Abstract

Optical fiber is the most appropriate medium able to meet future requirements in terms of capacity and heterogeneity in the home network. The advantages of a passive star architecture associated with wavelength multiplexing have already been reported. For lower-cost issues, multimode fiber would be preferred, but some problems were raised related to poor uniformity of the N × N multimode coupler when using the usual coarse wavelength division multiplexing sources. An original time-effective method is proposed, based on both simulation and calculation. Many results are provided, giving a better understanding of the behavior of the N × N coupler when different types of sources are used, also taking into account improvement techniques such as offset launching or mode scrambling.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. J. Guillory, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, L. Guillo, and A. Pizzinat, “Multiservice home network based on hybrid electrical and optical multiplexing on a low cost infrastructure,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB5.
  2. J. Guillory, A. Pizzinat, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and C. Algani, “Simultaneous implementation of gigabit Ethernet, RF TV and radio mm-wave in a multiformat home area network,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, P133.
  3. Ph. Guignard, H. Ramanitra, and L. Guillo, “Home network based on CWDM broadcast and select technology,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communications (ECOC), Berlin, Germany, Sept. 2007, P133.
  4. K. Ogawa, “Simplified theory of the multimode fiber coupler,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 729–745, 1977.
  5. F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.
  6. F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, J. Guillory, L. Guillo, A. Pizzinat, and T. Koonen, “CWDM broadcast and select home network based on multimode fibre and a passive star architecture,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB3.
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. K. Barnoski and H. R. Friedrich, “Fabrication of an access coupler with single-strand multimode fiber waveguides,” Appl. Opt., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2629–2630, 1976.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Yeh, W. P. Brown, and R. Szejn, “Multimode inhomogeneous fiber couplers,” Appl. Opt., vol. 18, pp. 489–495, 1979.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Tsujimoto, H. Serizawa, K. Hattori, and M. Fukai, “Fabrication of low-loss 3 dB couplers with multimode optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 157–158, 1978.
    [CrossRef]
  11. SEDI Fibers Optiques, Multimode couplers datasheet [Online]. Available: http://www.sedi-fibres.com/coupleurs-multimodes_5_67.html.
  12. F.-L. Malavieille, “Optical fiber coupler-distributer and method of manufacture,” US patent US4720161.
  13. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory. Chapman and Hall, 1983, ch. 20, pp. 420–441.
  14. R. Borghi and M. Santarsiero, “Modal structure analysis for a class of axially symmetric flat-topped laser beams,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 745–750, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Langrock and J. X. Zhang, Laser-to-Fiber Coupling. Stanford University, 2001.
  16. P. Pepeljugoski, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, and A. Risteski, “Modelling and simulation of next-generation multimode fiber links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, pp. 1242–1255, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. P. Tsekrekos, “Mode group diversity multiplexing in multimode fiber transmission systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, 2008.

2003

1999

R. Borghi and M. Santarsiero, “Modal structure analysis for a class of axially symmetric flat-topped laser beams,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 745–750, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1987

A. K. Agarwal, “Review of optical fibre couplers,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 27–53, 1987.
[CrossRef]

1979

1978

Y. Tsujimoto, H. Serizawa, K. Hattori, and M. Fukai, “Fabrication of low-loss 3 dB couplers with multimode optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 157–158, 1978.
[CrossRef]

1977

K. Ogawa, “Simplified theory of the multimode fiber coupler,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 729–745, 1977.

1976

Agarwal, A. K.

A. K. Agarwal, “Review of optical fibre couplers,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 27–53, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Algani, C.

J. Guillory, A. Pizzinat, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and C. Algani, “Simultaneous implementation of gigabit Ethernet, RF TV and radio mm-wave in a multiformat home area network,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, P133.

Barnoski, M. K.

Borghi, R.

R. Borghi and M. Santarsiero, “Modal structure analysis for a class of axially symmetric flat-topped laser beams,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 745–750, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. P.

Chanclou, P.

J. Guillory, A. Pizzinat, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and C. Algani, “Simultaneous implementation of gigabit Ethernet, RF TV and radio mm-wave in a multiformat home area network,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, P133.

Charbonnier, B.

J. Guillory, A. Pizzinat, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and C. Algani, “Simultaneous implementation of gigabit Ethernet, RF TV and radio mm-wave in a multiformat home area network,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, P133.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

Friedrich, H. R.

Fukai, M.

Y. Tsujimoto, H. Serizawa, K. Hattori, and M. Fukai, “Fabrication of low-loss 3 dB couplers with multimode optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 157–158, 1978.
[CrossRef]

Golowich, S. E.

Guignard, Ph.

Ph. Guignard, H. Ramanitra, and L. Guillo, “Home network based on CWDM broadcast and select technology,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communications (ECOC), Berlin, Germany, Sept. 2007, P133.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, J. Guillory, L. Guillo, A. Pizzinat, and T. Koonen, “CWDM broadcast and select home network based on multimode fibre and a passive star architecture,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB3.

