Abstract

The technology for transport of RF signals over optical fibers at long (metropolitan-scale) distances which enables today’s hybrid fiber/coax networks for community antenna TV and cable modem access is being leveraged for coverage and capacity enhancements in wireless networks providing affordable anywhere/anytime services. This is particularly important in high-traffic urban and in-building arenas where RF propagation is challenging. A hybrid Fiber/Cable (HFCa) approach utilizing legacy urban cabling infrastructures is shown to be highly cost effective, since the installation cost (which often dominates over equipment cost) is greatly reduced or eliminated. Optimum HFCa system architectures are discussed in this paper with Ca = C(Coax) and C5 (Cat-5 unshielded twisted pair cables) for outdoor urban/metropolitan and indoor/in-building arenas, respectively. The general results in this paper apply to both. A quantitative evaluation of capacity gain by traffic trunking in a distributed antenna system is given. All-fiber RF transport for remote radio head systems serving outdoor metropolitan areas is briefly discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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2009 (1)

1996 (1)

S. Ariyavisitakul, T. E. Darcie, L. J. Greenstein, M. R. Phillips, and N. K. Shankaranarayanan, “Performance of simulcast wireless techniques for personal communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 632–643, May1996.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. M. Cutrer, J. B. Georges, T. H. Le, and K. Y. Lau, “Dynamic range requirements for optical transmitters in fiber-fed microcellular networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, May1995.

1993 (2)

M. Shibutani, T. Kanai, W. Domom, K. Emura, and J. Namiki, “Optical fiber feeder for microcellular mobile communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1118–1126, 1993.
[CrossRef]

W. I. Way, “Optical fiber-based microcellular systems: an overview,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E76B, no. 9, pp. 1091–1102, 1993.

1992 (2)

S. Ovadia and K. Y. Lau, “Low-frequency relative intensity noise in self-pulsating ridge-waveguide quantum-well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 336–339, 1992.
[CrossRef]

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

A. J. Rustako, N. Amitay, G. J. Owens, and R. S. Roman, “Radio propagation at microwave frequencies for line-of-sight microcellular mobile and personal communications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 203–210, 1991.
[CrossRef]

T. S. Chu and M. J. Gans, “Fiber optic microcellular radio,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 599–606, 1991.
[CrossRef]

R. G. Vaughan, “The theory of bandpass sampling,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1973–1984, Sept.1991.
[CrossRef]

K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, A. J. Viterbi, L. A. Weaver, and C. E. Wheatley III, “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 303–312, May1991.
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. E. Darcie and G. E. Bodeep, “Lightwave Subcarrier CATV Transmission Systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 524–533, 1990.
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. M. Saleh, A. J. Rustako, and R. S. Roman, “Distributed antennas for indoor radio communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 35, pp. 1245–1251, Dec.1987.
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. A. Chiddix, “Optical fiber super trunking, the time has come: a performance report on a real world system,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. SAC-4, no. 5, pp. 758–769, Aug.1986.
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. Matsui, H. Takiguchi, H. Hayashi, S. Yamamoto, S. Yano, and T. Hijikata, “Suppression of feedback induced noise in short V-channel substrate inner-stripe lasers with self-oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 219–221, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Amitay, N.

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

A. J. Rustako, N. Amitay, G. J. Owens, and R. S. Roman, “Radio propagation at microwave frequencies for line-of-sight microcellular mobile and personal communications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 203–210, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Ariyavisitakul, S.

S. Ariyavisitakul, T. E. Darcie, L. J. Greenstein, M. R. Phillips, and N. K. Shankaranarayanan, “Performance of simulcast wireless techniques for personal communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 632–643, May1996.
[CrossRef]

Bodeep, G. E.

T. E. Darcie and G. E. Bodeep, “Lightwave Subcarrier CATV Transmission Systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 524–533, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Boppana, D.

C. F. Lanzani, G. Kardaras, and D. Boppana, “Remote radio heads and evolution towards 4G networks” [Online]. Available: http://www.altera.com/literature/wp/wp-01096-rrh-4g.pdf.

