Abstract

We propose energy-saving algorithms to improve the energy efficiency of hybrid fiber coaxial (HFC) networks that support DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification) 3.0 standard. The algorithms incorporate a traffic-aware approach and modify the operation statuses of the two primary network elements, the cable modem (CM) and the cable modem termination system (CMTS), dynamically. For the CM-side operation, we first propose a basic algorithm that can optimize the CMs’ energy efficiency, regardless of significant increase of the packet delay and the number of operation changes (NoOC). We then propose two modified approaches to reduce the packet delay and NoOC while saving energy. Simulations with these algorithms show 37.5%–42.2% energy saving on the CM side, compared to the traditional case where the CMs’ operation statuses are static. Next, we propose a CMTS-side energy-saving algorithm to find the actual connection mapping between the CM channels and CMTS ports. The proposed algorithm tries to support CM connections with minimal numbers of CMTS ports. To further improve the energy efficiency of the CMTS, we design a readjustment approach that can reorganize CM connections on CMTS ports based on their loads. Simulation results show that 31.08%–32.61% energy saving can be achieved on the CMTS in total. Hence, the proposed algorithms achieve effective energy saving on both the CM and CMTS sides.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. L. Valcarenghi, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Energy efficient optical access and metro networks,” in Proc. of ICTON 2010, 2010.
  2. C. Lauge, A. Gladisch, “On the energy consumption of FTTH access networks,” in Proc. of OFC 2009, Mar. 2009.
  3. O. Blume, D. Zeller, U. Barth, “Approaches to energy efficient wireless access networks,” in Proc. of ISCCSP 2010, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–5.
  4. P. Tsiaflakis, “Green DSL: energy-efficient DSM,” in Proc. of ICC 2009, June 2009, pp. 1–5.
  5. S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM 2009, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–5.
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Hsieh, T. Lee, Y. Kuo, “Energy-efficient multi-polling scheme for wireless LANs,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, pp. 1532–1541, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Christensen, P. Reviriego, B. Nordman, M. Bennett, M. Mostowfi, J. Maestro, “IEEE 802.3az: the road to energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 50–56, 2010.
  9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_fibre-coaxial.
  10. http://www.cablelabs.com/.
  11. Z. Zhu, “A novel energy-aware design to build green broadband cable access networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 887–889, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Zhu, “Design green hybrid fiber-coaxial networks: a traffic-aware and cooperative approach,” in Proc. of ICC 2012, June 2012, pp. 1–5.
  13. P. Reviriego, K. Christensen, J. Rabanillo, J. Maestro, “An initial evaluation of energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 578–580, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Garcia, D. Garcia, V. Garcia, R. Bonis, “Analysis and modeling of traffic on a hybrid fiber-coax network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1718–1730, 2004.
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, M. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science, vol. 220, pp. 671–680, 1983.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Z. Zhu, “A novel energy-aware design to build green broadband cable access networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 887–889, 2011.
[CrossRef]

P. Reviriego, K. Christensen, J. Rabanillo, J. Maestro, “An initial evaluation of energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 578–580, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, “Building a green wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, pp. 2219–2229, 2010.
[CrossRef]

K. Christensen, P. Reviriego, B. Nordman, M. Bennett, M. Mostowfi, J. Maestro, “IEEE 802.3az: the road to energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 50–56, 2010.

2009

J. R. Hsieh, T. Lee, Y. Kuo, “Energy-efficient multi-polling scheme for wireless LANs,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, pp. 1532–1541, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Garcia, D. Garcia, V. Garcia, R. Bonis, “Analysis and modeling of traffic on a hybrid fiber-coax network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1718–1730, 2004.
[CrossRef]

1983

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, M. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science, vol. 220, pp. 671–680, 1983.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barth, U.

O. Blume, D. Zeller, U. Barth, “Approaches to energy efficient wireless access networks,” in Proc. of ISCCSP 2010, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–5.

Bennett, M.

K. Christensen, P. Reviriego, B. Nordman, M. Bennett, M. Mostowfi, J. Maestro, “IEEE 802.3az: the road to energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 50–56, 2010.

Blume, O.

