Abstract

Frame assembly is seen as an important technology in future core networks since it can mitigate the ever-increasing packet header processing load on network nodes. Since frame assembly changes the pattern of traffic entering the network, it has a significant impact on such aspects of network performance as packet drop probability and end-to-end delay. This paper focus on the packet drop and delay performance on assembly nodes, sometimes called edge routers. We reveal that frame assembly on edge routers is in fact a tradeoff between packet loss performance and fairness, especially when the input client traffic is non-uniformly distributed among multiple destinations. We evaluate existing frame assembly and scheduling algorithms and try to cope with the assembly and scheduling process holistically by proposing a new algorithm, named highest efficiency fair queuing. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides better performance in terms of delay and jitter, while also minimizing the average packet loss rate.

© 2013 OSA

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2011 (1)

A. Saleh and J. Simmons, “Technology and architecture to enable the explosive growth of the Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 126–132, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

G. J. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

N. Akar, E. Karasan, K. G. Vlachos, E. A. Varvarigos, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Sole-Pareta, “A survey of quality of service differentiation mechanisms for optical burst switching networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

D. Banovic and I. Radusinovic, “Scheduling algorithm for VOQ switches,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 62, pp. 455–458, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

Y. Sun, T. Hashiguchi, V. Q. Minh, X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Design and implementation of an optical burst-switched network testbed,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 48–55, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Raffaelli and P. Zaffoni, “Effects of slotted optical packet assembly on end-to-end performance,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 3079, pp. 766–775, June2004.

2003 (1)

K. Yoshigoe and K. Christensen, “An evolution to crossbar switches with buffered cross points,” IEEE Netw. Mag., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 48–56, Sept.–Oct.2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Duser and P. Bayvel, “Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 574–585, Apr.2002.
[CrossRef]

E. Hernandez-Valencia, M. Scholten, and Z. Zhu, “The generic framing procedure (GFP): An overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 63–71, May2002.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. McKeown, “The iSLIP scheduling algorithm for input-queue switches,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 188–200, Apr.1999.
[CrossRef]

Akar, N.

N. Akar, E. Karasan, K. G. Vlachos, E. A. Varvarigos, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Sole-Pareta, “A survey of quality of service differentiation mechanisms for optical burst switching networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Aleksic, S.

Aoyama, T.

Y. Sun, T. Hashiguchi, V. Q. Minh, X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Design and implementation of an optical burst-switched network testbed,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 48–55, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Ayre, R. W.

Baliga, J.

Banovic, D.

D. Banovic and I. Radusinovic, “Scheduling algorithm for VOQ switches,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 62, pp. 455–458, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Bennett, J. C. R.

J. C. R. Bennett and H. Zhang, “WF2Q: Worst-Case Fair Weighted Fair Queueing,” in Proc. INFOCOM, San Francisco, CA, Mar. 1996, pp. 120–128.

Bunse, S.

G. J. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Careglio, D.

N. Akar, E. Karasan, K. G. Vlachos, E. A. Varvarigos, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Sole-Pareta, “A survey of quality of service differentiation mechanisms for optical burst switching networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Christensen, K.

K. Yoshigoe and K. Christensen, “An evolution to crossbar switches with buffered cross points,” IEEE Netw. Mag., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 48–56, Sept.–Oct.2003.
[CrossRef]

Dembeck, L.

G. J. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Duser, M.

Eilenberger, G. J.

G. J. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

G. J. Eilenberger, “Integrated electrical/optical switching for future energy efficient packet networks,” in OFC 2011, Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 6, 2011.

Gebhard, U.

G. J. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Agis, F.

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Gunreben, S.

W. Lautenschlaeger, A. Mutter, and S. Gunreben, “Frame assembly in packet core networks—Overview and experimental results,” in Proc. 10, ITG-Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, Germany, 2009.

Hashiguchi, T.

Y. Sun, T. Hashiguchi, V. Q. Minh, X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Design and implementation of an optical burst-switched network testbed,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 48–55, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Hauger, S.

J. Koegel, S. Hauger, S. Junghans, M. Koehn, M. Necker, and S. Stanchina, “Design and evaluation of a burst assembly unit for optical burst switching on a network processor,” in Proc. of EUNICE, 2005, pp. 3–16.

He, H.

Z. Wang, W. Hu, W. Sun, H. He, and L. Yi, “An efficient aggregation scheduling algorithm for unbalanced traffic distribution in optical packet switch network,” in ACP 2010, Shanghai, China, Dec. 6–8, 2010, pp. 635–636.

