Abstract

In this paper, we propose a path-computation algorithm for a dynamic virtual network topology (VNT) configuration. We focus on a multi-layer network formed by a connection-oriented Ethernet over a wavelength-switched optical network under the framework of a unified generalized multi-protocol label-switching control plane. The algorithm chooses the route depending on the current state of the network resources, favoring the usage of virtual and forwarding adjacency (FA) traffic engineering (TE) links over a new lambda switching capability (LSC) label-switched path (LSP) establishment. The performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm is conducted through simulations according to three different operational scenarios for the VNT configuration: dynamic, in which all LSC LSPs are established and released dynamically, semi-dynamic, in which a set of FA LSC LSPs is pre-established and advertised by a routing protocol as FA TE links, and virtual, in which a set of FA TE links is pre-defined, but not established. Two different topologies are used: NSFNET and Pan-European. It is shown that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the connection-blocking probability compared to the algorithms found in the literature, providing an efficient collaboration between the switching layers involved.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. IEEE 802 1Qay, Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering, Aug.2009.
  2. B. Niven-Jenkins, D. Brungard, M. Betts, N. Sprecher, and S. Ueno, “Requirements of an MPLS transport profile,” RFC 5654, Sept.2009.
  3. E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” RFC 3945, Oct.2004.
  4. K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J.-L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, and D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, July2008.
  5. J. L. Le Roux and D. Papadimitriou, “Evaluation of existing GMPLS protocols against multi-layer and multi-region networks (MLN/MRN),” RFC 5339, Sept.2008.
  6. A. Farrel, J.-P. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” RFC 4655, Aug.2006.
  7. F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Proc. OFC 2007, Mar. 2007, OWK5.
  8. N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, and A. Welin, “Virtual network topology manager (VNTM) and path computation element (PCE) cooperation in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” in Proc. of the OFC/NFOEC, 2009.
  9. Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, W. Gu, and Y. Ji, “Novel path computation element-based traffic grooming strategy in Internet protocol over wavelength division multiplexing networks,” IET Commun., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1138–1146, 2011.
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Fodor, G. Enyedi, G. Rétvári, and T. Cinkler, “Layer-preference policies in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 300–313, Feb.2009.
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Colitti, K. Steenhaut, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, J. Lemeire, and A. Nowé, “Integrated routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 238–252, Oct.2010.
  12. E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan.2005.
  13. K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “On-line approaches for provisioning connections of different bandwidth granularities in WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. OFC 2002, Mar. 2002, pp. 549–551.
  14. M. Kordialam and T. V. Lakshman, “Integrated dynamic IP and wavelength routing in IP over WDM networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM 2001, 2001, pp. 358–366.
  15. H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr.2003.
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, A. Bogoni, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Introducing TE metrics to account for transponder and grooming resources in GMPLS multi-layer network,” in Proc. of the IPR/PS, 2010.
  17. K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, and N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1254–1262, Oct.2003.
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Shimazaki, E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, and S. Urushidani, “Traffic-driven virtual network topology reconfiguration for GMPLS network,” in Proc. of the IEICE General Conf., 2006.
  19. E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” RFC 5623, Sept.2009.
  20. A. Bukva, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, and R. Muñoz, “A dynamic on-line path computation algorithm for VNT configuration in GMPLS controlled multi-layer (Ethernet/WSON) network,” in Proc. of HPSR 2011, July 2011, pp. 209–214.
  21. L. Berger, Ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling functional description,” RFC 3471, Jan.2003.
  22. S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  23. www.opnet.com.

2011 (1)

Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, W. Gu, and Y. Ji, “Novel path computation element-based traffic grooming strategy in Internet protocol over wavelength division multiplexing networks,” IET Commun., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1138–1146, 2011.
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

W. Colitti, K. Steenhaut, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, J. Lemeire, and A. Nowé, “Integrated routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 238–252, Oct.2010.

2009 (1)

P. Fodor, G. Enyedi, G. Rétvári, and T. Cinkler, “Layer-preference policies in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 300–313, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan.2005.

2003 (3)

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, and N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1254–1262, Oct.2003.
[CrossRef]

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Andriolli, N.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Proc. OFC 2007, Mar. 2007, OWK5.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, and A. Welin, “Virtual network topology manager (VNTM) and path computation element (PCE) cooperation in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” in Proc. of the OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, A. Bogoni, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Introducing TE metrics to account for transponder and grooming resources in GMPLS multi-layer network,” in Proc. of the IPR/PS, 2010.

Ash, J.

A. Farrel, J.-P. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” RFC 4655, Aug.2006.

Betts, M.

B. Niven-Jenkins, D. Brungard, M. Betts, N. Sprecher, and S. Ueno, “Requirements of an MPLS transport profile,” RFC 5654, Sept.2009.

