Abstract

One of the challenging issues in optical networks is call blocking and it increases with the number of connection requests due to the limited number of wavelength channels in each fiber link. In this paper, we propose a priority based routing and wavelength assignment scheme with incorporation of a traffic grooming mechanism (PRWATG) to reduce call blocking. In this scheme, the connection requests having the same source–destination (s–d) pair are groomed first to avoid intermediate optical–electrical–optical conversation and then these groomed connection requests are served for routing and wavelength assignment according to their priority order. The priority order of each groomed connection request is estimated based on type of path (direct link physical path or indirect link physical path) first and then the traffic volume. If the priority order of connection requests is estimated using these criteria, blocking of connection requests due to wavelength continuity constraints can be reduced to a great extent, which will in turn lead to better performance of the network in terms of lower blocking probability and congestion. The performance analysis of our proposed scheme is made in terms of blocking probability and congestion and compared with a similar non-priority based routing and wavelength assignment scheme (NPRWATG). It is seen that using the PRWATG scheme, the blocking probability and the congestion of the network are significantly reduced compared to NPRWATG. It is also seen that the performance of the proposed scheme is better compared to NPRWATG when the number of connection requests increases in the network.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, 2001.
  2. B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. Springer, 2006.
  3. R. M. C. Siva and G. Mohan, WDM Optical Networks: Concepts, Design and Algorithms. PHI, 2003.
  4. Nokia Siemens Networks Says 100 Gbps Capabilities Commercially Available, 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.fiberise.com/nokia-siemens-networks-says-100-gbps-capabilities-commercially-available.
  5. N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps × 8-wavelength × 4-OC × 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, pp. 1–3.
  6. K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. De, P. Jain, and A. Pal, “Distributed dynamic grooming routing and wavelength assignment in WDM optical mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 117–126, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Colbourn, G. Quattrocchi, and V. Syrotiuk, “Grooming traffic to maximize throughput in SONET rings,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Balma, N. Hadj-Alouane, and A. Hadj-Alouane, “A near-optimal solution approach for the multi-hop traffic grooming problem,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 891–901, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Huang, M. Xia, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath traffic grooming in telecom mesh networks with inverse multiplexing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 545–557, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.
  12. S. Subramaniam and R. Barry, “Wavelength assignment in fixed routing WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 1997, pp. 406–410.
  13. P. Rajalakshmi and A. Jhunjhunwala, “Re-routing at critical nodes to enhance performance of wavelength reassignment in all-optical WDM networks without wavelength conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, pp. 3021–3029, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. M. Shan, K. C. Chua, G. Mohan, and M. H. Phunq, “Priority-based offline wavelength assignment in OBS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1694–1704, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Wang, T. H. Cheng, and M. Ma, “Priority and maximum revenue based routing and wavelength assignment for all-optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Research, Innovation and Vision for the Future, Mar.2007, pp. 135–139.
  16. A. Das and P. P. Sahu, “Compact integrated optical devices using high index contrast waveguides,” in Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, 2006.
  17. P. P. Sahu and A. Das, “Polarization-insensitive thermo-optic Mach Zehnder device based on silicon oxinitride waveguide with fast response time,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 2010.
  18. P. P. Sahu, “Polarization insensitive thermally tunable add/drop multiplexer using cascaded Mach–Zehnder coupler,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt., vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 247–252, 2008.
    [CrossRef]
  19. SONET/SDH Technical Summary [Online]. Available: http://www.techfest.com/networking/wan/sonet.htm.
  20. P. P. Sahu, “New traffic grooming approaches in optical networks under restricted shared protection,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 2008.
    [CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

S. Huang, M. Xia, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath traffic grooming in telecom mesh networks with inverse multiplexing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 545–557, 2010.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sahu and A. Das, “Polarization-insensitive thermo-optic Mach Zehnder device based on silicon oxinitride waveguide with fast response time,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 2010.

2008 (4)

P. P. Sahu, “Polarization insensitive thermally tunable add/drop multiplexer using cascaded Mach–Zehnder coupler,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt., vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 247–252, 2008.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sahu, “New traffic grooming approaches in optical networks under restricted shared protection,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

P. Rajalakshmi and A. Jhunjhunwala, “Re-routing at critical nodes to enhance performance of wavelength reassignment in all-optical WDM networks without wavelength conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, pp. 3021–3029, 2008.
[CrossRef]

D. M. Shan, K. C. Chua, G. Mohan, and M. H. Phunq, “Priority-based offline wavelength assignment in OBS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1694–1704, 2008.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, 2001.

