Abstract

Directionless reconfigurable add/drop multi plexers (ROADMs) permit changing the direction of an added/dropped lightpath without manual intervention. If the ROADM is also colorless, its wavelength can be automatically reconfigured. In broadcast-and-select directionless ROADM architectures, the number of lightpaths that can be added/dropped using the same wavelength is limited by the so-called add/drop contention factor C. This is a source of lightpath blocking that reduces the network capacity. A previous work investigated this aspect for the case of unprotected and 1+1 protected lightpaths. In this paper, we address the case in which lightpath restoration is the fault recovery technique in the network. We hypothesize that, using appropriate network planning, the add/drop contention effects can be mitigated. For this, we propose and investigate the add/drop contention-aware routing and wavelength assignment with lightpath restoration offline planning problem, considering colored ROADMs. To solve the problem, an effective heuristic is presented. Extensive results are reported for four reference topologies. In our tests, the reduction in the network capacity caused by add/drop contention is eliminated in practice for factors C=2, or even C=1 in some topologies. These results contribute to the dimensioning of directionless ROADMs.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

2010

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, “Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: Architectures and scalability,” Opt. Commun., vol. 279, no. 1, pp. 94–100, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

2006

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby, “Architectural tradeoffs for reconfigurable dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 615–626, July2006.
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Wang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Path vs. subpath vs. link restoration for fault management in IP-over-WDM networks: Performance comparison using GMPLS control signaling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 80–87, Nov.2002.
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Neukermans and R. Ramaswami, “MEMS technology for optical networking applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 62–69, Jan.2001.
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June1996.
[CrossRef]

Aono, Y.

P. N. Ji and Y. Aono, “Colorless and directionless multi-degree reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers,” in Proc. WOCC, Shanghai, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Basch, B.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

Basch, E. B.

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby, “Architectural tradeoffs for reconfigurable dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 615–626, July2006.
[CrossRef]

Berthold, J.

J. Berthold, A. A. M. Saleh, L. Blair, and J. M. Simmons, “Optical networking: past, present, and future,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1104–1118, May2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Thiagarajan, L. Blair, and J. Berthold, “Direction-independent add/drop access for multi-degree ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008, OThA7.

Bihon, D.

M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 529–535, Feb.2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, JWA8.

Blair, L.

J. Berthold, A. A. M. Saleh, L. Blair, and J. M. Simmons, “Optical networking: past, present, and future,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1104–1118, May2008.
[CrossRef]

S. Thiagarajan, L. Blair, and J. Berthold, “Direction-independent add/drop access for multi-degree ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008, OThA7.

Bowers, J. E.

V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, “Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, San Francisco, Aug. 2007, pp. 31–32.

V. Kaman, S. Yuan, O. Jerphagnon, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, “Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, Crete, Oct. 2006, pp. 1–3.

Bueno-Delgado, M. V.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, J. Jacob, C. Santivanez, J. Ho, and K. Rauschenbach, “En route to grouping-constraint free, colorless directionless ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, NThF1.

Collings, B.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008, NWE2.

Devarajan, A.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2010, pp. 1–10.

Edvall, M. M.

K. Holmström, A. O. Göran, and M. M. Edvall, User’s Guide for TOMLAB/CPLEX v11.2. 2009.

Egorov, R.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby, “Architectural tradeoffs for reconfigurable dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 615–626, July2006.
[CrossRef]

Elby, S.

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby, “Architectural tradeoffs for reconfigurable dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 615–626, July2006.
[CrossRef]

Feuer, M. D.

M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 529–535, Feb.2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, JWA8.

Florjanczyk, M.

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, “Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: Architectures and scalability,” Opt. Commun., vol. 279, no. 1, pp. 94–100, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

Göran, A. O.

K. Holmström, A. O. Göran, and M. M. Edvall, User’s Guide for TOMLAB/CPLEX v11.2. 2009.

Gowrishankar, R.

