Abstract

Optical microring resonators can be integrated on a chip to perform switching operations directly in the optical domain. Thus they become a building block to create switching elements in on-chip optical interconnection networks, which promise to overcome some of the limitations of current electronic networks. However, the peculiar asymmetric power losses of microring resonators impose new constraints on the design and control of on-chip optical networks. In this work, we study the design of multistage interconnection networks optimized for a particular metric that we name the degradation index, which characterizes the asymmetric behavior of microrings. We also propose a routing control algorithm to maximize the overall throughput, considering the maximum allowed degradation index as a constraint.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electro-optic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 504–506, 2011.
[CrossRef]

R. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Tian, J. Ding, H. Chen, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and W. Zhu, “Microring-resonator-based four-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 20, pp. 18945–18955, Sept.2011.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Submilliwatt, ultrafast and broadband electro-optic silicon switches,” Opt. Express, vol. 18, no. 24, pp. 25225–25231, 2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 6–22, 2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, F. Neri, G. Gavilanes, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 1081–1083, July2010.
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 767–769, May2008.
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2006.

2005

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, “Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultracompact-ring radius,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 4–10, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Baets, R.

Bergman, K.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electro-optic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 504–506, 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 6–22, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “High-speed 2 × 2 switch for multiwavelength silicon-photonic networks-on-chip,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2900–2907, 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 767–769, May2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Petracca, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Design exploration of optical interconnection networks for chip multiprocessors,” in 16th IEEE Symp. on High Performance Interconnects, Sept. 2008, pp. 31–40.

A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, B. Lee, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermally active 4×4 non-blocking switch for networks-on-chip,” in IEEE 21st Annu. Meeting of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Nov. 2008, pp. 370–371.

Bianco, A.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, F. Neri, G. Gavilanes, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 1081–1083, July2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection networks based on microring resonators,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2010, pp. 1–5.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection architectures based on microring resonators,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electro-optic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 504–506, 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 6–22, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “High-speed 2 × 2 switch for multiwavelength silicon-photonic networks-on-chip,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2900–2907, 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 767–769, May2008.
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, B. Lee, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermally active 4×4 non-blocking switch for networks-on-chip,” in IEEE 21st Annu. Meeting of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Nov. 2008, pp. 370–371.

Bogaerts, W.

Brimont, A.

Carloni, L. P.

M. Petracca, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Design exploration of optical interconnection networks for chip multiprocessors,” in 16th IEEE Symp. on High Performance Interconnects, Sept. 2008, pp. 31–40.

Chan, J.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electro-optic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 504–506, 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 6–22, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Cuda, D.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, F. Neri, G. Gavilanes, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 1081–1083, July2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection networks based on microring resonators,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2010, pp. 1–5.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection architectures based on microring resonators,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Cuesta, F.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “The integration of silicon photonics and VLSI electronics for computing systems intra-connect,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2009.

Ding, J.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Submilliwatt, ultrafast and broadband electro-optic silicon switches,” Opt. Express, vol. 18, no. 24, pp. 25225–25231, 2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 767–769, May2008.
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Feng, D.

Galán, J.

Garrich, M.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection architectures based on microring resonators,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection networks based on microring resonators,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Gaudino, R.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, F. Neri, G. Gavilanes, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 1081–1083, July2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection networks based on microring resonators,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2010, pp. 1–5.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection architectures based on microring resonators,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Gavilanes, G.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, F. Neri, G. Gavilanes, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 1081–1083, July2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection networks based on microring resonators,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2010, pp. 1–5.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection architectures based on microring resonators,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Giaccone, P.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection architectures based on microring resonators,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection networks based on microring resonators,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2010, pp. 1–5.

Green, W.

Griol, A.

Håkansson, A.

Hatakeyama, Y.

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, “Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultracompact-ring radius,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 4–10, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “The integration of silicon photonics and VLSI electronics for computing systems intra-connect,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2009.

Hui, J. Y.

J. Y. Hui, Switching and Traffic Theory for Integrated Broadband Networks. Kluwer, 1990.

Ji, R.

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “The integration of silicon photonics and VLSI electronics for computing systems intra-connect,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2009.

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, “Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultracompact-ring radius,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 4–10, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “The integration of silicon photonics and VLSI electronics for computing systems intra-connect,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2009.

