Abstract

All-optical packet switching can overcome limitations of electronic switches in terms of power consumption, speed, cost, and footprint. Switch architectures combining wavelength converters and fiber delay lines provide tunable routing and contention resolution when used with an N×N arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), a key passive optical component to bypass electronic processing limitations. An AWG passively routes either single or multiple input port wavelengths to output ports. A single wavelength per port strategy reduces crosstalk within the AWG, but drastically increases the dimensionality of the device. AWG design constraints due to bandwidth limitations and fabrication processes limit the port number for the foreseeable future to under 100. In order to scale optical switches to emerging network requirements, we must use multiple wavelengths per port. In this paper, we examine several optical router architectures for data center applications using multiple wavelengths per port, and quantify the physical layer impairments. We consider not only the AWG crosstalk, but also Q-factor degradation caused by the multiple wavelength conversions occurring when a packet is buffered for contention resolution. We present the results as a function of the number of recirculations for on–off-keying (OOK) signal formats. While previous work has addressed this issue in terms of accumulated loss, we focus on accumulated intensity noise due to crosstalk and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). We compare the routing performance of each architecture, and we point out that the AWG crosstalk and accumulated ASE noise during packet recirculation are both critical to the routing performance.

© 2012 OSA

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2010 (1)

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 14, pp. 3–9, Win2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, D. Lee, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, C. Y. Chen, and T. S. Lay, “High-speed wavelength conversion in quantum dot and quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, May26, 2008.

2007 (2)

M. Matsuura, N. Kishi, and T. Miki, “Ultrawideband wavelength conversion using cascaded SOA-based wavelength converters,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 25, pp. 38–45, Jan.2007.
[CrossRef]

A. F. Benner, P. K. Pepeljugoski, and R. J. Recio, “A roadmap to 100G ethernet at the Enterprise data center,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, pp. 10–17, Nov.2007.

2006 (2)

2004 (2)

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Clos lives on in optical packet switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 114–121, Feb.2004.

Z. H. Li, Y. Dong, J. Y. Mo, Y. X. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1685–1687, July2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32×32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 1865–1866, Oct.23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, and H. Toba, “Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on N×N optical interconnection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 1097–1105, June1996.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

O. Ishida and H. Takahashi, “Loss-imbalance equalization in arrayed-wave-guide-grating (Awg) multiplexer cascades,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1155–1163, June1995.
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell System Technical J., vol. 32, pp. 406–424, 1953.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic Communication Systems. 3rd ed.Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2002.

Akella, V.

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

X. Ye, Y. Yin, D. Ding, S. Johnson, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Assessment of optical switching in data center networks,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Andonovic, I.

Antoniades, N.

Ball, P.

Banchi, L.

Bansal, Y.

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Barroso, L. A.

L. A. Barroso and U. Hölzle, “The datacenter as a computer: An introduction to the design of warehouse-scale machines,” in Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture. Morgan and Claypool Publishers, 2009, p. 108.

Ben M’Sallem, Y.

Q. Xu, H. Rastegarfar, Y. Ben M’Sallem, S. LaRochelle, A. Leon-Garcia, and L. A. Rusch, “OOK Q-factor degradation in scalable optical switches,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing, Cartagena, Spain, 2011.

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, P. K. Pepeljugoski, and R. J. Recio, “A roadmap to 100G ethernet at the Enterprise data center,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, pp. 10–17, Nov.2007.

Boyer, K.

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Castillo, G. A. G.

Chen, C. Y.

D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, D. Lee, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, C. Y. Chen, and T. S. Lay, “High-speed wavelength conversion in quantum dot and quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, May26, 2008.

Cheng, T. H.

Cheyns, J.

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Clos lives on in optical packet switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 114–121, Feb.2004.

Chia, M. C.

Chowdhury, D. Q.

Chuang, S. L.

D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, D. Lee, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, C. Y. Chen, and T. S. Lay, “High-speed wavelength conversion in quantum dot and quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, May26, 2008.

Ciaramella, E.

Clos, C.

C. Clos, “A study of non-blocking switching networks,” Bell System Technical J., vol. 32, pp. 406–424, 1953.

Colle, D.

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Clos lives on in optical packet switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 114–121, Feb.2004.

Contestabile, G.

De Turck, F.