J. Guillory, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, L. Guillo, and A. Pizzinat, “Multiservice home network based on hybrid electrical and optical multiplexing on a low cost infrastructure,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB5.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

J. Guillory, A. Pizzinat, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and C. Algani, “Simultaneous implementation of gigabit Ethernet, RF TV and radio mm-wave in a multiformat home area network,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, P133.

Guillo, L.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

J. Guillory, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, L. Guillo, and A. Pizzinat, “Multiservice home network based on hybrid electrical and optical multiplexing on a low cost infrastructure,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB5.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, J. Guillory, L. Guillo, A. Pizzinat, and T. Koonen, “CWDM broadcast and select home network based on multimode fibre and a passive star architecture,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB3.

Ph. Guignard, H. Ramanitra, and L. Guillo, “Home network based on CWDM broadcast and select technology,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communications (ECOC), Berlin, Germany, Sept. 2007, P133.

Guillory, J.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, J. Guillory, L. Guillo, A. Pizzinat, and T. Koonen, “CWDM broadcast and select home network based on multimode fibre and a passive star architecture,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB3.

J. Guillory, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, L. Guillo, and A. Pizzinat, “Multiservice home network based on hybrid electrical and optical multiplexing on a low cost infrastructure,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB5.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

J. Guillory, A. Pizzinat, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and C. Algani, “Simultaneous implementation of gigabit Ethernet, RF TV and radio mm-wave in a multiformat home area network,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, P133.

Hattori, K.

Y. Tsujimoto, H. Serizawa, K. Hattori, and M. Fukai, “Fabrication of low-loss 3 dB couplers with multimode optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 157–158, 1978.
[CrossRef]

Kolesar, P.

Koonen, T.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, J. Guillory, L. Guillo, A. Pizzinat, and T. Koonen, “CWDM broadcast and select home network based on multimode fibre and a passive star architecture,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB3.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

Langrock, C.

C. Langrock and J. X. Zhang, Laser-to-Fiber Coupling. Stanford University, 2001.

Li, H. W.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory. Chapman and Hall, 1983, ch. 20, pp. 420–441.

Martinez, E. Ortego

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

Ogawa, K.

K. Ogawa, “Simplified theory of the multimode fiber coupler,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 729–745, 1977.

Pepeljugoski, P.

Pizzinat, A.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, J. Guillory, L. Guillo, A. Pizzinat, and T. Koonen, “CWDM broadcast and select home network based on multimode fibre and a passive star architecture,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB3.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

J. Guillory, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, L. Guillo, and A. Pizzinat, “Multiservice home network based on hybrid electrical and optical multiplexing on a low cost infrastructure,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB5.

J. Guillory, A. Pizzinat, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and C. Algani, “Simultaneous implementation of gigabit Ethernet, RF TV and radio mm-wave in a multiformat home area network,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, P133.

Ramanitra, H.

Ph. Guignard, H. Ramanitra, and L. Guillo, “Home network based on CWDM broadcast and select technology,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communications (ECOC), Berlin, Germany, Sept. 2007, P133.

Richard, F.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, J. Guillory, L. Guillo, A. Pizzinat, and T. Koonen, “CWDM broadcast and select home network based on multimode fibre and a passive star architecture,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB3.

J. Guillory, A. Pizzinat, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and C. Algani, “Simultaneous implementation of gigabit Ethernet, RF TV and radio mm-wave in a multiformat home area network,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, P133.

J. Guillory, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, L. Guillo, and A. Pizzinat, “Multiservice home network based on hybrid electrical and optical multiplexing on a low cost infrastructure,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB5.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

Risteski, A.

Ritger, A. J.

Santarsiero, M.

R. Borghi and M. Santarsiero, “Modal structure analysis for a class of axially symmetric flat-topped laser beams,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 745–750, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Serizawa, H.

Y. Tsujimoto, H. Serizawa, K. Hattori, and M. Fukai, “Fabrication of low-loss 3 dB couplers with multimode optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 157–158, 1978.
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory. Chapman and Hall, 1983, ch. 20, pp. 420–441.

Szejn, R.

Tanguy, E.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

Tsekrekos, C. P.

C. P. Tsekrekos, “Mode group diversity multiplexing in multimode fiber transmission systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, 2008.

Tsujimoto, Y.

Y. Tsujimoto, H. Serizawa, K. Hattori, and M. Fukai, “Fabrication of low-loss 3 dB couplers with multimode optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 157–158, 1978.
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C.

Zhang, J. X.

C. Langrock and J. X. Zhang, Laser-to-Fiber Coupling. Stanford University, 2001.

Appl. Opt.

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

K. Ogawa, “Simplified theory of the multimode fiber coupler,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 729–745, 1977.

Electron. Lett.

Y. Tsujimoto, H. Serizawa, K. Hattori, and M. Fukai, “Fabrication of low-loss 3 dB couplers with multimode optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 157–158, 1978.
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt.

A. K. Agarwal, “Review of optical fibre couplers,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 27–53, 1987.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Borghi and M. Santarsiero, “Modal structure analysis for a class of axially symmetric flat-topped laser beams,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 745–750, 1999.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

C. P. Tsekrekos, “Mode group diversity multiplexing in multimode fiber transmission systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, 2008.