O. Blume, D. Zeller, U. Barth, “Approaches to energy efficient wireless access networks,” in Proc. of ISCCSP 2010, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–5.

Bonis, R.

M. Garcia, D. Garcia, V. Garcia, R. Bonis, “Analysis and modeling of traffic on a hybrid fiber-coax network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1718–1730, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Campelo, D.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM 2009, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–5.

Castoldi, P.

L. Valcarenghi, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Energy efficient optical access and metro networks,” in Proc. of ICTON 2010, 2010.

Cerutti, I.

L. Valcarenghi, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Energy efficient optical access and metro networks,” in Proc. of ICTON 2010, 2010.

Chowdhury, P.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, “Building a green wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, pp. 2219–2229, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Christensen, K.

P. Reviriego, K. Christensen, J. Rabanillo, J. Maestro, “An initial evaluation of energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 578–580, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christensen, P. Reviriego, B. Nordman, M. Bennett, M. Mostowfi, J. Maestro, “IEEE 802.3az: the road to energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 50–56, 2010.

Garcia, D.

M. Garcia, D. Garcia, V. Garcia, R. Bonis, “Analysis and modeling of traffic on a hybrid fiber-coax network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1718–1730, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Garcia, M.

M. Garcia, D. Garcia, V. Garcia, R. Bonis, “Analysis and modeling of traffic on a hybrid fiber-coax network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1718–1730, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Garcia, V.

M. Garcia, D. Garcia, V. Garcia, R. Bonis, “Analysis and modeling of traffic on a hybrid fiber-coax network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1718–1730, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Gelatt, C.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, M. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science, vol. 220, pp. 671–680, 1983.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladisch, A.

C. Lauge, A. Gladisch, “On the energy consumption of FTTH access networks,” in Proc. of OFC 2009, Mar. 2009.

Hsieh, J. R.

J. R. Hsieh, T. Lee, Y. Kuo, “Energy-efficient multi-polling scheme for wireless LANs,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, pp. 1532–1541, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM 2009, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–5.

Kirkpatrick, S.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, M. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science, vol. 220, pp. 671–680, 1983.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y.

J. R. Hsieh, T. Lee, Y. Kuo, “Energy-efficient multi-polling scheme for wireless LANs,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, pp. 1532–1541, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Lauge, C.

C. Lauge, A. Gladisch, “On the energy consumption of FTTH access networks,” in Proc. of OFC 2009, Mar. 2009.

Lee, T.

J. R. Hsieh, T. Lee, Y. Kuo, “Energy-efficient multi-polling scheme for wireless LANs,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, pp. 1532–1541, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Maestro, J.

P. Reviriego, K. Christensen, J. Rabanillo, J. Maestro, “An initial evaluation of energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 578–580, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christensen, P. Reviriego, B. Nordman, M. Bennett, M. Mostowfi, J. Maestro, “IEEE 802.3az: the road to energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 50–56, 2010.

Mostowfi, M.

K. Christensen, P. Reviriego, B. Nordman, M. Bennett, M. Mostowfi, J. Maestro, “IEEE 802.3az: the road to energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 50–56, 2010.

Mukherjee, B.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, “Building a green wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, pp. 2219–2229, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Nordman, B.

K. Christensen, P. Reviriego, B. Nordman, M. Bennett, M. Mostowfi, J. Maestro, “IEEE 802.3az: the road to energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 50–56, 2010.

Rabanillo, J.

P. Reviriego, K. Christensen, J. Rabanillo, J. Maestro, “An initial evaluation of energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 578–580, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Reviriego, P.

P. Reviriego, K. Christensen, J. Rabanillo, J. Maestro, “An initial evaluation of energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 578–580, 2011.
[CrossRef]

K. Christensen, P. Reviriego, B. Nordman, M. Bennett, M. Mostowfi, J. Maestro, “IEEE 802.3az: the road to energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 50–56, 2010.

Sarkar, S.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, “Building a green wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, pp. 2219–2229, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tornatore, M.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, “Building a green wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, pp. 2219–2229, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tsiaflakis, P.