Heidemann, J.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” Technical Report ISI-TR-2007-643, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May2007.

Hernandez-Valencia, E.

E. Hernandez-Valencia, M. Scholten, and Z. Zhu, “The generic framing procedure (GFP): An overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 63–71, May2002.
[CrossRef]

Hinton, K.

Hu, W.

Z. Wang, W. Hu, W. Sun, H. He, and L. Yi, “An efficient aggregation scheduling algorithm for unbalanced traffic distribution in optical packet switch network,” in ACP 2010, Shanghai, China, Dec. 6–8, 2010, pp. 635–636.

Ilchmann, F.

G. J. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Junghans, S.

J. Koegel, S. Hauger, S. Junghans, M. Koehn, M. Necker, and S. Stanchina, “Design and evaluation of a burst assembly unit for optical burst switching on a network processor,” in Proc. of EUNICE, 2005, pp. 3–16.

Karasan, E.

N. Akar, E. Karasan, K. G. Vlachos, E. A. Varvarigos, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Sole-Pareta, “A survey of quality of service differentiation mechanisms for optical burst switching networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Klinkowski, M.

N. Akar, E. Karasan, K. G. Vlachos, E. A. Varvarigos, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Sole-Pareta, “A survey of quality of service differentiation mechanisms for optical burst switching networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Klonidis, D.

Koegel, J.

J. Koegel, S. Hauger, S. Junghans, M. Koehn, M. Necker, and S. Stanchina, “Design and evaluation of a burst assembly unit for optical burst switching on a network processor,” in Proc. of EUNICE, 2005, pp. 3–16.

Koehn, M.

J. Koegel, S. Hauger, S. Junghans, M. Koehn, M. Necker, and S. Stanchina, “Design and evaluation of a burst assembly unit for optical burst switching on a network processor,” in Proc. of EUNICE, 2005, pp. 3–16.

Kohn, M.

A. Mutter, M. Kohn, and M. Sund, “A generic 10 Gbps assembly edge node and testbed for frame switching networks,” in Conf. on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (TridentCom2009), 2009.

Kornaros, G.

G. Kornaros, W. Lautenschlaeger, M. Sund, and H.-C. Leligou, “Architecture and implementation of a frame aggregation unit for optical frame-based switching,” in Int. Conf. on FPL, Sept. 2008, pp. 639–642.

Kreissl, J.

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Lautenschlaeger, W.

G. J. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

W. Lautenschlaeger, A. Mutter, and S. Gunreben, “Frame assembly in packet core networks—Overview and experimental results,” in Proc. 10, ITG-Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, Germany, 2009.

G. Kornaros, W. Lautenschlaeger, M. Sund, and H.-C. Leligou, “Architecture and implementation of a frame aggregation unit for optical frame-based switching,” in Int. Conf. on FPL, Sept. 2008, pp. 639–642.

Leligou, H.-C.

G. Kornaros, W. Lautenschlaeger, M. Sund, and H.-C. Leligou, “Architecture and implementation of a frame aggregation unit for optical frame-based switching,” in Int. Conf. on FPL, Sept. 2008, pp. 639–642.

McKeown, N.

N. McKeown, “The iSLIP scheduling algorithm for input-queue switches,” IEEE Trans. Netw., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 188–200, Apr.1999.
[CrossRef]

Milbrandt, J.

G. J. Eilenberger, S. Bunse, L. Dembeck, U. Gebhard, F. Ilchmann, W. Lautenschlaeger, and J. Milbrandt, “Energy-efficient transport for the future Internet,” Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147–167, Sept.2010.
[CrossRef]

Minh, V. Q.

Y. Sun, T. Hashiguchi, V. Q. Minh, X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Design and implementation of an optical burst-switched network testbed,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 48–55, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Moerl, L.

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, H.

Y. Sun, T. Hashiguchi, V. Q. Minh, X. Wang, H. Morikawa, and T. Aoyama, “Design and implementation of an optical burst-switched network testbed,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 48–55, Nov.2005.
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, B. B.

B. B. Mortensen, “Packetisation in optical packet switch fabrics using adaptive timeout values,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Poznan, Poland, June 2006.

Mutter, A.

A. Mutter, M. Kohn, and M. Sund, “A generic 10 Gbps assembly edge node and testbed for frame switching networks,” in Conf. on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (TridentCom2009), 2009.

W. Lautenschlaeger, A. Mutter, and S. Gunreben, “Frame assembly in packet core networks—Overview and experimental results,” in Proc. 10, ITG-Fachtagung Photonische Netze, Leipzig, Germany, 2009.