Chiddix, J. A.

J. A. Chiddix, “Optical fiber super trunking, the time has come: a performance report on a real world system,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. SAC-4, no. 5, pp. 758–769, Aug.1986.
[CrossRef]

Chu, T. S.

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

T. S. Chu and M. J. Gans, “Fiber optic microcellular radio,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 599–606, 1991.
[CrossRef]

T. S. Chu, “Intermodulation in CDMA,” in Proc. 5th IEEE Int. Symp. on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 1994, vol. 2, pp. 595–600.

Cimini, L. J.

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

Cutrer, D. M.

D. M. Cutrer, J. B. Georges, T. H. Le, and K. Y. Lau, “Dynamic range requirements for optical transmitters in fiber-fed microcellular networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, May1995.

Darcie, T. E.

S. Ariyavisitakul, T. E. Darcie, L. J. Greenstein, M. R. Phillips, and N. K. Shankaranarayanan, “Performance of simulcast wireless techniques for personal communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 632–643, May1996.
[CrossRef]

T. E. Darcie and G. E. Bodeep, “Lightwave Subcarrier CATV Transmission Systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 524–533, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Domom, W.

M. Shibutani, T. Kanai, W. Domom, K. Emura, and J. Namiki, “Optical fiber feeder for microcellular mobile communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1118–1126, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Emura, K.

M. Shibutani, T. Kanai, W. Domom, K. Emura, and J. Namiki, “Optical fiber feeder for microcellular mobile communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1118–1126, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Foschini, G. J.

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

Fye, D. M.

D. M. Fye, “Design of fiber optic antenna remoting links for cellular radio applications,” in 40th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., Orlando, FL, May 1990, pp. 622–625.

Gamage, P. A.

Gans, M. J.

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

T. S. Chu and M. J. Gans, “Fiber optic microcellular radio,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 599–606, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Georges, J. B.

D. M. Cutrer, J. B. Georges, T. H. Le, and K. Y. Lau, “Dynamic range requirements for optical transmitters in fiber-fed microcellular networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, May1995.

Gilhousen, K. S.

K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, A. J. Viterbi, L. A. Weaver, and C. E. Wheatley III, “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 303–312, May1991.
[CrossRef]

Greenstein, L. J.

S. Ariyavisitakul, T. E. Darcie, L. J. Greenstein, M. R. Phillips, and N. K. Shankaranarayanan, “Performance of simulcast wireless techniques for personal communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 632–643, May1996.
[CrossRef]

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, H.

S. Matsui, H. Takiguchi, H. Hayashi, S. Yamamoto, S. Yano, and T. Hijikata, “Suppression of feedback induced noise in short V-channel substrate inner-stripe lasers with self-oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 219–221, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Hijikata, T.

S. Matsui, H. Takiguchi, H. Hayashi, S. Yamamoto, S. Yano, and T. Hijikata, “Suppression of feedback induced noise in short V-channel substrate inner-stripe lasers with self-oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 219–221, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, I. M.

K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, A. J. Viterbi, L. A. Weaver, and C. E. Wheatley III, “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 303–312, May1991.
[CrossRef]

Kanai, T.

M. Shibutani, T. Kanai, W. Domom, K. Emura, and J. Namiki, “Optical fiber feeder for microcellular mobile communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1118–1126, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Kardaras, G.

C. F. Lanzani, G. Kardaras, and D. Boppana, “Remote radio heads and evolution towards 4G networks” [Online]. Available: http://www.altera.com/literature/wp/wp-01096-rrh-4g.pdf.

Lanzani, C. F.

C. F. Lanzani, G. Kardaras, and D. Boppana, “Remote radio heads and evolution towards 4G networks” [Online]. Available: http://www.altera.com/literature/wp/wp-01096-rrh-4g.pdf.

Lau, K. Y.