P. Tsiaflakis, “Green DSL: energy-efficient DSM,” in Proc. of ICC 2009, June 2009, pp. 1–5.

Valcarenghi, L.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM 2009, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–5.

L. Valcarenghi, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Energy efficient optical access and metro networks,” in Proc. of ICTON 2010, 2010.

Vecchi, M.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, M. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science, vol. 220, pp. 671–680, 1983.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, S.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM 2009, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–5.

Yamashita, S.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM 2009, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–5.

Yen, S.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM 2009, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–5.

Zeller, D.

O. Blume, D. Zeller, U. Barth, “Approaches to energy efficient wireless access networks,” in Proc. of ISCCSP 2010, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–5.

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, “A novel energy-aware design to build green broadband cable access networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 887–889, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, “Design green hybrid fiber-coaxial networks: a traffic-aware and cooperative approach,” in Proc. of ICC 2012, June 2012, pp. 1–5.

IEEE Commun. Lett.

Z. Zhu, “A novel energy-aware design to build green broadband cable access networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 887–889, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Lett.

P. Reviriego, K. Christensen, J. Rabanillo, J. Maestro, “An initial evaluation of energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 578–580, 2011.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag.

K. Christensen, P. Reviriego, B. Nordman, M. Bennett, M. Mostowfi, J. Maestro, “IEEE 802.3az: the road to energy efficient Ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, pp. 50–56, 2010.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

M. Garcia, D. Garcia, V. Garcia, R. Bonis, “Analysis and modeling of traffic on a hybrid fiber-coax network,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, pp. 1718–1730, 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.

J. R. Hsieh, T. Lee, Y. Kuo, “Energy-efficient multi-polling scheme for wireless LANs,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 8, pp. 1532–1541, 2009.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, “Building a green wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN),” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 28, pp. 2219–2229, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Science

S. Kirkpatrick, C. Gelatt, M. Vecchi, “Optimization by simulated annealing,” Science, vol. 220, pp. 671–680, 1983.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Z. Zhu, “Design green hybrid fiber-coaxial networks: a traffic-aware and cooperative approach,” in Proc. of ICC 2012, June 2012, pp. 1–5.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_fibre-coaxial.

http://www.cablelabs.com/.

L. Valcarenghi, I. Cerutti, P. Castoldi, “Energy efficient optical access and metro networks,” in Proc. of ICTON 2010, 2010.

C. Lauge, A. Gladisch, “On the energy consumption of FTTH access networks,” in Proc. of OFC 2009, Mar. 2009.

O. Blume, D. Zeller, U. Barth, “Approaches to energy efficient wireless access networks,” in Proc. of ISCCSP 2010, Mar. 2010, pp. 1–5.

P. Tsiaflakis, “Green DSL: energy-efficient DSM,” in Proc. of ICC 2009, June 2009, pp. 1–5.

S. Wong, L. Valcarenghi, S. Yen, D. Campelo, S. Yamashita, L. Kazovsky, “Sleep mode for energy saving PONs: advantages and drawbacks,” in Proc. of GLOBECOM 2009, Dec. 2009, pp. 1–5.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) HFC network infrastructure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Four-channel bonding in an HFC network with DOCSIS 3.0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) CM traffic load variation in a 24-h period, (b) number of active CM channels from Algorithm 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Energy saving per CM hourly for a 24-h duration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Per CM values of (a) packet queueing delay, and (b) number of DBC operations, in each hour of a day.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Hourly energy saving per CM in a 24-h duration, for the average prediction cases.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Per CM values of (a) packet queueing delay and (b) number of DBC operations, in each hour of a day, for the average prediction cases.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Number of working CMTS ports changing with time.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) Loads (%) of (a) port 1, (b) port 7, (c) port 13, and (d) port 15 on the CMTS versus time in a day.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Number of working CMTS ports changing with time, for (a) TH = 5 % and (b) TH = 20 % .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Tradeoff between energy saving and additional NoOC.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Comparisons of energy saving on the CMTS.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Simulation Parameters

Tables Icon

Table II Comparisons of Simulation Results for CM Energy Consumption and NoOC

Tables Icon

Table III Simulation Results for CMTS Energy Consumption