Bogoni, A.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, A. Bogoni, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Introducing TE metrics to account for transponder and grooming resources in GMPLS multi-layer network,” in Proc. of the IPR/PS, 2010.

Bottari, G.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, A. Bogoni, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Introducing TE metrics to account for transponder and grooming resources in GMPLS multi-layer network,” in Proc. of the IPR/PS, 2010.

Brungard, D.

B. Niven-Jenkins, D. Brungard, M. Betts, N. Sprecher, and S. Ueno, “Requirements of an MPLS transport profile,” RFC 5654, Sept.2009.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J.-L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, and D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, July2008.

Bukva, A.

A. Bukva, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, and R. Muñoz, “A dynamic on-line path computation algorithm for VNT configuration in GMPLS controlled multi-layer (Ethernet/WSON) network,” in Proc. of HPSR 2011, July 2011, pp. 209–214.

Casellas, R.

A. Bukva, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, and R. Muñoz, “A dynamic on-line path computation algorithm for VNT configuration in GMPLS controlled multi-layer (Ethernet/WSON) network,” in Proc. of HPSR 2011, July 2011, pp. 209–214.

Castoldi, P.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Proc. OFC 2007, Mar. 2007, OWK5.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, and A. Welin, “Virtual network topology manager (VNTM) and path computation element (PCE) cooperation in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” in Proc. of the OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, A. Bogoni, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Introducing TE metrics to account for transponder and grooming resources in GMPLS multi-layer network,” in Proc. of the IPR/PS, 2010.

Cinkler, T.

P. Fodor, G. Enyedi, G. Rétvári, and T. Cinkler, “Layer-preference policies in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 300–313, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Colitti, W.

W. Colitti, K. Steenhaut, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, J. Lemeire, and A. Nowé, “Integrated routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 238–252, Oct.2010.

Colle, D.

W. Colitti, K. Steenhaut, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, J. Lemeire, and A. Nowé, “Integrated routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 238–252, Oct.2010.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Cugini, F.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, and A. Welin, “Virtual network topology manager (VNTM) and path computation element (PCE) cooperation in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” in Proc. of the OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Proc. OFC 2007, Mar. 2007, OWK5.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, A. Bogoni, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Introducing TE metrics to account for transponder and grooming resources in GMPLS multi-layer network,” in Proc. of the IPR/PS, 2010.

de Maesschalck, S.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Derkacz, J.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Enyedi, G.

P. Fodor, G. Enyedi, G. Rétvári, and T. Cinkler, “Layer-preference policies in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 300–313, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Farrel, A.

A. Farrel, J.-P. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” RFC 4655, Aug.2006.

E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” RFC 5623, Sept.2009.

Fodor, P.

P. Fodor, G. Enyedi, G. Rétvári, and T. Cinkler, “Layer-preference policies in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 300–313, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Giorgetti, A.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Proc. OFC 2007, Mar. 2007, OWK5.

Gu, W.

Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, W. Gu, and Y. Ji, “Novel path computation element-based traffic grooming strategy in Internet protocol over wavelength division multiplexing networks,” IET Commun., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1138–1146, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Imajuku, W.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan.2005.

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, and N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1254–1262, Oct.2003.
[CrossRef]

Inkret, R.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Iovanna, P.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, A. Bogoni, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Introducing TE metrics to account for transponder and grooming resources in GMPLS multi-layer network,” in Proc. of the IPR/PS, 2010.

Jaeger, M.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Ji, Y.

Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, W. Gu, and Y. Ji, “Novel path computation element-based traffic grooming strategy in Internet protocol over wavelength division multiplexing networks,” IET Commun., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1138–1146, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Kordialam, M.

M. Kordialam and T. V. Lakshman, “Integrated dynamic IP and wavelength routing in IP over WDM networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM 2001, 2001, pp. 358–366.

Lakshman, T. V.

M. Kordialam and T. V. Lakshman, “Integrated dynamic IP and wavelength routing in IP over WDM networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM 2001, 2001, pp. 358–366.

Le Roux, J. L.

E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” RFC 5623, Sept.2009.

J. L. Le Roux and D. Papadimitriou, “Evaluation of existing GMPLS protocols against multi-layer and multi-region networks (MLN/MRN),” RFC 5339, Sept.2008.

Le Roux, J.-L.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J.-L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, and D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, July2008.

Lemeire, J.

W. Colitti, K. Steenhaut, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, J. Lemeire, and A. Nowé, “Integrated routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 238–252, Oct.2010.

Lievens, I.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Mannie, E.

E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” RFC 3945, Oct.2004.

Martínez, R.

A. Bukva, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, and R. Muñoz, “A dynamic on-line path computation algorithm for VNT configuration in GMPLS controlled multi-layer (Ethernet/WSON) network,” in Proc. of HPSR 2011, July 2011, pp. 209–214.