Necker, M.

J. Koegel, S. Hauger, S. Junghans, M. Koehn, M. Necker, and S. Stanchina, “Design and evaluation of a burst assembly unit for optical burst switching on a network processor,” in Proc. of EUNICE, 2005, pp. 3–16.

Nejabati, R.

O’Mahoney, M. J.

Pagano, A.

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Papadopoulos, C.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” Technical Report ISI-TR-2007-643, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May2007.

Pathiban, R.

Politi, C.

Radusinovic, I.

D. Banovic and I. Radusinovic, “Scheduling algorithm for VOQ switches,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 62, pp. 455–458, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Raffaelli, C.

C. Raffaelli and P. Zaffoni, “Effects of slotted optical packet assembly on end-to-end performance,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., vol. 3079, pp. 766–775, June2004.

C. Raffaelli and P. Zaffoni, “Packet assembly at optical packet network access and its effects on TCP performance,” in Proc. HPSR, Torino, Italy, June 2003.

Riccardi, E.

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Saleh, A.

A. Saleh and J. Simmons, “Technology and architecture to enable the explosive growth of the Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 126–132, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

Scheytt, J. C.

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Scholten, M.

E. Hernandez-Valencia, M. Scholten, and Z. Zhu, “The generic framing procedure (GFP): An overview,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 63–71, May2002.
[CrossRef]

Sedighi, B.

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z.

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Simeonidou, D.

Simmons, J.

A. Saleh and J. Simmons, “Technology and architecture to enable the explosive growth of the Internet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 126–132, Jan.2011.
[CrossRef]

Sinha, R.

R. Sinha, C. Papadopoulos, and J. Heidemann, “Internet packet size distributions: Some observations,” Technical Report ISI-TR-2007-643, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May2007.

Sole-Pareta, J.

N. Akar, E. Karasan, K. G. Vlachos, E. A. Varvarigos, D. Careglio, M. Klinkowski, and J. Sole-Pareta, “A survey of quality of service differentiation mechanisms for optical burst switching networks,” Opt. Switching Networking, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Jan.2010.
[CrossRef]

Sorin, W. V.

Stampoulidis, L.

L. Stampoulidis, K. Vyrsokinos, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, F. Gomez-Agis, H. J. S. Dorren, Z. Sheng, D. Van Thourhout, L. Moerl, J. Kreissl, B. Sedighi, J. C. Scheytt, A. Pagano, and E. Riccardi, “The European BOOM project: Silicon photonics for high-capacity optical packet routers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1422–1433, Sept./Oct.2010.
[CrossRef]

Stanchina, S.

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A. Mutter, M. Kohn, and M. Sund, “A generic 10 Gbps assembly edge node and testbed for frame switching networks,” in Conf. on Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities (TridentCom2009), 2009.

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G. Kornaros, W. Lautenschlaeger, M. Sund, and H.-C. Leligou, “Architecture and implementation of a frame aggregation unit for optical frame-based switching,” in Int. Conf. on FPL, Sept. 2008, pp. 639–642.

J. Koegel, S. Hauger, S. Junghans, M. Koehn, M. Necker, and S. Stanchina, “Design and evaluation of a burst assembly unit for optical burst switching on a network processor,” in Proc. of EUNICE, 2005, pp. 3–16.

B. B. Mortensen, “Packetisation in optical packet switch fabrics using adaptive timeout values,” in Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing, Poznan, Poland, June 2006.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frame-switching network architecture [3].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

IP packet loss in the presence of non-uniform traffic distribution among VOQs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) When frames are sent in tandem, the outgoing interface’s average link utilization equals the average frame utilization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) The packet loss and fairness tradeoff in the frame assembly process.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Packet loss rate (PLR).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Average system delay.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Delay jitter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Frame utilization.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) HEFQ’s PLR performance with different T i .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Review of Relevant Work

Tables Icon

Table II Parameters Used in Simulations

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PLR = C ρ C E o C ρ 100 % = ρ E o ρ 100 % .
E o = U f .
P l = i A P i ,
i A P i L / ( I l C ρ ) , for  1 i N .
U f = [ I l / ( L / C ) M ] × 1 + i A P i × I l × C × ρ L I l / ( L / C ) = [ I l / ( L / C ) M ] × 1 + P l × I l × C × ρ L I l / ( L / C ) = 1 M L / ( C I l ) + ρ P l .
PLR = M L / ( C I l ) + ρ ( 1 P l ) 1 ρ .
I min = M L C [ 1 ρ ( 1 P l ) ] .