D. M. Cutrer, J. B. Georges, T. H. Le, and K. Y. Lau, “Dynamic range requirements for optical transmitters in fiber-fed microcellular networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, May1995.

S. Ovadia and K. Y. Lau, “Low-frequency relative intensity noise in self-pulsating ridge-waveguide quantum-well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 336–339, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Le, T. H.

D. M. Cutrer, J. B. Georges, T. H. Le, and K. Y. Lau, “Dynamic range requirements for optical transmitters in fiber-fed microcellular networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, May1995.

Lim, C.

Lin, C. I.

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

Matsui, S.

S. Matsui, H. Takiguchi, H. Hayashi, S. Yamamoto, S. Yano, and T. Hijikata, “Suppression of feedback induced noise in short V-channel substrate inner-stripe lasers with self-oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 219–221, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Namiki, J.

M. Shibutani, T. Kanai, W. Domom, K. Emura, and J. Namiki, “Optical fiber feeder for microcellular mobile communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1118–1126, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Nirmalathas, A.

Novak, D.

Ovadia, S.

S. Ovadia and K. Y. Lau, “Low-frequency relative intensity noise in self-pulsating ridge-waveguide quantum-well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 4, pp. 336–339, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Owens, G. J.

A. J. Rustako, N. Amitay, G. J. Owens, and R. S. Roman, “Radio propagation at microwave frequencies for line-of-sight microcellular mobile and personal communications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 203–210, 1991.
[CrossRef]

Padovani, R.

K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, A. J. Viterbi, L. A. Weaver, and C. E. Wheatley III, “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 303–312, May1991.
[CrossRef]

Parsons, D.

D. Parsons, The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel. Halsted Press, New York, 1992.

Phillips, M. R.

S. Ariyavisitakul, T. E. Darcie, L. J. Greenstein, M. R. Phillips, and N. K. Shankaranarayanan, “Performance of simulcast wireless techniques for personal communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 632–643, May1996.
[CrossRef]

Roman, R. S.

A. J. Rustako, N. Amitay, G. J. Owens, and R. S. Roman, “Radio propagation at microwave frequencies for line-of-sight microcellular mobile and personal communications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 203–210, 1991.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Saleh, A. J. Rustako, and R. S. Roman, “Distributed antennas for indoor radio communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 35, pp. 1245–1251, Dec.1987.
[CrossRef]

Rustako, A. J

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

Rustako, A. J.

A. J. Rustako, N. Amitay, G. J. Owens, and R. S. Roman, “Radio propagation at microwave frequencies for line-of-sight microcellular mobile and personal communications,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 203–210, 1991.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Saleh, A. J. Rustako, and R. S. Roman, “Distributed antennas for indoor radio communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 35, pp. 1245–1251, Dec.1987.
[CrossRef]

Saleh, A. M.

A. M. Saleh, A. J. Rustako, and R. S. Roman, “Distributed antennas for indoor radio communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 35, pp. 1245–1251, Dec.1987.
[CrossRef]

Shankaranarayanan, N. K.

S. Ariyavisitakul, T. E. Darcie, L. J. Greenstein, M. R. Phillips, and N. K. Shankaranarayanan, “Performance of simulcast wireless techniques for personal communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 632–643, May1996.
[CrossRef]

Shibutani, M.

M. Shibutani, T. Kanai, W. Domom, K. Emura, and J. Namiki, “Optical fiber feeder for microcellular mobile communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1118–1126, 1993.
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, H.

S. Matsui, H. Takiguchi, H. Hayashi, S. Yamamoto, S. Yano, and T. Hijikata, “Suppression of feedback induced noise in short V-channel substrate inner-stripe lasers with self-oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 219–221, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Valenzuela, R. A.

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

Vannucci, G.

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, R. G.

R. G. Vaughan, “The theory of bandpass sampling,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1973–1984, Sept.1991.
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. J.

K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, A. J. Viterbi, L. A. Weaver, and C. E. Wheatley III, “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 303–312, May1991.
[CrossRef]

Wala, P. M.