Mauz, C.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Mikac, B.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “On-line approaches for provisioning connections of different bandwidth granularities in WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. OFC 2002, Mar. 2002, pp. 549–551.

Muñoz, R.

A. Bukva, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, and R. Muñoz, “A dynamic on-line path computation algorithm for VNT configuration in GMPLS controlled multi-layer (Ethernet/WSON) network,” in Proc. of HPSR 2011, July 2011, pp. 209–214.

Niven-Jenkins, B.

B. Niven-Jenkins, D. Brungard, M. Betts, N. Sprecher, and S. Ueno, “Requirements of an MPLS transport profile,” RFC 5654, Sept.2009.

Nowé, A.

W. Colitti, K. Steenhaut, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, J. Lemeire, and A. Nowé, “Integrated routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 238–252, Oct.2010.

Okamoto, S.

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, and N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1254–1262, Oct.2003.
[CrossRef]

Oki, E.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan.2005.

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, and N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1254–1262, Oct.2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Shimazaki, E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, and S. Urushidani, “Traffic-driven virtual network topology reconfiguration for GMPLS network,” in Proc. of the IEICE General Conf., 2006.

E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” RFC 5623, Sept.2009.

Paolucci, F.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Proc. OFC 2007, Mar. 2007, OWK5.

Papadimitriou, D.

J. L. Le Roux and D. Papadimitriou, “Evaluation of existing GMPLS protocols against multi-layer and multi-region networks (MLN/MRN),” RFC 5339, Sept.2008.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J.-L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, and D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, July2008.

Pickavet, M.

W. Colitti, K. Steenhaut, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, J. Lemeire, and A. Nowé, “Integrated routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 238–252, Oct.2010.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Rétvári, G.

P. Fodor, G. Enyedi, G. Rétvári, and T. Cinkler, “Layer-preference policies in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 300–313, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

Shimazaki, D.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan.2005.

D. Shimazaki, E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, and S. Urushidani, “Traffic-driven virtual network topology reconfiguration for GMPLS network,” in Proc. of the IEICE General Conf., 2006.

Shiomoto, K.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan.2005.

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, and N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1254–1262, Oct.2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Shimazaki, E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, and S. Urushidani, “Traffic-driven virtual network topology reconfiguration for GMPLS network,” in Proc. of the IEICE General Conf., 2006.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J.-L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, and D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, July2008.

Sprecher, N.

B. Niven-Jenkins, D. Brungard, M. Betts, N. Sprecher, and S. Ueno, “Requirements of an MPLS transport profile,” RFC 5654, Sept.2009.

Steenhaut, K.

W. Colitti, K. Steenhaut, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, J. Lemeire, and A. Nowé, “Integrated routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 238–252, Oct.2010.

Takeda, T.

E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” RFC 5623, Sept.2009.

Takigawa, Y.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan.2005.

Ueno, S.

B. Niven-Jenkins, D. Brungard, M. Betts, N. Sprecher, and S. Ueno, “Requirements of an MPLS transport profile,” RFC 5654, Sept.2009.

Urushidani, S.

D. Shimazaki, E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, and S. Urushidani, “Traffic-driven virtual network topology reconfiguration for GMPLS network,” in Proc. of the IEICE General Conf., 2006.

Valcarenghi, L.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, A. Bogoni, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Introducing TE metrics to account for transponder and grooming resources in GMPLS multi-layer network,” in Proc. of the IPR/PS, 2010.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Proc. OFC 2007, Mar. 2007, OWK5.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, and A. Welin, “Virtual network topology manager (VNTM) and path computation element (PCE) cooperation in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” in Proc. of the OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

Vasseur, J.-P.

A. Farrel, J.-P. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” RFC 4655, Aug.2006.

Vigoureux, M.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J.-L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, and D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, July2008.

Welin, A.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, and A. Welin, “Virtual network topology manager (VNTM) and path computation element (PCE) cooperation in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” in Proc. of the OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

Yamanaka, N.

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan.2005.

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, and N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1254–1262, Oct.2003.
[CrossRef]

Zang, H.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, W. Gu, and Y. Ji, “Novel path computation element-based traffic grooming strategy in Internet protocol over wavelength division multiplexing networks,” IET Commun., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1138–1146, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, W. Gu, and Y. Ji, “Novel path computation element-based traffic grooming strategy in Internet protocol over wavelength division multiplexing networks,” IET Commun., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1138–1146, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, W. Gu, and Y. Ji, “Novel path computation element-based traffic grooming strategy in Internet protocol over wavelength division multiplexing networks,” IET Commun., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1138–1146, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, K.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “On-line approaches for provisioning connections of different bandwidth granularities in WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. OFC 2002, Mar. 2002, pp. 549–551.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, D. Shimazaki, N. Yamanaka, W. Imajuku, and Y. Takigawa, “Dynamic multilayer routing schemes in GMPLS-based IP+optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 108–114, Jan.2005.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

