directly over the optical layer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 3001–3010, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Won, H.-S. Kim, Y.-H. Son, and S.-K. Han, “Full colorless WDM-radio over fiber access network supporting simultaneous transmission of millimeter-wave band and baseband gigabit signals by sideband routing,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 2213–2218, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G.-K. Chang, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, and G. Ellinas, “Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. C35–C50, 2009.
[CrossRef]

F.-M. Kuo, Y.-S. Wu, and J.-W. Shi, “Near-ballistic unitraveling-carrier photodiode-based V-band optoelectronic mixers with low upconversion loss and high operation current performance under optical IF signal injection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 21–23, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C.-S. Choi, Y. Shoji, and H. Ogawa, “Millimeter-wave fiber-fed wireless access systems based on dense wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 232–241, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. A. Malyshev and A. L. Chizh, “P-I-N photodiodes for frequency mixing in radio-over-fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3236–3243, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

P. Smulders, H. Yang, and I. Akkermans, “On the design of low-cost 60-GHz radios for multigigabit-per-second transmission over short distances,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 44–51, Dec.2007.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. A. Malyshev, B. A. Galwas, A. L. Chizh, J. Dawidczyk, and V. F. Andrievski, “Frequency conversion of optical signals in p–i–n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 439–443, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Choi, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, H. Kamitsuna, M. Ida, and K. Kurishima, “60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber links based on InP–InGaAs HPT optoelectronic mixers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2721–2723, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Akkermans, I.

P. Smulders, H. Yang, and I. Akkermans, “On the design of low-cost 60-GHz radios for multigigabit-per-second transmission over short distances,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 44–51, Dec.2007.
[CrossRef]

Andrievski, V. F.

S. A. Malyshev, B. A. Galwas, A. L. Chizh, J. Dawidczyk, and V. F. Andrievski, “Frequency conversion of optical signals in p–i–n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 439–443, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

Blache, F.

F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Bouhamri, Z.

F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, B. Cabon, Z. Bouhamri, and V. Dobremez, “Low cost bidirectional QPSK transmission with optical frequency conversion,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Cabon, B.

T. Shao, F. Parésys, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Investigation on the phase noise and EVM of digitally modulated millimeter wave signal in WDM optical heterodyning system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 876–885, 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, B. Cabon, Z. Bouhamri, and V. Dobremez, “Low cost bidirectional QPSK transmission with optical frequency conversion,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous transmission of gigabit wireline signal and ECMA 387 mmW over fiber using a single MZM in multi-band modulation,” in IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct. 18–21, 2011.

Chang, G.-K.

Charbonnier, B.

F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Chien, H.-C.

Chizh, A. L.

S. A. Malyshev and A. L. Chizh, “P-I-N photodiodes for frequency mixing in radio-over-fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3236–3243, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Malyshev, B. A. Galwas, A. L. Chizh, J. Dawidczyk, and V. F. Andrievski, “Frequency conversion of optical signals in p–i–n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 439–443, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.-S.

C.-S. Choi, Y. Shoji, and H. Ogawa, “Millimeter-wave fiber-fed wireless access systems based on dense wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 232–241, 2008.
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Choi, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, H. Kamitsuna, M. Ida, and K. Kurishima, “60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber links based on InP–InGaAs HPT optoelectronic mixers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2721–2723, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.-Y.

C.-S. Choi, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, H. Kamitsuna, M. Ida, and K. Kurishima, “60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber links based on InP–InGaAs HPT optoelectronic mixers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2721–2723, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, A.

Corrao, N.

T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous transmission of gigabit wireline signal and ECMA 387 mmW over fiber using a single MZM in multi-band modulation,” in IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct. 18–21, 2011.

Dawidczyk, J.

S. A. Malyshev, B. A. Galwas, A. L. Chizh, J. Dawidczyk, and V. F. Andrievski, “Frequency conversion of optical signals in p–i–n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 439–443, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

Dittmann, L.

T.-T. Pham, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, L. Dittmann, and I. T. Monroy, “A WDM-PON-compatible system for simultaneous distribution of gigabit baseband and wireless ultrawideband services with flexible bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Dobremez, V.