G. Prasanna, S. K. Kishore, G. K. Omprasad, K. S. Raju, R. Gowrishankar, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Versatility of a colorless and directionless WSS based ROADM architecture,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2009, pp. 1–8.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2010, pp. 1–10.

Gringeri, S.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, and S. Elby, “Architectural tradeoffs for reconfigurable dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 615–626, July2006.
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, “Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: Architectures and scalability,” Opt. Commun., vol. 279, no. 1, pp. 94–100, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

Helkey, R. J.

V. Kaman, S. Yuan, O. Jerphagnon, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, “Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, Crete, Oct. 2006, pp. 1–3.

V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, “Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, San Francisco, Aug. 2007, pp. 31–32.

Ho, J.

J. Chen, J. Jacob, C. Santivanez, J. Ho, and K. Rauschenbach, “En route to grouping-constraint free, colorless directionless ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, NThF1.

Holmström, K.

K. Holmström, A. O. Göran, and M. M. Edvall, User’s Guide for TOMLAB/CPLEX v11.2. 2009.

Hua, H.

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, “Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: Architectures and scalability,” Opt. Commun., vol. 279, no. 1, pp. 94–100, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

Jacob, J.

J. Chen, J. Jacob, C. Santivanez, J. Ho, and K. Rauschenbach, “En route to grouping-constraint free, colorless directionless ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, NThF1.

Jerphagnon, O.

V. Kaman, S. Yuan, O. Jerphagnon, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, “Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, Crete, Oct. 2006, pp. 1–3.

Ji, P. N.

P. N. Ji and Y. Aono, “Colorless and directionless multi-degree reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers,” in Proc. WOCC, Shanghai, May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Johnson, R.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2010, pp. 1–10.

G. Prasanna, S. K. Kishore, G. K. Omprasad, K. S. Raju, R. Gowrishankar, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Versatility of a colorless and directionless WSS based ROADM architecture,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2009, pp. 1–8.

Kaman, V.

V. Kaman, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, “Multi-degree ROADM’s with agile add-drop access,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, San Francisco, Aug. 2007, pp. 31–32.

V. Kaman, S. Yuan, O. Jerphagnon, R. J. Helkey, and J. E. Bowers, “Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks,” in Proc. Photonics in Switching, Crete, Oct. 2006, pp. 1–3.

Kim, I.

M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 529–535, Feb.2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, JWA8.

Kishore, B. S.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2010, pp. 1–10.

Kishore, S. K.

G. Prasanna, S. K. Kishore, G. K. Omprasad, K. S. Raju, R. Gowrishankar, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Versatility of a colorless and directionless WSS based ROADM architecture,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2009, pp. 1–8.

Leuthold, J.

Mohan, G.

C. S. R. Murthy and G. Mohan, WDM Optical Networks (Concepts, Design and Algorithms). Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Sadle River, NJ, 2002.

Mukherjee, B.

J. Wang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Path vs. subpath vs. link restoration for fault management in IP-over-WDM networks: Performance comparison using GMPLS control signaling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 80–87, Nov.2002.
[CrossRef]

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks, Part II – Restoration,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 1999, pp. 2023–2030.

Murthy, C. S. R.

C. S. R. Murthy and G. Mohan, WDM Optical Networks (Concepts, Design and Algorithms). Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Sadle River, NJ, 2002.

Neukermans, A.

A. Neukermans and R. Ramaswami, “MEMS technology for optical networking applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 62–69, Jan.2001.
[CrossRef]

Omprasad, G. K.

G. Prasanna, S. K. Kishore, G. K. Omprasad, K. S. Raju, R. Gowrishankar, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Versatility of a colorless and directionless WSS based ROADM architecture,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2009, pp. 1–8.

Palacharla, P.

M. D. Feuer, S. L. Woodward, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, and D. Bihon, “Intra-node contention in dynamic photonic networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 529–535, Feb.2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Palacharla, X. Wang, I. Kim, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Blocking performance in dynamic optical networks based on colorless, non-directional ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2011, JWA8.