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Clos lives on in optical packet switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 114–121, Feb.2004.

Demeester, P.

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Clos lives on in optical packet switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 114–121, Feb.2004.

Deogun, J. S.

L. Li, S. D. Scott, and J. S. Deogun, “A novel fiber delay line buffering architecture for optical packet switching,” presented at the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2003.

Develder, C.

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Clos lives on in optical packet switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 114–121, Feb.2004.

Ding, D.

X. Ye, Y. Yin, D. Ding, S. Johnson, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Assessment of optical switching in data center networks,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Dong, Y.

Z. H. Li, Y. Dong, J. Y. Mo, Y. X. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1685–1687, July2004.
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, S. P.

Finochietto, J. M.

Gaudino, R.

Goncher, G.

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Guild, K. M.

Hasegawa, T.

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32×32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 1865–1866, Oct.23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Hashemi, M. R.

M. R. Hashemi and A. LeonGarcia, “A general purpose cell sequencer/scheduler for ATM switches,” in IEEE Infocom’97 - the Conf. on Computer Communications, Proc., 1997, vol. 1–3, pp. 29–37.

Himeno, A.

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32×32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 1865–1866, Oct.23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Hölzle, U.

L. A. Barroso and U. Hölzle, “The datacenter as a computer: An introduction to the design of warehouse-scale machines,” in Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture. Morgan and Claypool Publishers, 2009, p. 108.

Hunter, D. K.

Ishida, O.

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32×32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 1865–1866, Oct.23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

O. Ishida and H. Takahashi, “Loss-imbalance equalization in arrayed-wave-guide-grating (Awg) multiplexer cascades,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 13, pp. 1155–1163, June1995.
[CrossRef]

Ishii, M.

Itoh, M.

Iyer, S.

S. Iyer, R. Zhang, and N. McKeown, “Routers with a single stage of buffering,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review, vol. 32, pp. 251–264, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Jeon, M.

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Jeong, W. G.

D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, D. Lee, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, C. Y. Chen, and T. S. Lay, “High-speed wavelength conversion in quantum dot and quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, May26, 2008.

Johnson, S.

X. Ye, Y. Yin, D. Ding, S. Johnson, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Assessment of optical switching in data center networks,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Kamei, S.

S. Kamei, M. Ishii, A. Kaneko, T. Shibata, and M. Itoh, “N×N cyclic-frequency router with improved performance based on arrayed-waveguide grating,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, pp. 4097–4104, Sept.15, 2009.
[CrossRef]

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, A.

Kim, N. J.

D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, D. Lee, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, C. Y. Chen, and T. S. Lay, “High-speed wavelength conversion in quantum dot and quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, May26, 2008.

Kishi, N.

Klonidis, D.

Lagasse, P.

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Clos lives on in optical packet switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 114–121, Feb.2004.

LaRochelle, S.

Q. Xu, H. Rastegarfar, Y. Ben M’Sallem, S. LaRochelle, A. Leon-Garcia, and L. A. Rusch, “OOK Q-factor degradation in scalable optical switches,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing, Cartagena, Spain, 2011.

Lay, T. S.

D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, D. Lee, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, C. Y. Chen, and T. S. Lay, “High-speed wavelength conversion in quantum dot and quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, May26, 2008.

Lee, D.

D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, D. Lee, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, C. Y. Chen, and T. S. Lay, “High-speed wavelength conversion in quantum dot and quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, May26, 2008.

LeonGarcia, A.

M. R. Hashemi and A. LeonGarcia, “A general purpose cell sequencer/scheduler for ATM switches,” in IEEE Infocom’97 - the Conf. on Computer Communications, Proc., 1997, vol. 1–3, pp. 29–37.

Leon-Garcia, A.

Q. Xu, H. Rastegarfar, Y. Ben M’Sallem, S. LaRochelle, A. Leon-Garcia, and L. A. Rusch, “OOK Q-factor degradation in scalable optical switches,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing, Cartagena, Spain, 2011.

Li, L.

L. Li, S. D. Scott, and J. S. Deogun, “A novel fiber delay line buffering architecture for optical packet switching,” presented at the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2003.

Li, Z. H.

Z. H. Li, Y. Dong, J. Y. Mo, Y. X. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1685–1687, July2004.
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. G.

Lu, C.

