Abstract

This paper presents a detailed study of planning virtual infrastructures (VIs) over a physical infrastructure comprising integrated optical network and data center resources with the aim of enabling sharing of physical resources among several virtual operators and services. Through the planning process, the VI topology and virtual resources are identified and mapped to the physical resources. Our study assumes a practical VI demand model without any in advance global knowledge of the VI requests that are handled sequentially. Through detailed integer linear program modeling, two objective functions—one that minimizes the overall power consumption of the infrastructure and one that minimizes the wavelength utilization—are compared. Both are evaluated for the virtual wavelength path and wavelength path optical network architectures. The first objective results in power consumption savings and the two optical network architectures provide similar performances. However, the trend changes for higher load values, due to the inefficient wavelength utilization that the first objective leads to. Finally, we compare the virtual infrastructures created by the two objectives through online traffic provisioning simulations. The objective minimizing wavelength utilization results in VIs suffering higher request blocking compared to the VIs created by the objective minimizing the overall power consumption.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May2012.
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

K. N. Georgakilas, K. Katrinis, A. Tzanakaki, and O. B. Madsen, “Performance evaluation of impairment-aware routing under single and double-link failures,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 633–641, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Murakami, “Analyzing power consumption in optical cross-connect equipment for future large-capacity optical networks,” J. Networks, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1254–1259, Nov.2010.

Z. Yi, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2000 (1)

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. Y. Yen, “Another algorithm for finding the K shortest-loopless network paths,” Bull. Oper. Res. Soc. Am., vol. 20, p. B/185, 1972.

Akella, A.

T. Benson and A. Akella, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in IMC, 2010, pp. 267–280.

Aleksic, S.

Anastasopoulos, M.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Anastasopoulos, M. P.

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, and D. Simeonidou, “Energy aware planning of multiple virtual infrastructures over converged optical network and IT physical resources,” in ECOC, 2011, pp. 1–3.

Audenaert, P.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in 2nd Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), 15–17 Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Batchelor, P.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Belter, B.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Benson, T.

T. Benson and A. Akella, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in IMC, 2010, pp. 267–280.

Bohnert, T. M.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Brogle, M.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Buysse, J.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, C. Develder, and P. Demeester, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. of the 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 31 July 2011–4 Aug. 2011, pp. 1–7.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Chen, X.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Chiaraviglio, M. Mellia

M. Mellia Chiaraviglio and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE ICC, 2009.

Chowdhury, P.

Z. Yi, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter2010.
[CrossRef]

Ciulli, N.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Colle, D.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May2012.
[CrossRef]

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in 2nd Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), 15–17 Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Daino, B.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

de Laat, C.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

De Leenheer, M.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, C. Develder, and P. Demeester, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. of the 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 31 July 2011–4 Aug. 2011, pp. 1–7.

de Marchis, G.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

De Turck, F.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Demechenko, Y.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Demeester, P.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, C. Develder, and P. Demeester, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. of the 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 31 July 2011–4 Aug. 2011, pp. 1–7.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in 2nd Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), 15–17 Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Demeyer, S.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in 2nd Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), 15–17 Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Develder, C.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May2012.
[CrossRef]

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in 2nd Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), 15–17 Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, C. Develder, and P. Demeester, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. of the 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 31 July 2011–4 Aug. 2011, pp. 1–7.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Dhoedt, B.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May2012.
[CrossRef]

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, C. Develder, and P. Demeester, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. of the 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 31 July 2011–4 Aug. 2011, pp. 1–7.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in 2nd Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), 15–17 Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Donadio, P.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Escalona, E.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Ferrer, J.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Figuerola, S.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Garcia-Espin, J. A.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Georgakilas, K.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, and D. Simeonidou, “Energy aware planning of multiple virtual infrastructures over converged optical network and IT physical resources,” in ECOC, 2011, pp. 1–3.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, C. Develder, and P. Demeester, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. of the 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 31 July 2011–4 Aug. 2011, pp. 1–7.

Georgakilas, K. N.

Grover, W. D.

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET and ATM Networking. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2003.

Guo, W.

