Abstract

Steady-state power excursions arising from channel-addition wavelength-switching events are measured as a function of spectral configuration and amplifier settings in an erbium-doped-fiber-amplifier- (EDFA-) based reconfigurable optical add–drop multiplexer network, and they exhibit a maximum excursion of 4.5 dB after four spans of 40 km standard single-mode fiber and 5 EDFAs. A simple model is introduced to explain the power-coupling phenomena responsible for the power excursions. The results show that the maximum excursion is determined by the maximum mean gain difference between the existing and added channels and does not necessarily correspond to the maximum number of channels or input power change.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. V. W. S. Chan, “Optical flow switching networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1079–1091, May 2012.
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Pan, D. Kilper, A. Morea, J. Junio, and V. Chan, “Channel power excursions in GMPLS end-to-end optical restoration with single-step wavelength tuning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Feb. 2012, JTh2A.42.
  4. C. Tian and S. Kinoshita, “Analysis and control of transient dynamics of EDFA pumped by 1480- and 980-nm lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1728–1734, Aug.2003.
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Sun, A. Srivastava, J. Zyskind, J. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Zyskind and A. Srivastava, Optically Amplified WDM Networks. Elsevier, Burlington, MA, 2011.
  7. S. Pachnicke, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, and E. Voges, “Combined impact of Raman and EDFA transients on long haul transmission system performance,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2007, pp. 1–2.
  8. G. Goeger and B. Lankl, “Techniques for suppression of Raman and EDFA gain transients in dynamically switched transparent photonic networks,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1–2.
  9. J. Sulhoff, A. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. Zyskind, “Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1578–1579, Dec.1997.
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Bolshtyansky, N. King, and G. Cowle, “Dynamic behavior of spectral hole burning in EDFA with 980 nm pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, OMN2.
  11. M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications V B. Academic Press, Burlington, MA, 2008, ch. 8, pp. 293–343.
  12. C. Saradhi and S. Subramaniam, “Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 109–130, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Carelgio, J. Solé Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Myslinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, “Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 112–120, Jan.1997.
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 234–250, Feb.1991.
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Chraplyvy, “Optical power limits in multi-channel wavelength-division-multiplexed systems due to stimulated Raman scattering,” Electron. Lett., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 58–59, 1984.
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 1232–1236, Oct.1980.
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Bolshtyansky, N. King, and G. Cowle, “Dynamic compensation of Raman tilt in a fiber link by EDFA during transient events,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, JThA15.
  19. L. Qiao and P. Vella, “ASE analysis and correction for EDFA automatic control,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 771–778, Mar.2007.
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Kilper, C. White, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Channel power coupling in constant gain controlled amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Feb. 2008, JThA14.
  21. S. Chinn, “Simplified modeling of transients in gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1095–1100, June1998.
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Kilper, C. White, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Control of channel power instabilities in constant-gain amplified transparent networks using scalable mesh scheduling,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 108–113, Jan.2008.
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Propagation of signal and noise in concatenated erbium-doped fiber optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 147–154, Feb.1991.
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Mazurczuyk, G. Shaulov, and E. Golovchenko, “Accumulation of gain tilt in WDM amplified systems due to Raman crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1573–1575, Nov.2000.
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, C. Smith, D. Muller, J. West, K. Koch, and J. Fajardo, “Impact of spectral hole burning and Raman effect in transparent optical networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2003.

2012

V. W. S. Chan, “Optical flow switching networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1079–1091, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Saradhi and S. Subramaniam, “Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 109–130, 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Carelgio, J. Solé Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2003

2000

V. Mazurczuyk, G. Shaulov, and E. Golovchenko, “Accumulation of gain tilt in WDM amplified systems due to Raman crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1573–1575, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Chinn, “Simplified modeling of transients in gain-clamped erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1095–1100, June1998.
[CrossRef]

S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Sun, A. Srivastava, J. Zyskind, J. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

J. Sulhoff, A. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. Zyskind, “Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1578–1579, Dec.1997.
[CrossRef]

P. Myslinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, “Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 112–120, Jan.1997.
[CrossRef]

1991

W. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 234–250, Feb.1991.
[CrossRef]

C. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Propagation of signal and noise in concatenated erbium-doped fiber optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 147–154, Feb.1991.
[CrossRef]

1984

A. Chraplyvy, “Optical power limits in multi-channel wavelength-division-multiplexed systems due to stimulated Raman scattering,” Electron. Lett., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 58–59, 1984.
[CrossRef]

1980

R. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 1232–1236, Oct.1980.
[CrossRef]

Azodolmolky, S.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Carelgio, J. Solé Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Baran, J.

S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
[CrossRef]

Bolshtyansky, M.

M. Bolshtyansky, N. King, and G. Cowle, “Dynamic behavior of spectral hole burning in EDFA with 980 nm pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, OMN2.

M. Bolshtyansky, N. King, and G. Cowle, “Dynamic compensation of Raman tilt in a fiber link by EDFA during transient events,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, JThA15.

Carelgio, D.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Carelgio, J. Solé Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chan, V.

Y. Pan, D. Kilper, A. Morea, J. Junio, and V. Chan, “Channel power excursions in GMPLS end-to-end optical restoration with single-step wavelength tuning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Feb. 2012, JTh2A.42.

Chan, V. W. S.

V. W. S. Chan, “Optical flow switching networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1079–1091, May 2012.
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

D. Kilper, C. White, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Control of channel power instabilities in constant-gain amplified transparent networks using scalable mesh scheduling,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 108–113, Jan.2008.
[CrossRef]

D. Kilper, C. White, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Channel power coupling in constant gain controlled amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Feb. 2008, JThA14.

Chang, G.-K.

S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
[CrossRef]

Chiao, J.

S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
[CrossRef]

Chinn, S.

Chraplyvy, A.

A. Chraplyvy, “Optical power limits in multi-channel wavelength-division-multiplexed systems due to stimulated Raman scattering,” Electron. Lett., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 58–59, 1984.
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, J.

P. Myslinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, “Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 112–120, Jan.1997.
[CrossRef]

Cowle, G.

M. Bolshtyansky, N. King, and G. Cowle, “Dynamic compensation of Raman tilt in a fiber link by EDFA during transient events,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, JThA15.

M. Bolshtyansky, N. King, and G. Cowle, “Dynamic behavior of spectral hole burning in EDFA with 980 nm pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, OMN2.

Desurvire, E.

C. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Propagation of signal and noise in concatenated erbium-doped fiber optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 147–154, Feb.1991.
[CrossRef]

Ellinas, G.

S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
[CrossRef]

Fajardo, J.

N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, C. Smith, D. Muller, J. West, K. Koch, and J. Fajardo, “Impact of spectral hole burning and Raman effect in transparent optical networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2003.

Feuer, M. D.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications V B. Academic Press, Burlington, MA, 2008, ch. 8, pp. 293–343.

Gallagher, M.

N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, C. Smith, D. Muller, J. West, K. Koch, and J. Fajardo, “Impact of spectral hole burning and Raman effect in transparent optical networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2003.

Garratt, L.

S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
[CrossRef]

Giles, C.

C. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Propagation of signal and noise in concatenated erbium-doped fiber optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 147–154, Feb.1991.
[CrossRef]

Goeger, G.

G. Goeger and B. Lankl, “Techniques for suppression of Raman and EDFA gain transients in dynamically switched transparent photonic networks,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1–2.

Golovchenko, E.

V. Mazurczuyk, G. Shaulov, and E. Golovchenko, “Accumulation of gain tilt in WDM amplified systems due to Raman crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1573–1575, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Gottwald, E.

S. Pachnicke, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, and E. Voges, “Combined impact of Raman and EDFA transients on long haul transmission system performance,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2007, pp. 1–2.

Junio, J.

Y. Pan, D. Kilper, A. Morea, J. Junio, and V. Chan, “Channel power excursions in GMPLS end-to-end optical restoration with single-step wavelength tuning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Feb. 2012, JTh2A.42.