Z. H. Li, Y. Dong, J. Y. Mo, Y. X. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1685–1687, July2004.
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, M.

McKeown, N.

S. Iyer, R. Zhang, and N. McKeown, “Routers with a single stage of buffering,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review, vol. 32, pp. 251–264, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Miki, T.

Mo, J. Y.

Z. H. Li, Y. Dong, J. Y. Mo, Y. X. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1685–1687, July2004.
[CrossRef]

Nady, T.

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Neri, F.

Nielsen, D.

D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, D. Lee, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, C. Y. Chen, and T. S. Lay, “High-speed wavelength conversion in quantum dot and quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, May26, 2008.

O’Mahony, M. J.

Oda, K.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, and H. Toba, “Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on N×N optical interconnection,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 1097–1105, June1996.
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, Y.

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32×32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 1865–1866, Oct.23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, O. Ishida, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “32×32 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with uniform loss and cyclic frequency characteristics,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 1865–1866, Oct.23, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Otani, T.

Pan, Z.

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
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Pickavet, M.

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Politi, C.

Presi, M.

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D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, D. Lee, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, C. Y. Chen, and T. S. Lay, “High-speed wavelength conversion in quantum dot and quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, May26, 2008.

Rastegarfar, H.

Q. Xu, H. Rastegarfar, Y. Ben M’Sallem, S. LaRochelle, A. Leon-Garcia, and L. A. Rusch, “OOK Q-factor degradation in scalable optical switches,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing, Cartagena, Spain, 2011.

Recio, R. J.

A. F. Benner, P. K. Pepeljugoski, and R. J. Recio, “A roadmap to 100G ethernet at the Enterprise data center,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, pp. 10–17, Nov.2007.

Roudas, I.

Rusch, L. A.

Q. Xu, H. Rastegarfar, Y. Ben M’Sallem, S. LaRochelle, A. Leon-Garcia, and L. A. Rusch, “OOK Q-factor degradation in scalable optical switches,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing, Cartagena, Spain, 2011.

Scott, S. D.

L. Li, S. D. Scott, and J. S. Deogun, “A novel fiber delay line buffering architecture for optical packet switching,” presented at the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2003.

Shibata, T.

Stern, T. E.

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S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
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R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communications for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 14, pp. 3–9, Win2010.
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J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Clos lives on in optical packet switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 114–121, Feb.2004.

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Y. K. Yeo, Z. W. Xu, D. W. Wang, J. G. Liu, Y. X. Wang, and T. H. Cheng, “High-speed optical switch fabrics with large port count,” Opt. Express, vol. 17, pp. 10990–10997, June22, 2009.
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[CrossRef]

Wright, I.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, H. Rastegarfar, Y. Ben M’Sallem, S. LaRochelle, A. Leon-Garcia, and L. A. Rusch, “OOK Q-factor degradation in scalable optical switches,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing, Cartagena, Spain, 2011.

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Xue, F.

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

Ye, X.

X. Ye, Y. Yin, D. Ding, S. Johnson, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Assessment of optical switching in data center networks,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

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Yin, Y.

X. Ye, Y. Yin, D. Ding, S. Johnson, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Assessment of optical switching in data center networks,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

Yoo, S. J. B.

X. Ye, Y. Yin, D. Ding, S. Johnson, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Assessment of optical switching in data center networks,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

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S. J. Ben Yoo, “Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic Internet,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 24, pp. 4468–4492, Dec.2006.
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S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

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D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, D. Lee, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, C. Y. Chen, and T. S. Lay, “High-speed wavelength conversion in quantum dot and quantum well semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, May26, 2008.

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A. F. Benner, P. K. Pepeljugoski, and R. J. Recio, “A roadmap to 100G ethernet at the Enterprise data center,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 45, pp. 10–17, Nov.2007.

J. Cheyns, C. Develder, E. Van Breusegem, D. Colle, F. De Turck, P. Lagasse, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Clos lives on in optical packet switching,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 42, pp. 114–121, Feb.2004.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S. J. Ben Yoo, F. Xue, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Pan, J. Cao, M. Jeon, T. Nady, G. Goncher, K. Boyer, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, and V. Akella, “High-performance optical-label switching packet routers and smart edge routers for the next-generation internet,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, pp. 1041–1051, Sept.2003.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. H. Li, Y. Dong, J. Y. Mo, Y. X. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, pp. 1685–1687, July2004.
[CrossRef]

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X. Ye, Y. Yin, D. Ding, S. Johnson, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Assessment of optical switching in data center networks,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., San Diego, CA, 2010.