X. Liu, W. Wei, C. Qiao, T. Wang, W. Hu, W. Guo, and M.-Y. Wu, “Task scheduling and lightpath establishment in optical grids,” in 27th IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 13–18 Apr. 2008, pp. 1966–1974.

Heinzmann, P.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
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Hjelme, D. R.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
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Hu, W.

X. Liu, W. Wei, C. Qiao, T. Wang, W. Hu, W. Guo, and M.-Y. Wu, “Task scheduling and lightpath establishment in optical grids,” in 27th IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 13–18 Apr. 2008, pp. 1966–1974.

Inkret, R.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Jäger, G. H. A.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Joindot, M.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Katrinis, K.

Katrinis, K. M.

K. M. Katrinis and A. Tzanakaki, “On the dimensioning of WDM optical networks with impairment-aware regeneration,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 735–746.
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Kuchar, A.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
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Landi, G.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Le Coquil, E.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
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Leuthold, P.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, W. Wei, C. Qiao, T. Wang, W. Hu, W. Guo, and M.-Y. Wu, “Task scheduling and lightpath establishment in optical grids,” in 27th IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 13–18 Apr. 2008, pp. 1966–1974.

Lopez, E.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Madsen, O. B.

Manfredi, A.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Matera, F.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
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Mikac, B.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
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Monti, P.

Mukherjee, B.

Z. Yi, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter2010.
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Murakami, M.

M. Murakami, “Analyzing power consumption in optical cross-connect equipment for future large-capacity optical networks,” J. Networks, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1254–1259, Nov.2010.

Nejabati, R.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Neri, F.

M. Mellia Chiaraviglio and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE ICC, 2009.

Nolting, H.-P.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
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O’Mahony, M.

Parladori, G.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Peng, S.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Pickavet, M.

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May2012.
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A. Tzanakaki, K. Katrinis, T. Politi, A. Stavdas, M. Pickavet, P. Van Daele, D. Simeonidou, M. O’Mahony, S. Aleksić, L. Wosinska, and P. Monti, “Dimensioning the future pan-European optical network with energy efficiency considerations,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 272–280, Apr.2011.
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M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in 2nd Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), 15–17 Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Politi, T.

Qiao, C.

X. Liu, W. Wei, C. Qiao, T. Wang, W. Hu, W. Guo, and M.-Y. Wu, “Task scheduling and lightpath establishment in optical grids,” in 27th IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 13–18 Apr. 2008, pp. 1966–1974.

Riera, J. F.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Robinson, P.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Salchow, K. J. (Ken)

K. J. (Ken) Salchow, “Data center consolidation: Know where you’re going and why,” F5 White Paper.

Simeonidou, D.

A. Tzanakaki, K. Katrinis, T. Politi, A. Stavdas, M. Pickavet, P. Van Daele, D. Simeonidou, M. O’Mahony, S. Aleksić, L. Wosinska, and P. Monti, “Dimensioning the future pan-European optical network with energy efficiency considerations,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 272–280, Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, and D. Simeonidou, “Energy aware planning of multiple virtual infrastructures over converged optical network and IT physical resources,” in ECOC, 2011, pp. 1–3.

Soudan, S.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Späth, J.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Stavdas, A.

Tillerot, F.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

Z. Yi, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter2010.
[CrossRef]

Tzanakaki, A.

A. Tzanakaki, K. Katrinis, T. Politi, A. Stavdas, M. Pickavet, P. Van Daele, D. Simeonidou, M. O’Mahony, S. Aleksić, L. Wosinska, and P. Monti, “Dimensioning the future pan-European optical network with energy efficiency considerations,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 272–280, Apr.2011.
[CrossRef]

K. N. Georgakilas, K. Katrinis, A. Tzanakaki, and O. B. Madsen, “Performance evaluation of impairment-aware routing under single and double-link failures,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 633–641, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, C. Develder, and P. Demeester, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. of the 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 31 July 2011–4 Aug. 2011, pp. 1–7.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

K. M. Katrinis and A. Tzanakaki, “On the dimensioning of WDM optical networks with impairment-aware regeneration,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 735–746.
[CrossRef]

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, and D. Simeonidou, “Energy aware planning of multiple virtual infrastructures over converged optical network and IT physical resources,” in ECOC, 2011, pp. 1–3.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

Van Caenegem, B.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

Vereecken, W.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in 2nd Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), 15–17 Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Vermeulen, B.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in 2nd Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), 15–17 Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

Vicat-Blanc, P.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Wang, T.