Lee, B.

B. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 6–22, 2010.
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “High-speed 2 × 2 switch for multiwavelength silicon-photonic networks-on-chip,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2900–2907, 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, B. Lee, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermally active 4×4 non-blocking switch for networks-on-chip,” in IEEE 21st Annu. Meeting of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Nov. 2008, pp. 370–371.

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 767–769, May2008.
[CrossRef]

M. Petracca, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Design exploration of optical interconnection networks for chip multiprocessors,” in 16th IEEE Symp. on High Performance Interconnects, Sept. 2008, pp. 31–40.

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “The integration of silicon photonics and VLSI electronics for computing systems intra-connect,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2009.

Li, C.

C. Li and A. Poon, “Silicon electro-optic switching based on coupled-microring resonators,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), May 2007.

Li, G.

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Submilliwatt, ultrafast and broadband electro-optic silicon switches,” Opt. Express, vol. 18, no. 24, pp. 25225–25231, 2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “The integration of silicon photonics and VLSI electronics for computing systems intra-connect,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2009.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electro-optic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 504–506, 2011.
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “High-speed 2 × 2 switch for multiwavelength silicon-photonic networks-on-chip,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2900–2907, 2009.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-optical comb switch for multiwavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 767–769, May2008.
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, B. Lee, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermally active 4×4 non-blocking switch for networks-on-chip,” in IEEE 21st Annu. Meeting of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Nov. 2008, pp. 370–371.

Lira, H.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electro-optic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 504–506, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Martí, J.

Neri, F.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, F. Neri, G. Gavilanes, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 1081–1083, July2010.
[CrossRef]

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection networks based on microring resonators,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), May 2010, pp. 1–5.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, M. Garrich, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, P. Giaccone, and F. Neri, “Optical interconnection architectures based on microring resonators,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, Sept. 2009.

Ogata, M.

Y. Kokubun, Y. Hatakeyama, M. Ogata, S. Suzuki, and N. Zaizen, “Fabrication technologies for vertically coupled microring resonator with multilevel crossing busline and ultracompact-ring radius,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 4–10, Feb.2005.
[CrossRef]

Ophir, N.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electro-optic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 504–506, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Padmaraju, K.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electro-optic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 504–506, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Petracca, M.

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, F. Neri, G. Gavilanes, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 1081–1083, July2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Petracca, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Design exploration of optical interconnection networks for chip multiprocessors,” in 16th IEEE Symp. on High Performance Interconnects, Sept. 2008, pp. 31–40.

Poitras, C.

Poon, A.

C. Li and A. Poon, “Silicon electro-optic switching based on coupled-microring resonators,” in Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), May 2007.

Sanchis, P.

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “The integration of silicon photonics and VLSI electronics for computing systems intra-connect,” in Int. Conf. on Photonics in Switching, 2009.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2006.

Shafiiha, R.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

B. Lee, A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. Poitras, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “High-speed 2 × 2 switch for multiwavelength silicon-photonic networks-on-chip,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2900–2907, 2009.
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, N. Sherwood-Droz, B. Lee, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermally active 4×4 non-blocking switch for networks-on-chip,” in IEEE 21st Annu. Meeting of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Nov. 2008, pp. 370–371.

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Suzuki, S.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Elementary microring-based switching elements (SEs).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

4 × 4 microring-based crossbar connecting 1 4 , 2 2 , 3 1 , and 4 3 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rearrangeable non-blocking Clos network.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hybrid crossbar–Benes (HCB) network.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Hybrid Benes–crossbar (HBC) network.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mirrored architecture and plane selector.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Degradation index.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Area for maximum degradation index X ˆ = 7 .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Area for maximum degradation index X ˆ = 15 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Throughput under uniform traffic for N = 64 .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Blocking probability in Benes networks with ρ = 0 . 1 .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Blocking probability in Benes networks with ρ = 0 . 5 .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Blocking probability in Benes networks with ρ = 0 . 9 .

Tables (1)

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Table I Comparison Between Different Network Architectures, Having Defined k ˆ = 2 ( X ˆ 1 ) / 2 .

Equations (1)

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C M - BENES ( N ) = 2 C BENES ( N ) + 2 N = 4 N log 2 N .