Kilper, D.

D. Kilper, C. White, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Control of channel power instabilities in constant-gain amplified transparent networks using scalable mesh scheduling,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 108–113, Jan.2008.
[CrossRef]

Y. Pan, D. Kilper, A. Morea, J. Junio, and V. Chan, “Channel power excursions in GMPLS end-to-end optical restoration with single-step wavelength tuning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Feb. 2012, JTh2A.42.

D. Kilper, C. White, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Channel power coupling in constant gain controlled amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Feb. 2008, JThA14.

Kilper, D. C.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications V B. Academic Press, Burlington, MA, 2008, ch. 8, pp. 293–343.

King, N.

M. Bolshtyansky, N. King, and G. Cowle, “Dynamic behavior of spectral hole burning in EDFA with 980 nm pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, OMN2.

M. Bolshtyansky, N. King, and G. Cowle, “Dynamic compensation of Raman tilt in a fiber link by EDFA during transient events,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, JThA15.

Kinoshita, S.

Klinkowski, M.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Carelgio, J. Solé Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Koch, K.

N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, C. Smith, D. Muller, J. West, K. Koch, and J. Fajardo, “Impact of spectral hole burning and Raman effect in transparent optical networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2003.

Krummrich, P.

S. Pachnicke, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, and E. Voges, “Combined impact of Raman and EDFA transients on long haul transmission system performance,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2007, pp. 1–2.

Lankl, B.

G. Goeger and B. Lankl, “Techniques for suppression of Raman and EDFA gain transients in dynamically switched transparent photonic networks,” in 28th European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1–2.

Leblanc, H.

S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
[CrossRef]

Marin, E.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Carelgio, J. Solé Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Mazurczuyk, V.

V. Mazurczuyk, G. Shaulov, and E. Golovchenko, “Accumulation of gain tilt in WDM amplified systems due to Raman crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1573–1575, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Meagher, B.

S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W.

W. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 234–250, Feb.1991.
[CrossRef]

Morea, A.

Y. Pan, D. Kilper, A. Morea, J. Junio, and V. Chan, “Channel power excursions in GMPLS end-to-end optical restoration with single-step wavelength tuning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Feb. 2012, JTh2A.42.

Muller, D.

N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, C. Smith, D. Muller, J. West, K. Koch, and J. Fajardo, “Impact of spectral hole burning and Raman effect in transparent optical networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2003.

Myslinski, P.

P. Myslinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, “Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 112–120, Jan.1997.
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D.

P. Myslinski, D. Nguyen, and J. Chrostowski, “Effects of concentration on the performance of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 112–120, Jan.1997.
[CrossRef]

Pachnicke, S.

S. Pachnicke, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, and E. Voges, “Combined impact of Raman and EDFA transients on long haul transmission system performance,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2007, pp. 1–2.

Pan, Y.

Y. Pan, D. Kilper, A. Morea, J. Junio, and V. Chan, “Channel power excursions in GMPLS end-to-end optical restoration with single-step wavelength tuning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Feb. 2012, JTh2A.42.

Qiao, L.

Rauch, M.

S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
[CrossRef]

Saradhi, C.

C. Saradhi and S. Subramaniam, “Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 109–130, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Shaulov, G.

V. Mazurczuyk, G. Shaulov, and E. Golovchenko, “Accumulation of gain tilt in WDM amplified systems due to Raman crosstalk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1573–1575, Nov.2000.
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, C. Smith, D. Muller, J. West, K. Koch, and J. Fajardo, “Impact of spectral hole burning and Raman effect in transparent optical networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2003.

Solé Pareta, J.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Carelgio, J. Solé Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A.

J. Sulhoff, A. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. Zyskind, “Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1578–1579, Dec.1997.
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, A. Srivastava, J. Zyskind, J. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

J. Zyskind and A. Srivastava, Optically Amplified WDM Networks. Elsevier, Burlington, MA, 2011.

Stolen, R.