X. Liu, W. Wei, C. Qiao, T. Wang, W. Hu, W. Guo, and M.-Y. Wu, “Task scheduling and lightpath establishment in optical grids,” in 27th IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 13–18 Apr. 2008, pp. 1966–1974.

Wauters, N.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Wei, W.

X. Liu, W. Wei, C. Qiao, T. Wang, W. Hu, W. Guo, and M.-Y. Wu, “Task scheduling and lightpath establishment in optical grids,” in 27th IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 13–18 Apr. 2008, pp. 1966–1974.

Weinert, C.

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Wosinska, L.

Wu, M.-Y.

X. Liu, W. Wei, C. Qiao, T. Wang, W. Hu, W. Guo, and M.-Y. Wu, “Task scheduling and lightpath establishment in optical grids,” in 27th IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 13–18 Apr. 2008, pp. 1966–1974.

Yen, J. Y.

J. Y. Yen, “Another algorithm for finding the K shortest-loopless network paths,” Bull. Oper. Res. Soc. Am., vol. 20, p. B/185, 1972.

Yi, Z.

Z. Yi, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter2010.
[CrossRef]

Yukan, A.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

Bull. Oper. Res. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Y. Yen, “Another algorithm for finding the K shortest-loopless network paths,” Bull. Oper. Res. Soc. Am., vol. 20, p. B/185, 1972.

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials (1)

Z. Yi, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, and B. Mukherjee, “Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 441–458, Fourth Quarter2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

K. M. Katrinis and A. Tzanakaki, “On the dimensioning of WDM optical networks with impairment-aware regeneration,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 735–746.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

J. Networks (1)

M. Murakami, “Analyzing power consumption in optical cross-connect equipment for future large-capacity optical networks,” J. Networks, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1254–1259, Nov.2010.

Photonic Network Commun. (1)

P. Batchelor, B. Daino, P. Heinzmann, D. R. Hjelme, R. Inkret, G. H. A. Jäger, M. Joindot, A. Kuchar, E. Le Coquil, P. Leuthold, G. de Marchis, F. Matera, B. Mikac, H.-P. Nolting, J. Späth, F. Tillerot, B. Van Caenegem, N. Wauters, and C. Weinert, “Study on the implementation of optical transparent transport networks in the European environment—Results of the research project COST 239,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–32, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

C. Develder, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, M. Pickavet, D. Colle, F. De Turck, and P. Demeester, “Optical networks for grid and cloud computing applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1149–1167, May2012.
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

ADVA Optical Networking, “Virtualized optical networks for sustainable cloud services,” White Paper.

X. Liu, W. Wei, C. Qiao, T. Wang, W. Hu, W. Guo, and M.-Y. Wu, “Task scheduling and lightpath establishment in optical grids,” in 27th IEEE Conf. on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), 13–18 Apr. 2008, pp. 1966–1974.

K. J. (Ken) Salchow, “Data center consolidation: Know where you’re going and why,” F5 White Paper.

A. Tzanakaki, M. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, E. Escalona, D. Simeonidou, N. Ciulli, G. Landi, M. Brogle, A. Manfredi, E. Lopez, J. F. Riera, J. A. Garcia-Espin, P. Donadio, G. Parladori, and J. Jimenez, “Energy efficiency in integrated IT and optical network infrastructures: The GEYSERS approach,” in IEEE Conf. on Comp. Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 10–15 Apr. 2011, pp. 343–348.

M. Pickavet, W. Vereecken, S. Demeyer, P. Audenaert, B. Vermeulen, C. Develder, D. Colle, B. Dhoedt, and P. Demeester, “Worldwide energy needs for ICT: The rise of power-aware networking,” in 2nd Int. Symp. on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems (ANTS), 15–17 Dec. 2008, pp. 1–3.