2000 (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.

Balma, A.

Barry, R.

S. Subramaniam and R. Barry, “Wavelength assignment in fixed routing WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 1997, pp. 406–410.

Cheng, T. H.

Y. Wang, T. H. Cheng, and M. Ma, “Priority and maximum revenue based routing and wavelength assignment for all-optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Research, Innovation and Vision for the Future, Mar.2007, pp. 135–139.

Chua, K. C.

D. M. Shan, K. C. Chua, G. Mohan, and M. H. Phunq, “Priority-based offline wavelength assignment in OBS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1694–1704, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Cincotti, G.

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps × 8-wavelength × 4-OC × 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, pp. 1–3.

Colbourn, C.

Das, A.

P. P. Sahu and A. Das, “Polarization-insensitive thermo-optic Mach Zehnder device based on silicon oxinitride waveguide with fast response time,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 2010.

A. Das and P. P. Sahu, “Compact integrated optical devices using high index contrast waveguides,” in Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, 2006.

De, T.

T. De, P. Jain, and A. Pal, “Distributed dynamic grooming routing and wavelength assignment in WDM optical mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 117–126, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Hadj-Alouane, A.

Hadj-Alouane, N.

Huang, S.

Jain, P.

T. De, P. Jain, and A. Pal, “Distributed dynamic grooming routing and wavelength assignment in WDM optical mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 117–126, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Jhunjhunwala, A.

P. Rajalakshmi and A. Jhunjhunwala, “Re-routing at critical nodes to enhance performance of wavelength reassignment in all-optical WDM networks without wavelength conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, pp. 3021–3029, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Jue, J.

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, 2001.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.

Kataoka, N.

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps × 8-wavelength × 4-OC × 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, pp. 1–3.

Kitayama, K.

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps × 8-wavelength × 4-OC × 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, pp. 1–3.

Ma, M.

Y. Wang, T. H. Cheng, and M. Ma, “Priority and maximum revenue based routing and wavelength assignment for all-optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Research, Innovation and Vision for the Future, Mar.2007, pp. 135–139.

Martel, C.

Mohan, G.

D. M. Shan, K. C. Chua, G. Mohan, and M. H. Phunq, “Priority-based offline wavelength assignment in OBS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1694–1704, 2008.
[CrossRef]

R. M. C. Siva and G. Mohan, WDM Optical Networks: Concepts, Design and Algorithms. PHI, 2003.

Mukherjee, B.

S. Huang, M. Xia, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Survivable multipath traffic grooming in telecom mesh networks with inverse multiplexing,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 545–557, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2002.
[CrossRef]

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, 2001.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. Springer, 2006.

Pal, A.

T. De, P. Jain, and A. Pal, “Distributed dynamic grooming routing and wavelength assignment in WDM optical mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 117–126, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Phunq, M. H.

D. M. Shan, K. C. Chua, G. Mohan, and M. H. Phunq, “Priority-based offline wavelength assignment in OBS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1694–1704, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Quattrocchi, G.

Rajalakshmi, P.

P. Rajalakshmi and A. Jhunjhunwala, “Re-routing at critical nodes to enhance performance of wavelength reassignment in all-optical WDM networks without wavelength conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, pp. 3021–3029, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, R.

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, 2001.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, 2001.

Sahu, P. P.

P. P. Sahu and A. Das, “Polarization-insensitive thermo-optic Mach Zehnder device based on silicon oxinitride waveguide with fast response time,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 2010.

P. P. Sahu, “New traffic grooming approaches in optical networks under restricted shared protection,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sahu, “Polarization insensitive thermally tunable add/drop multiplexer using cascaded Mach–Zehnder coupler,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt., vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 247–252, 2008.
[CrossRef]

A. Das and P. P. Sahu, “Compact integrated optical devices using high index contrast waveguides,” in Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, 2006.

Shan, D. M.

D. M. Shan, K. C. Chua, G. Mohan, and M. H. Phunq, “Priority-based offline wavelength assignment in OBS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1694–1704, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Siva, R. M. C.

R. M. C. Siva and G. Mohan, WDM Optical Networks: Concepts, Design and Algorithms. PHI, 2003.

Subramaniam, S.