F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, B. Cabon, Z. Bouhamri, and V. Dobremez, “Low cost bidirectional QPSK transmission with optical frequency conversion,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Ellinas, G.

Enard, A.

F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Frank, F.

F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Galwas, B. A.

S. A. Malyshev, B. A. Galwas, A. L. Chizh, J. Dawidczyk, and V. F. Andrievski, “Frequency conversion of optical signals in p–i–n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 439–443, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

Gibbon, T. B.

T.-T. Pham, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, L. Dittmann, and I. T. Monroy, “A WDM-PON-compatible system for simultaneous distribution of gigabit baseband and wireless ultrawideband services with flexible bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Goix, M.

F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Halonen, K. A.

M. Varonen, M. Karkkainen, M. Kantanen, and K. A. Halonen, “Millimeter-wave integrated circuits in 65-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1991–2002, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-K.

Huang, M.-F.

Ida, M.

C.-S. Choi, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, H. Kamitsuna, M. Ida, and K. Kurishima, “60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber links based on InP–InGaAs HPT optoelectronic mixers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2721–2723, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Islam, A. H. M. R.

R. A. Shafik, Md. S. Rahman, and A. H. M. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th Int. Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dhaka, Bengladesh, Dec. 2006, pp. 408–411.

Jia, Z.

Kamitsuna, H.

C.-S. Choi, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, H. Kamitsuna, M. Ida, and K. Kurishima, “60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber links based on InP–InGaAs HPT optoelectronic mixers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2721–2723, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Kantanen, M.

M. Varonen, M. Karkkainen, M. Kantanen, and K. A. Halonen, “Millimeter-wave integrated circuits in 65-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1991–2002, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Karkkainen, M.

M. Varonen, M. Karkkainen, M. Kantanen, and K. A. Halonen, “Millimeter-wave integrated circuits in 65-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1991–2002, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-S.

Kitayama, K.

J. J. Vegas Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Reconfigurable radio-over-fiber networks: Multiple-access functionality directly over the optical layer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 3001–3010, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Kuo, F.-M.

F.-M. Kuo, Y.-S. Wu, and J.-W. Shi, “Near-ballistic unitraveling-carrier photodiode-based V-band optoelectronic mixers with low upconversion loss and high operation current performance under optical IF signal injection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 21–23, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kuri, T.

J. J. Vegas Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Reconfigurable radio-over-fiber networks: Multiple-access functionality directly over the optical layer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 3001–3010, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Kurishima, K.

C.-S. Choi, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, H. Kamitsuna, M. Ida, and K. Kurishima, “60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber links based on InP–InGaAs HPT optoelectronic mixers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2721–2723, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Le Guennec, Y.

T. Shao, F. Parésys, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Investigation on the phase noise and EVM of digitally modulated millimeter wave signal in WDM optical heterodyning system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 876–885, 2012.
[CrossRef]

F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, B. Cabon, Z. Bouhamri, and V. Dobremez, “Low cost bidirectional QPSK transmission with optical frequency conversion,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous transmission of gigabit wireline signal and ECMA 387 mmW over fiber using a single MZM in multi-band modulation,” in IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct. 18–21, 2011.

Lecoche, F.

F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Mallecot, F.

F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Malyshev, S. A.

S. A. Malyshev and A. L. Chizh, “P-I-N photodiodes for frequency mixing in radio-over-fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 3236–3243, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Malyshev, B. A. Galwas, A. L. Chizh, J. Dawidczyk, and V. F. Andrievski, “Frequency conversion of optical signals in p–i–n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 439–443, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

Maury, G.

T. Shao, F. Parésys, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Investigation on the phase noise and EVM of digitally modulated millimeter wave signal in WDM optical heterodyning system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 876–885, 2012.
[CrossRef]

T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous transmission of gigabit wireline signal and ECMA 387 mmW over fiber using a single MZM in multi-band modulation,” in IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct. 18–21, 2011.

F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, B. Cabon, Z. Bouhamri, and V. Dobremez, “Low cost bidirectional QPSK transmission with optical frequency conversion,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Monroy, I. T.

T.-T. Pham, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, L. Dittmann, and I. T. Monroy, “A WDM-PON-compatible system for simultaneous distribution of gigabit baseband and wireless ultrawideband services with flexible bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D.