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Q. Xu, A. Ghazisaeidi, S. Doucet, Y. Ben M’Sallem, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Tunable SOA wavelength converter for optical packet switching router,” presented at the IEEE Photonics Society 23rd Ann. Meeting, Denver, CO, 2010.

Q. Xu, H. Rastegarfar, Y. Ben M’Sallem, S. LaRochelle, A. Leon-Garcia, and L. A. Rusch, “OOK Q-factor degradation in scalable optical switches,” presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. on High Performance Switching and Routing, Cartagena, Spain, 2011.

L. Li, S. D. Scott, and J. S. Deogun, “A novel fiber delay line buffering architecture for optical packet switching,” presented at the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., 2003.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Non-blocking OPS router.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Single-stage OPS router architecture (A1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) N-plane four-stage OPS router (A2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) N-plane middle-stage buffering OPS router (A3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Clos network OPS router (A4).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Noise contributions from crosstalk, EDFA, and TWC using a standard AWG and a low-crosstalk AWG. L = 1 , B = 0 (upper), B = 10 (lower).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Evaluation of Q-factor with recirculation times B for N = 36 , L = 0 . 5 (upper), L = 1 . 0 (lower). The thick solid line is Q = 6 (error free).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) Representative architecture model.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I 8 × 8 AWG Configuration