R. Stolen, “Nonlinearity in fiber transmission,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 1232–1236, Oct.1980.
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, S.

C. Saradhi and S. Subramaniam, “Physical layer impairment aware routing (PLIAR) in WDM optical networks: issues and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 109–130, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J.

Y. Sun, A. Srivastava, J. Zyskind, J. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

J. Sulhoff, A. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. Zyskind, “Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1578–1579, Dec.1997.
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

J. Sulhoff, A. Srivastava, C. Wolf, Y. Sun, and J. Zyskind, “Spectral-hole burning in erbium-doped silica and fluoride fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1578–1579, Dec.1997.
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, A. Srivastava, J. Zyskind, J. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

Tian, C.

Tkach, R.

Y. Sun, A. Srivastava, J. Zyskind, J. Sulhoff, C. Wolf, and R. Tkach, “Fast power transients in WDM optical networks with cascaded EDFAs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 313–314, Feb.1997.
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

S. Azodolmolky, M. Klinkowski, E. Marin, D. Carelgio, J. Solé Pareta, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on physical layer impairments aware routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in optical networks,” Comput. Netw., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 926–944, 2009.
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Voges, E.

S. Pachnicke, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, and E. Voges, “Combined impact of Raman and EDFA transients on long haul transmission system performance,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2007, pp. 1–2.

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S. Yoo, W. Xin, L. Garratt, J. Young, G. Ellinas, J. Chiao, M. Rauch, J. Baran, B. Meagher, H. Leblanc, and G.-K. Chang, “Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1659–1661, Nov.1998.
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N. Venkataraman, M. Gallagher, C. Smith, D. Muller, J. West, K. Koch, and J. Fajardo, “Impact of spectral hole burning and Raman effect in transparent optical networks,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2003.

Y. Pan, D. Kilper, A. Morea, J. Junio, and V. Chan, “Channel power excursions in GMPLS end-to-end optical restoration with single-step wavelength tuning,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), Feb. 2012, JTh2A.42.

D. Kilper, C. White, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Channel power coupling in constant gain controlled amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Feb. 2008, JThA14.

M. Bolshtyansky, N. King, and G. Cowle, “Dynamic behavior of spectral hole burning in EDFA with 980 nm pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and the Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC), Mar. 2007, OMN2.

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, and S. L. Woodward, “ROADMs and their system applications,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications V B. Academic Press, Burlington, MA, 2008, ch. 8, pp. 293–343.

J. Zyskind and A. Srivastava, Optically Amplified WDM Networks. Elsevier, Burlington, MA, 2011.

S. Pachnicke, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, and E. Voges, “Combined impact of Raman and EDFA transients on long haul transmission system performance,” in 33rd European Conf. and Exhibition of Optical Communication (ECOC), Sept. 2007, pp. 1–2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Two-stage amplifier with monitor ports M1 and M2. Typical ripple patterns at the nominal gain settings corresponding to each amplifier stage are shown below. GM is the mean gain and gj is the residual ripple about the mean for channel j.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Gain ripples for amplifier 1 stage 1 at different GTC values. Tilt values are shown for each GTC as the slope in dB calculated from linear fits of the ripples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Experimental setup: 88 CW channels coupled into WSS1. WSS1 and WSS2 have the same ports open to prevent ASE accumulation, spectra monitored at stage 2 monitors, M2(1)–M2(5).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Power excursions measured at the output of amplifier 1 stage 1 at different gain settings. (Inset) Gain ripple pattern at 18.7 dB gain. Arrow shows channels were added starting at 1529.1 nm (left vertical line) towards longer wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Power excursions measured at the output of amplifier 1 stage 1 at different gain settings for channel 1546.1 nm as channels of increasing gain ripple are added. The inset depicts the added channel sequence along the gain ripple starting at the left vertical line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Power excursions measured at the output of amplifier 1 stage 2. Channels were added from 1529.1 nm until all 88 channels were present. The solid line is the tilt-corrected calculation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Power excursions measured at the stage 2 outputs of three similar amplifiers in cascade shown as a function of number of amplifiers.