F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Ogawa, H.

C.-S. Choi, Y. Shoji, and H. Ogawa, “Millimeter-wave fiber-fed wireless access systems based on dense wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 232–241, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Paresys, F.

T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous transmission of gigabit wireline signal and ECMA 387 mmW over fiber using a single MZM in multi-band modulation,” in IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct. 18–21, 2011.

F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, B. Cabon, Z. Bouhamri, and V. Dobremez, “Low cost bidirectional QPSK transmission with optical frequency conversion,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Parésys, F.

T. Shao, F. Parésys, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Investigation on the phase noise and EVM of digitally modulated millimeter wave signal in WDM optical heterodyning system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 876–885, 2012.
[CrossRef]

Pham, T.-T.

T.-T. Pham, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, L. Dittmann, and I. T. Monroy, “A WDM-PON-compatible system for simultaneous distribution of gigabit baseband and wireless ultrawideband services with flexible bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Rahman, Md. S.

R. A. Shafik, Md. S. Rahman, and A. H. M. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th Int. Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dhaka, Bengladesh, Dec. 2006, pp. 408–411.

Seo, J.-H.

C.-S. Choi, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, H. Kamitsuna, M. Ida, and K. Kurishima, “60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber links based on InP–InGaAs HPT optoelectronic mixers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2721–2723, 2005.
[CrossRef]

Shafik, R. A.

R. A. Shafik, Md. S. Rahman, and A. H. M. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th Int. Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dhaka, Bengladesh, Dec. 2006, pp. 408–411.

Shao, T.

T. Shao, F. Parésys, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Investigation on the phase noise and EVM of digitally modulated millimeter wave signal in WDM optical heterodyning system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 876–885, 2012.
[CrossRef]

T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous transmission of gigabit wireline signal and ECMA 387 mmW over fiber using a single MZM in multi-band modulation,” in IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct. 18–21, 2011.

Shi, J.-W.

F.-M. Kuo, Y.-S. Wu, and J.-W. Shi, “Near-ballistic unitraveling-carrier photodiode-based V-band optoelectronic mixers with low upconversion loss and high operation current performance under optical IF signal injection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 21–23, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Shoji, Y.

C.-S. Choi, Y. Shoji, and H. Ogawa, “Millimeter-wave fiber-fed wireless access systems based on dense wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 232–241, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Smulders, P.

P. Smulders, H. Yang, and I. Akkermans, “On the design of low-cost 60-GHz radios for multigigabit-per-second transmission over short distances,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 44–51, Dec.2007.
[CrossRef]

Son, Y.-H.

Vand Dijk, F.

F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

Varonen, M.

M. Varonen, M. Karkkainen, M. Kantanen, and K. A. Halonen, “Millimeter-wave integrated circuits in 65-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1991–2002, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

Vegas Olmos, J. J.

J. J. Vegas Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Reconfigurable radio-over-fiber networks: Multiple-access functionality directly over the optical layer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 3001–3010, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Won, Y.-Y.

Wu, Y.-S.

F.-M. Kuo, Y.-S. Wu, and J.-W. Shi, “Near-ballistic unitraveling-carrier photodiode-based V-band optoelectronic mixers with low upconversion loss and high operation current performance under optical IF signal injection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 21–23, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

P. Smulders, H. Yang, and I. Akkermans, “On the design of low-cost 60-GHz radios for multigigabit-per-second transmission over short distances,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 44–51, Dec.2007.
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Yu, X.

T.-T. Pham, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, L. Dittmann, and I. T. Monroy, “A WDM-PON-compatible system for simultaneous distribution of gigabit baseband and wireless ultrawideband services with flexible bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2011.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Shao, F. Parésys, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Investigation on the phase noise and EVM of digitally modulated millimeter wave signal in WDM optical heterodyning system,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 876–885, 2012.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

P. Smulders, H. Yang, and I. Akkermans, “On the design of low-cost 60-GHz radios for multigigabit-per-second transmission over short distances,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 44–51, Dec.2007.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