Pavon-Marino, P.

Prasanna, G.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2010, pp. 1–10.

G. Prasanna, S. K. Kishore, G. K. Omprasad, K. S. Raju, R. Gowrishankar, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Versatility of a colorless and directionless WSS based ROADM architecture,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2009, pp. 1–8.

Raju, K. S.

G. Prasanna, S. K. Kishore, G. K. Omprasad, K. S. Raju, R. Gowrishankar, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Versatility of a colorless and directionless WSS based ROADM architecture,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2009, pp. 1–8.

Ramamurthy, S.

S. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable WDM mesh networks, Part II – Restoration,” in Proc. IEEE ICC, 1999, pp. 2023–2030.

Ramaswami, R.

A. Neukermans and R. Ramaswami, “MEMS technology for optical networking applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 62–69, Jan.2001.
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June1996.
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, K.

J. Chen, J. Jacob, C. Santivanez, J. Ho, and K. Rauschenbach, “En route to grouping-constraint free, colorless directionless ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, NThF1.

Roorda, P.

P. Roorda and B. Collings, “Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008, NWE2.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

J. Wang, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Path vs. subpath vs. link restoration for fault management in IP-over-WDM networks: Performance comparison using GMPLS control signaling,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 80–87, Nov.2002.
[CrossRef]

Saleh, A. A. M.

Sandesha, K.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2010, pp. 1–10.

Santivanez, C.

J. Chen, J. Jacob, C. Santivanez, J. Ho, and K. Rauschenbach, “En route to grouping-constraint free, colorless directionless ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, 2010, NThF1.

Shankar, R.

R. Shankar, M. Florjanczyk, T. J. Hall, A. Vukovic, and H. Hua, “Multi-degree ROADM based on wavelength selective switches: Architectures and scalability,” Opt. Commun., vol. 279, no. 1, pp. 94–100, Nov.2007.
[CrossRef]

Shukla, V.

S. Gringeri, B. Basch, V. Shukla, R. Egorov, and T. J. Xia, “Flexible architectures for optical transport nodes and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 40–50, Aug.2010.
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. M.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, “Design of logical topologies for wavelength-routed optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 840–851, June1996.
[CrossRef]

Somani, A. K.

A. K. Somani, Survivability and Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks. Cambridge University, 2006.

Sygletos, S.

Thiagarajan, S.

S. Thiagarajan, L. Blair, and J. Berthold, “Direction-independent add/drop access for multi-degree ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, Feb. 2008, OThA7.

Tomkos, I.

Venkataramaniah, K.

G. Prasanna, S. K. Kishore, G. K. Omprasad, K. S. Raju, R. Gowrishankar, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Versatility of a colorless and directionless WSS based ROADM architecture,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2009, pp. 1–8.

Voruganti, P.

G. Prasanna, S. K. Kishore, G. K. Omprasad, K. S. Raju, R. Gowrishankar, K. Venkataramaniah, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Versatility of a colorless and directionless WSS based ROADM architecture,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2009, pp. 1–8.

A. Devarajan, K. Sandesha, R. Gowrishankar, B. S. Kishore, G. Prasanna, R. Johnson, and P. Voruganti, “Colorless, directionless and contentionless multi-degree ROADM architecture for mesh optical networks,” in Proc. Communications Systems and Networks, Bangalore, India, Jan. 2010, pp. 1–10.

Vukovic, A.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) B&S ROADM architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) B&S ROADM architectures: (a) directionless C = 1 , (b) directionless–colorless C = 1 , (c) directionless C = 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Heuristic algorithm scheme.

Tables (4)

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Table I Information on the Topologies Tested

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Table II Lightpath Blocking (%), Load Factor ρ = 1

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Table III Lightpath Blocking (%), Load Factor ρ = 0 . 8

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Table IV Heuristic Algorithm Execution Time (Minutes)