M. Mellia Chiaraviglio and F. Neri, “Reducing power consumption in backbone networks,” in IEEE ICC, 2009.

E. Escalona, S. Peng, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. A. Garcia-Espin, J. Ferrer, S. Figuerola, G. Landi, N. Ciulli, J. Jimenez, B. Belter, Y. Demechenko, C. de Laat, X. Chen, A. Yukan, S. Soudan, P. Vicat-Blanc, J. Buysse, M. De Leenheer, C. Develder, A. Tzanakaki, P. Robinson, M. Brogle, and T. M. Bohnert, “GEYSERS: A novel architecture for virtualization and co-provisioning of dynamic optical networks and IT services,” in Future Network & Mobile Summit (FutureNetw), 15–17 June 2011, pp. 1–8.

W. D. Grover, Mesh-Based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical, MPLS, SONET and ATM Networking. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2003.

J. Buysse, K. Georgakilas, A. Tzanakaki, M. De Leenheer, B. Dhoedt, C. Develder, and P. Demeester, “Calculating the minimum bounds of energy consumption for cloud networks,” in Proc. of the 20th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 31 July 2011–4 Aug. 2011, pp. 1–7.

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, K. Georgakilas, and D. Simeonidou, “Energy aware planning of multiple virtual infrastructures over converged optical network and IT physical resources,” in ECOC, 2011, pp. 1–3.

Oracle, Oracle exalogic elastic cloud X2-2 data sheet, Mar.2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.oracle.com/us/products/middleware/exalogic/index.html.

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/exadata/dbmachine-x2-8-datasheet-173705.pdf.

http://www.google.com/about/datacenters/locations/index.html.

T. Benson and A. Akella, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in IMC, 2010, pp. 267–280.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical cross-connect architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fiber link model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

COST 239-based converged network and data center infrastructure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power consumption contributions—VWP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average lightpath length—VWP.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Number of data centers powered up.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Power consumption contributions—WP.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Total power consumption versus number of VIs—VWP—30–60 lightpaths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Total power consumption versus number of VIs—VWP—120–150 lightpaths.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Total power consumption versus number of VIs—WP—30–60 lightpaths.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Total power consumption versus number of VIs—WP—120–150 lightpaths.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Network capacity utilization.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Blocking probability versus load—VWP.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Blocking probability versus load—WP.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Data Center Building Block Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table II Network Equipment Power Consumption Figures

Tables Icon

Table III Data Center Power Consumption Values

Tables Icon

Table IV Problem Variables

Tables Icon

Table V CI Limits of Mean Power Consumption for 95% Confidence Level

Equations (29)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PSF=portstotal×Pport_pair=(portsth+portsa/d)×Pport_pair,
PTransm=portsa/d×PTx/Rx,
PConv=portsth×PTransponder,
PAmpl=(fin+fout)×PEDFA.
Pl=length(l)spanPEDFA.
PNet=nNPOXCn+lLPl.
PDC=Pidle+PbusyPidleus.
us=number of lightpaths arriving at sTDC.
k=TDCRw.
δedp1, if candidate virtual path p of demand d  is used to realize virtual link e0, otherwise.
γleq1, if physical link l is part of the candidate  physical path q of the virtual link e0, otherwise.
NetRes=lwllength(l),
JointPower=s[(1fs)Pidle+(PbusyPidle)us]+nlω(n)(1αl)Plink+αlPlinkwllΛl+1+nlω(n)wl12PTransponder+nlω(n)wlPTransponder,
Plink=nlωn1Wwllengthlspan+2PEDFA,
fs=1,if DC s is already used by another VI0,otherwise,
al=1,if link l is already used by another VI0,otherwise.
spxdsp=hd,d=1,,D.
dspδedpxdspwe,e=1,,E,
qzeqwe,e=1,,E,
eqγleqzeqyl,l=1,,L.
fsus,s=1,,S,
fsTDCus,s=1,,S.
us=dpxdsp,s=1,,S.
spcxdspc=hd,d=1,,D,
dspcδedpxdspcwe,e=1,,E,
qczeqcwee=1,,E,
eqcγleqzeqcyl,l=1,,L.
qγleqzeqc1,e=1,,E,l=1,,L,c=1,,C.
us=dpcxdspc,s=1,,S.