Tables Icon

Table II Device Requirements in OPS Architecture With Port Count N

Equations (46)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = I 1 I 0 σ mark + σ space ,
BER = 1 2 erfc Q 2 exp Q 2 / 2 Q 2 π .
σ AWG 1 λ 2 = X N , ρ | ρ = L / N = E 4 R N X L N 1 N + E 4 R A X R N X i = 1 N 1 PMF i [ P X ( 1 , i ) + 2 P X ( 2 , i ) ] ,
σ AWG m λ 2 = X N , ρ | ρ = L
σ D 2 = X D N , ρ | ρ = L = E 4 R D N X ρ ( N 1 ) + E 4 ( R D A X R D N X ) i = 1 N 1 PMF ( i ) [ P x ( 1 , i ) + 2 P x ( 2 , i ) ] ,
σ ASE EDFA 2 = 31 dBm 1 . 4 R S 12 . 5 GHz σ ASE TWC 2 = 36 dBm 1 . 4 R S 12 . 5 GHz .
σ A S E c h a i n 2 = m σ ASE EDFA 2 + n σ ASE TWC 2 .
σ A 1 1 2 = σ A S E 1 λ 2 = X 2 N 2 , ρ | ρ = L / 2 N 2 .
σ s p a c e A 1 2 = X D N , ρ | ρ = L .
σ mark A 1 2 = 1 + B σ A 1 1 2 + X D 2 N 2 , ρ | ρ = L + ( 2 + B ) σ ASE EDFA 2 + ( 2 + B ) σ ASE TWC 2 .
σ A 2 1 2 = X 2 N , ρ | ρ = L / 2 N
σ A 2 2 2 = X N , ρ | ρ = L / N
σ A 2 3 2 = X N , ρ | ρ = L
σ A 2 4 2 = X N , ρ | ρ = L / N .
σ s p a c e A 2 2 = X D N , ρ | ρ = L .
σ mark A 2 2 = 1 + B σ A 2 1 2 + σ A 2 2 2 + σ A 2 3 2 + σ A 2 4 2 + X D ( 2 N 2 , ρ ) | ρ = L + ( 5 + B ) σ ASE EDFA 2 + ( 5 + B ) σ ASE TWC 2 .
σ A 3 1 2 = X N , ρ | ρ = L / N .
σ A 3 2 2 = σ A 3 2 D 2 = X 2 N , ρ | ρ = 0 . 5 L / 2 N direct path σ A 3 2 R 2 = X 2 N , p | ρ = L / 2 N recirculation
σ A 3 3 2 = X 2 N , ρ | ρ = L
σ A 3 4 2 = X 2 N , ρ | ρ = 0 . 5 L / 2 N .
σ s p a c e A 3 2 = X D N , ρ | ρ = L .
σ mark A 3 2 = σ A 3 1 2 + σ A 3 2 D 2 + B σ A 3 2 R 2 + 1 + B σ A 3 3 2 + σ A 3 4 2 + X D N , ρ | ρ = L + ( 5 + 2 B ) σ ASE EDFA 2 + ( 5 + 2 B ) σ ASE TWC 2 .
σ A 4 1 2 = X N , ρ | ρ = L / N
σ A 4 2 2 = X 2 N , ρ | ρ = L / 2 N
σ A 4 3 2 = X N , ρ | ρ = L / N .
σ s p a c e A 4 2 = X D N , ρ | ρ = L .
σ mark A 4 2 = σ A 4 1 2 + 1 + B σ A 4 2 2 + σ A 4 3 2 + X D N , ρ | ρ = L + ( 4 + B ) σ ASE EDFA 2 + ( 4 + B ) σ ASE TWC 2 .
PMF ( i ) = N 1 i ρ i 1 ρ N 1 i ,
P X i A X = 0 , i = 2 0 N 3 i N 1 i 1 i N 3 P X i A X = 1 , i = 2 1 N 3 i 1 N 1 i 1 i N 2 P X i A X = 2 , i = 2 2 N 3 i 2 N 1 i 2 i N 1 .
X N , ρ = E X = E 4 R A X E i A X + E 4 R N X E i i A X = E 4 R N X ρ N 1 + E 4 R A X R N X E i A X = E 4 R N X ρ N 1 + E 4 R A X R N X E E i A X | i = E 4 R N X ρ N 1 + E 4 R A X R N X i = 1 N 1 PMF i P X 1 , i + 2 P X 2 , i ,
{ E 1 , [ N + 1 p ] N + 1 E 2 , [ N + 2 p ] N + 1 E N 1 , [ 2 N 1 p ] N + 1 E N , [ 2 N p ] N + 1 } = E i , N + i p N + 1 i = 1 N E i , f i p i = 1 N ,
E i , f i p signal + k = 1 k p N E i , f i k R p , f i k AWG AWG intraband xtalk ,
E i , f i p signal + m = 1 m i N E m , f m ( p ) R i , m D Demux interband xtalk + k = 1 k p N E i , f i k R p , f i k AWG AWG intraband xtalk .
E i , f i p 2 + m = 1 m i N E m , f m p 2 R i , m D + 2 k = 1 k p N E i , f i k E i , f i p R p , f i k AWG .
E i , f p t = b i , f i p E e j θ i , f i p t .
I i , p = b i , f i ( p ) 2 E 2 signal + m = 1 m i N b m , f m ( p ) 2 E 2 R i , m D demux interband xtalk + 2 k = 1 k p N b i , f i p b i , f i k E 2 R p , f i k AWG cos θ i , f i p θ i , f i k AWG intraband xtalk .
P i , p = b i , f i ( p ) 4 E 4 signal + 1 2 m = 1 m i N E 4 R i , m D 2 Demux interband xtalk + b i , f i ( p ) 2 k = 1 k p N E 4 R p , f i k AWG AWG intraband xtalk beating term .
R p , j AWG = R A X | p j | 1 or N 1 ( mod  N ) R N X otherwise .
σ AWG 2 = E 4 2 R A X + N 3 R N X b i , f i p = 1 0 b i , f i p = 0 ,
σ D 2 = E 4 R D A X 2 + N 3 2 R D N X 2 .
σ AWG 2 i A X , i = E 4 i A X R A X + i i A X R N X .
σ AWG 2 = E σ AWG 2 i A X , i = X N , L N ,
X D N , ρ = E σ D 2 = E 4 E i A X R D A X 2 + i i X 2 R D N X 2 = E 4 R D N X 2 ρ N 1 + E 4 R D A X 2 R D N X 2 i = 1 N 1 PMF i P X 1 , i + 2 P X 2 , i .
P E D F A A S E = 2 n s p h v 0 G 1 Δ υ r ,
A S E T W C = 31 dBm / 0 . 1 nm A S E E D F A = 36 dBm / 0 . 1 nm .
σ ASE EDFA 2 = 31 dBm 2 × 0 . 7 R S 12 . 5 GHz σ ASE TWC 2 = 36 dBm 2 × 0 . 7 R S 12 . 5 GHz ,