K. Shiomoto, E. Oki, W. Imajuku, S. Okamoto, and N. Yamanaka, “Distributed virtual network topology control mechanism in GMPLS-based multiregion networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1254–1262, Oct.2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu, and B. Mukherjee, “A novel generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, pp. 285–299, Apr.2003.
[CrossRef]

IET Commun. (1)

Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, H. Zhang, W. Gu, and Y. Ji, “Novel path computation element-based traffic grooming strategy in Internet protocol over wavelength division multiplexing networks,” IET Commun., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1138–1146, 2011.
[CrossRef]

Photonic Network Commun. (3)

P. Fodor, G. Enyedi, G. Rétvári, and T. Cinkler, “Layer-preference policies in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 300–313, Feb.2009.
[CrossRef]

W. Colitti, K. Steenhaut, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, J. Lemeire, and A. Nowé, “Integrated routing in GMPLS-based IP/WDM networks,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 21, pp. 238–252, Oct.2010.

S. de Maesschalck, D. Colle, I. Lievens, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, C. Mauz, M. Jaeger, R. Inkret, B. Mikac, and J. Derkacz, “Pan-European optical transport networks: An availability-based comparison,” Photonic Network Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 203–225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

www.opnet.com.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, P. Iovanna, G. Bottari, A. Bogoni, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Introducing TE metrics to account for transponder and grooming resources in GMPLS multi-layer network,” in Proc. of the IPR/PS, 2010.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “On-line approaches for provisioning connections of different bandwidth granularities in WDM mesh networks,” in Proc. OFC 2002, Mar. 2002, pp. 549–551.

M. Kordialam and T. V. Lakshman, “Integrated dynamic IP and wavelength routing in IP over WDM networks,” in Proc. INFOCOM 2001, 2001, pp. 358–366.

D. Shimazaki, E. Oki, K. Shiomoto, and S. Urushidani, “Traffic-driven virtual network topology reconfiguration for GMPLS network,” in Proc. of the IEICE General Conf., 2006.

E. Oki, T. Takeda, J. L. Le Roux, and A. Farrel, “Framework for PCE-based inter-layer MPLS and GMPLS traffic engineering,” RFC 5623, Sept.2009.

A. Bukva, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, and R. Muñoz, “A dynamic on-line path computation algorithm for VNT configuration in GMPLS controlled multi-layer (Ethernet/WSON) network,” in Proc. of HPSR 2011, July 2011, pp. 209–214.

L. Berger, Ed., “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) signaling functional description,” RFC 3471, Jan.2003.

IEEE 802 1Qay, Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering, Aug.2009.

B. Niven-Jenkins, D. Brungard, M. Betts, N. Sprecher, and S. Ueno, “Requirements of an MPLS transport profile,” RFC 5654, Sept.2009.

E. Mannie, “Generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) architecture,” RFC 3945, Oct.2004.

K. Shiomoto, D. Papadimitriou, J.-L. Le Roux, M. Vigoureux, and D. Brungard, “Requirements for GMPLS-based multi-region and multi-layer networks (MRN/MLN),” RFC 5212, July2008.

J. L. Le Roux and D. Papadimitriou, “Evaluation of existing GMPLS protocols against multi-layer and multi-region networks (MLN/MRN),” RFC 5339, Sept.2008.

A. Farrel, J.-P. Vasseur, and J. Ash, “A path computation element (PCE)-based architecture,” RFC 4655, Aug.2006.

F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, N. Andriolli, F. Paolucci, L. Valcarenghi, and P. Castoldi, “Multiple path computation element (PCE) cooperation for multi-layer traffic engineering,” in Proc. OFC 2007, Mar. 2007, OWK5.

N. Andriolli, F. Cugini, L. Valcarenghi, P. Castoldi, and A. Welin, “Virtual network topology manager (VNTM) and path computation element (PCE) cooperation in multi-layer GMPLS networks,” in Proc. of the OFC/NFOEC, 2009.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) L2SC LSP establishment in a multi-layer network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pseudo-code of the path-computation algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Used network topologies: (a) NSFNET, (b) Pan-European.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Connection-blocking probability in the NSFNET topology.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Connection-blocking probability in the Pan-European topology.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Active wavelength channels in optical links, NSFNET topology.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Active wavelength channels in optical links: Pan-European topology, dynamic scenario.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

FA TE link usage, NSFNET topology.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

FA TE link usage: Pan-European topology, dynamic scenario.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average number of hops at the upper layer: NSFNET topology, dynamic scenario.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Average number of hops usage: Pan-European topology, dynamic scenario.

Equations (3)

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C ( P ) = C ( u ) + C ( e u v ) .
C ( u ) = u α a u ,
C ( e u v ) = u v ( β b u v + χ c u v + δ d u v ) .