P. M. Wala, “A new microcell architecture using digital optical transport,” in 43rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., May 1993, pp. 585–588.

Waterhouse, R.

Way, W. I.

W. I. Way, “Optical fiber-based microcellular systems: an overview,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E76B, no. 9, pp. 1091–1102, 1993.

W. I. Way, Broadband Hybrid Fiber/Coax Access System Technologies. Academic Press, 1998.

Weaver, L. A.

K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, A. J. Viterbi, L. A. Weaver, and C. E. Wheatley III, “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 303–312, May1991.
[CrossRef]

Wheatley III, C. E.

K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, A. J. Viterbi, L. A. Weaver, and C. E. Wheatley III, “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 303–312, May1991.
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Matsui, H. Takiguchi, H. Hayashi, S. Yamamoto, S. Yano, and T. Hijikata, “Suppression of feedback induced noise in short V-channel substrate inner-stripe lasers with self-oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 219–221, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Yano, S.

S. Matsui, H. Takiguchi, H. Hayashi, S. Yamamoto, S. Yano, and T. Hijikata, “Suppression of feedback induced noise in short V-channel substrate inner-stripe lasers with self-oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 219–221, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Matsui, H. Takiguchi, H. Hayashi, S. Yamamoto, S. Yano, and T. Hijikata, “Suppression of feedback induced noise in short V-channel substrate inner-stripe lasers with self-oscillations,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 43, pp. 219–221, 1983.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

L. J. Greenstein, N. Amitay, T. S. Chu, L. J. Cimini, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gans, C. I. Lin, A. J Rustako, R. A. Valenzuela, and G. Vannucci, “Microcells in personal communications systems,” IEEE Commun. Mag., pp. 76–88, Dec.1992.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (3)

M. Shibutani, T. Kanai, W. Domom, K. Emura, and J. Namiki, “Optical fiber feeder for microcellular mobile communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1118–1126, 1993.
[CrossRef]

S. Ariyavisitakul, T. E. Darcie, L. J. Greenstein, M. R. Phillips, and N. K. Shankaranarayanan, “Performance of simulcast wireless techniques for personal communication systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 632–643, May1996.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber-fed distributed antenna wireless network using analog links (fiber or otherwise).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical spectrum of received signal and IMD powers at antennas A and B shown in Fig. 1. For this plot, the transmitter dynamic range is 70 dB/Hz2/3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Percentage of blocked calls as a function of transmitter dynamic range for a single 300 m radius fiber-fed microcell for 5, 10, and 20 voice channels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Percentage of blocked calls as a function of transmitter dynamic range for four and nine antennas and two different signal selection protocols. This simulation considers an 1800 m square area with 20 available voice channels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured two-tone dynamic range of a CD laser at 900 MHz. The inset (10 dB/div) shows the two tones centered at 900 MHz and the induced intermodulation products.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Floor plan of the first floor of Cory Hall at U.C. Berkeley, at which the radio environment was studied.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured received RF power at antennas 1 and 2 as a function of the mobile position along the corridor. The distributions of the received powers are also shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

System radio performance with two and four antennas used with a diversity selection technique.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A comparison of fiber-to-the-antenna and hybrid fiber/coax architectures for providing cost-effective in-building radio coverage.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(Color online) Hybrid fiber/coax architecture implemented in the wireless field trial at U.C. Berkeley.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(Color online) Comparison of system implementation costs of DAS + CBS and DBS architectures.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(Color online) Functional block diagram of an LGCell™ in-building distributed antenna system.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of the Antenna Dynamic Range Requirements and Radio Coverage Characteristics of the Hallway Under Study

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IMD = γ 2 ω i ω j P i 2 P j + ω i + ω j ω k 4 P i P j P k ,
IMD = γ i , j P i 2 P j + i , j , k 4 P i P j P k ,
Erlang-B formula B ( A , N ) = A N N ! i 0 N A i i ! .
R = N ( M A ) M N ( A ) + η N ( A ) ,