C. Langrock and J. X. Zhang, Laser-to-Fiber Coupling. Stanford University, 2001.

SEDI Fibers Optiques, Multimode couplers datasheet [Online]. Available: http://www.sedi-fibres.com/coupleurs-multimodes_5_67.html.

F.-L. Malavieille, “Optical fiber coupler-distributer and method of manufacture,” US patent US4720161.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory. Chapman and Hall, 1983, ch. 20, pp. 420–441.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, A. Pizzinat, L. Guillo, J. Guillory, B. Charbonnier, T. Koonen, E. Ortego Martinez, E. Tanguy, and H. W. Li, “Optical home network based on an N×N multimode fiber architecture and CWDM technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Mar. 2011, JWA080.

F. Richard, Ph. Guignard, J. Guillory, L. Guillo, A. Pizzinat, and T. Koonen, “CWDM broadcast and select home network based on multimode fibre and a passive star architecture,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB3.

J. Guillory, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, L. Guillo, and A. Pizzinat, “Multiservice home network based on hybrid electrical and optical multiplexing on a low cost infrastructure,” in Access Networks and In-house Communications (ANIC), Karlsruhe, Germany, June 2010, AWB5.

J. Guillory, A. Pizzinat, Ph. Guignard, F. Richard, B. Charbonnier, P. Chanclou, and C. Algani, “Simultaneous implementation of gigabit Ethernet, RF TV and radio mm-wave in a multiformat home area network,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), Geneva, Switzerland, Sept. 2011, P133.

Ph. Guignard, H. Ramanitra, and L. Guillo, “Home network based on CWDM broadcast and select technology,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communications (ECOC), Berlin, Germany, Sept. 2007, P133.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Different topologies simultaneously implemented on a home network infrastructure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Wavelength comb of the implemented home network.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) 8 × 8 coupler behavior with a (a) multimode and (b) single-mode source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Model of the basic 2 × 2 coupler created with OptiBPM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Modal behavior of the 2 × 2 model: insertion loss, excess loss, and uniformity, at 1300 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Modulus (left) and phase (right) matrices of the T arm of the 2 × 2 coupler, at 850 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Algorithm for the calculations on the 2 × 2 coupler.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) An N × N coupler schematic.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Comparison between simulation and matrix calculation results for the 2 × 2 (left) and the 8 × 8 (right) couplers.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) (a) 1D, 2D, and 3D Gaussian field representation and its modal decomposition for a (b) 10 µm (single-mode VCSEL beam) and (c) 24 µm (LED beam) radius. (b, c: vertical axis: weight modulus; horizontal axis: normalized mode group number).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) 2 × 2 coupler behavior with variable Gaussian input fields radius.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) (a) 1D, 2D, and 3D annular field representation and its modal decomposition for a (b) 10 µm and (c) 14 µm radius (multimode VCSEL beam). (b, c: vertical axis: weight modulus; horizontal axis: normalized mode group number).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Color online) 2 × 2 coupler behavior with variable annular input field radius.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(Color online) Cartographies of the excited modes at the output ports of each stage with an input Gaussian field (vertical axis: weight modulus 0.5/line; horizontal axis: normalized mode group number).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(Color online) Cartographies of the excited modes at the output ports of each stage with an input annular field (vertical axis: weight modulus 0.5/line; horizontal axis: normalized mode group number).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(Color online) (a) Modal distribution for a narrow Gaussian launching on the center of the core fiber and with (b) 6, (c) 12, and (d) 18 µm offsets, at 850 nm. (vertical axis: weight modulus; horizontal axis: normalized mode group number).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(Color online) Output power uniformity of the 2 × 2, 4 × 4, and 8 × 8 couplers for an input narrow Gaussian field with different offsets at 850 nm.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(Color online) Model of a mode scrambler (dimensions are in µm) .

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

(Color online) Output power uniformity of the 2 × 2, 4 × 4, and 8 × 8 couplers with an input narrow Gaussian field centered on the core fiber and passed through the mode scrambler with different bend amplitudes, at 850 nm.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

(Color online) Output power uniformity of the 2 × 2, 4 × 4, and 8 × 8 couplers with an input narrow Gaussian field launched with (a) −10, (b) −5, (c) 5, and (d) 10 µm offsets and passed through the mode scrambler, with different bend amplitudes, at 850 nm. (vertical axis: uniformity (dB); horizontal axis: bend amplitude (µm)).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Calculated Excess Loss (dB) of the N × N Couplers, Compared to the Manufacturer Specifications, at 850 nm.

Tables Icon

Table II Calculated Uniformity (dB) of the N × N Couplers, Compared to the Manufacturer Specifications, at 850 nm.

Tables Icon

Table III Measured Uniformity (dB) of the N × N Couplers, With VCSELs

Tables Icon

Table IV Calculated Uniformity (dB) of the N × N Couplers, With Input Narrow Gaussian Field With Different Offsets, at 850 nm