S. Subramaniam and R. Barry, “Wavelength assignment in fixed routing WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 1997, pp. 406–410.

Syrotiuk, V.

Wada, N.

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps × 8-wavelength × 4-OC × 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, pp. 1–3.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, T. H. Cheng, and M. Ma, “Priority and maximum revenue based routing and wavelength assignment for all-optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Research, Innovation and Vision for the Future, Mar.2007, pp. 135–139.

Xia, M.

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, 2001.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.

Zhu, K.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. Rajalakshmi and A. Jhunjhunwala, “Re-routing at critical nodes to enhance performance of wavelength reassignment in all-optical WDM networks without wavelength conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 26, pp. 3021–3029, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

P. P. Sahu, “Polarization insensitive thermally tunable add/drop multiplexer using cascaded Mach–Zehnder coupler,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt., vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 247–252, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

P. P. Sahu and A. Das, “Polarization-insensitive thermo-optic Mach Zehnder device based on silicon oxinitride waveguide with fast response time,” Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 2010.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 100–108, 2001.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122–133, 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

D. M. Shan, K. C. Chua, G. Mohan, and M. H. Phunq, “Priority-based offline wavelength assignment in OBS networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 1694–1704, 2008.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

Opt. Networks Mag. (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Opt. Networks Mag., vol. 1, pp. 47–60, 2000.

Photonic Network Commun. (2)

T. De, P. Jain, and A. Pal, “Distributed dynamic grooming routing and wavelength assignment in WDM optical mesh networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 117–126, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Sahu, “New traffic grooming approaches in optical networks under restricted shared protection,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 2008.
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

SONET/SDH Technical Summary [Online]. Available: http://www.techfest.com/networking/wan/sonet.htm.

Y. Wang, T. H. Cheng, and M. Ma, “Priority and maximum revenue based routing and wavelength assignment for all-optical WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Research, Innovation and Vision for the Future, Mar.2007, pp. 135–139.

A. Das and P. P. Sahu, “Compact integrated optical devices using high index contrast waveguides,” in Int. Conf. on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, 2006.

S. Subramaniam and R. Barry, “Wavelength assignment in fixed routing WDM networks,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications, 1997, pp. 406–410.

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks. Springer, 2006.

R. M. C. Siva and G. Mohan, WDM Optical Networks: Concepts, Design and Algorithms. PHI, 2003.

Nokia Siemens Networks Says 100 Gbps Capabilities Commercially Available, 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.fiberise.com/nokia-siemens-networks-says-100-gbps-capabilities-commercially-available.

N. Kataoka, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “2.56 Tbps (40-Gbps × 8-wavelength × 4-OC × 2-POL) asynchronous WDM-OCDMA-PON using a multi-port encoder/decoder,” in 37th European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, pp. 1–3.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Network node architecture (WDDM: wavelength division demultiplexer, WDM: wavelength division multiplexer, TOSW: thermo-optic switch, MUX: multiplexer, DMUX: demultiplexer, TX: transmitter, RX: receiver, ADD–DROP: add–drop multiplexer, PRWA: priority based routing and wavelength assignment).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Concept of the proposed scheme.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample network.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Virtual topology of the sample network.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The Indian network with its distance matrix.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

BP versus W, obtained by using PRWATG for (a) the Indian network and (b) NSFNET.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BP versus W, obtained by using PRWATG and NPRWATG, with different numbers of connection requests for (a) the Indian network and (b) NSFNET (under the blocking condition).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) The virtual topology of (a) the Indian network and (b) NSFNET, obtained by using PRWATG.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

W versus Z, obtained by using PRWATG and NPRWATG for (a) the Indian network and (b) NSFNET (under the nonblocking condition).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Congestion of the Indian network, obtained by using the PRWATG and NPRWATG schemes.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Connection Requests With Their Traffic Volume

Tables Icon

Table II Groomed Connection Requests With Their Traffic Volume

Tables Icon

Table III Groomed Connection Requests With Their Priority

Tables Icon

Table IV Lightpath Number of Corresponding Adjacent Nodes in the Indian Network

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pi,j=λ=0W1Pi,j,λ(i,j),
Pi,j,λx,yPi,j,λ(i,j),(x,y),λ,
Pi,j,λx,y1(x,y),λ.
αi,j=s,dαi,js,d(i,j),
αi,jfmax(i,j).
αs,dCB(s,d),
αi,jCBPi,j.