F.-M. Kuo, Y.-S. Wu, and J.-W. Shi, “Near-ballistic unitraveling-carrier photodiode-based V-band optoelectronic mixers with low upconversion loss and high operation current performance under optical IF signal injection,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 21–23, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

M. Varonen, M. Karkkainen, M. Kantanen, and K. A. Halonen, “Millimeter-wave integrated circuits in 65-nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1991–2002, Sept. 2008.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C.-S. Choi, J.-H. Seo, W.-Y. Choi, H. Kamitsuna, M. Ida, and K. Kurishima, “60-GHz bidirectional radio-on-fiber links based on InP–InGaAs HPT optoelectronic mixers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2721–2723, 2005.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

T.-T. Pham, X. Yu, T. B. Gibbon, L. Dittmann, and I. T. Monroy, “A WDM-PON-compatible system for simultaneous distribution of gigabit baseband and wireless ultrawideband services with flexible bandwidth allocation,” IEEE Photonics J., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (3)

J. J. Vegas Olmos, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Reconfigurable radio-over-fiber networks: Multiple-access functionality directly over the optical layer,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 3001–3010, 2010.
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Choi, Y. Shoji, and H. Ogawa, “Millimeter-wave fiber-fed wireless access systems based on dense wavelength-division-multiplexing networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 232–241, 2008.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Malyshev, B. A. Galwas, A. L. Chizh, J. Dawidczyk, and V. F. Andrievski, “Frequency conversion of optical signals in p–i–n photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 439–443, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

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J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Other (5)

T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous transmission of gigabit wireline signal and ECMA 387 mmW over fiber using a single MZM in multi-band modulation,” in IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Singapore, Oct. 18–21, 2011.

F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, B. Cabon, Z. Bouhamri, and V. Dobremez, “Low cost bidirectional QPSK transmission with optical frequency conversion,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

R. A. Shafik, Md. S. Rahman, and A. H. M. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th Int. Conf. on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dhaka, Bengladesh, Dec. 2006, pp. 408–411.

http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-387.htm.

F. Lecoche, B. Charbonnier, F. Frank, F. Vand Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallecot, and D. Moodie, “60 GHz bidirectional optical signal distribution system at 3 Gbps for wireless home network,” in IEEE Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, Valencia, Spain, Oct. 2009.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bidirectional WDM-RoF system architecture (NL PD: nonlinear PD, AMP: RF amplifier, BPF: low-pass filter).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Experimental setup for the up-link (CS: central station, NL-PD: nonlinear photodiode, AMP: RF amplifier, BPF: low-pass filter, LO: local oscillator, mmW BPSK: millimeter-wave binary phase-shift keying, DSO: digital storage oscilloscope, VSA: vector signal analysis software, SA: spectrum analyzer).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Double-stage mmW BPSK generator for up-link test.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Up-link experimental results for the mixing power after optoelectronic mixing and η PD 2 as a function of the PD bias voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Up-link experimental and theoretical results for the EVM after optoelectronic mixing as a function of the PD bias voltage for a BPSK signal at a data rate of 397 Mbps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Experimental setup for the down-link (CS: central station, NL PD: nonlinear photodiode, mmW BPF: mmW band-pass filter, LO: local oscillator).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Down-link experimental results for power and EVM for the down-link mmW BPSK at data rates of 397 Mbps and 794 Mbps.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Symbolic representations of (a) optoelectronic mixing and (b) electronic mixing with optical remote LO delivery. CL elec is the electronic mixer conversion loss, P R , mmW is the received mmW power from the mobile unit, P out , P D (respectively P out,elec ) is the power after frequency down-conversion with optoelectronic mixing (respectively electronic mixing).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Optoelectronic Mixing Versus Electronic Mixing Budgets

Equations (7)

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A = η PD d η PD d V PD ,
σ ASE / Signal 2 = 4 η PD 2 N ASE P PD G amp IL comb ,
σ DSO 2 = 4 k T R 0 ,
SNR = P mix , dBm 20 log ( η PD ) b ,
EV M = 100 × 1 0 SNR 20 ,
C L PD = P mmW UP,dBm P mix , dBm + G amp,dB IL comb,dB .
P mmW DL = η PD 2 m 2 G mmW IL comb P PD 2 ,